World War Ebooks Catalog
Plant Biological Warfare Thorns Inject Pathogenic Bacteria into Herbivores Enhancing the Evolution of Aposematism
Lev-Yadun and Halpern (2008) proposed that thorns, spines, prickles, silica needles and raphid-injected microorganisms play a considerable potential role in antiherbivory, actually serving as a biological warfare agent, and they may have uniquely contributed to the common evolution of aposematism (warning coloration) in thorny plants or on the surfaces of plants that have internal microscopic spines (Halpern et al. 2007a, b Lev-Yadun and Halpern 2008). While it now seems clear that thorny plants are aposematic, the issue of potential aposematism in plants with microscopic internal spines in the form of raphids and silica needles has not yet been systematically addressed.
The Jerusalem artichoke or topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is not only a fascinating species, but also one with an exceptionally colorful history. Over the past 300 years, interest in the crop has vacillated widely. During times of crop failure and food shortage (e.g., potato famine, during and after World War II) or high petroleum prices, a new round of interest in the crop's potential often occurs, all too frequently with only a limited understanding of the extensive body of literature already available. More recently, renewed interest has been spurred by its potential as a feedstock for the synthesis of a diverse cross section of new products, an awareness of its significant health benefits when included in human and animal diets, and the possibility of utilizing it for the production of biofuels. As a crop plant, the Jerusalem artichoke has languished behind most traditional crop species. Its production worldwide is not considered sufficient to be monitored by the Food and...
To assess the seasonal pattern of plant productivity, Apstein had used in situ changes in phytoplankton counts as early as 1910 in the Baltic Sea and Gran did so in Christiania Fjord about the same time. However, Gran (1912) reported that the coastal circulation and mixing in the fjord made it impossible to assess growth quantitatively by counting the change in phytoplankton numbers on the time-scale of weeks. The inability to use in situ phytoplankton counts (a procedure that works well in lakes) stimulated Gran to look for an in vitro method that could assess productivity in a sample isolated from local advection and turbulence. The work described in Chambers (1912) established the possibility of using quantitative oxygen production or carbon dioxide uptake. Both the Winkler method for oxygen and the pH indicating dyes method for carbon dioxide were developed in the late 1800s, but the pH method was not successfully adapted to seawater until the 1910s (Harvey, 1955). Gran pursued a...
Prior to the second world war, Indonesia (then known as Dutch East Indies) was Though pepper reached Malagasy Republic by the turn of the century, cultivation started only after the second world war when the pepper prices reached new heights. Here the cultivation is concentrated in the east and northeast coasts on the Comoro and Nossi-Be Islands and in plains of Sambirano and Mohavavy in Majunga province (Lawrence 1981). The present production is around 3000 tons from around 10,250 acres.
Norman Hall (1906-2005) initiated the first edition of Forest Trees of Australia in 1957 and was a principal contributor to all subsequent editions of the book. Norman Hall was born in New Zealand in 1906 and graduated in Forestry from the University of New Zealand. He later migrated to Australia. During World War II he served in a Forestry Company, Royal Australian Engineers, and following the war as a forester in Europe. He is known to generations of forestry students and forestry workers, from his first employment in 1937 in the Woods and Forests Department in Mt Gambier, South Australia, to his work in Canberra in the Forestry and Timber Bureau and his lecturing at the Australian National University, and finally in retirement with the CSIRO Division of Forest Research when the 1984 edition was published.
In the era following World War II, plant ecologists abandoned many of the central principles developed by Clements, including the idea of the stable climax association. They reexamined the central issue of community ecology whether communities were simply chance associations of independent species or integrated, holistic entities that could not be understood by studying individual species. In the 1950s American botanist and ecologist Robert Whittaker (1920-1980) created a technique called gradient analysis that helped to resolve this question. Whittaker's pioneering studies indicated that plant species had unique and fairly independent distributions across physical gradients such as moisture and temperature. These studies led ecologists to reject Clements's theory of holistic plant communities composed of predictable associations of species that shared similar environmental constraints.
Because of its long half-life (30.2 years), high mobility and chemical behaviour similar to that of potassium, 137Cs is one of the most threatening radio-pollutants released in the environment by nuclear weapon testing (1950s and 1960s) and nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl, 1986 Avery 1996). The chemical similarities between radiocaesium and potassium, the latter being a major plant nutrient, imply an important risk of contamination of the aboveground vegetation (Korobova et al. 1998), as root uptake mechanisms appear to be closely related for these elements (White and Broadley 2000 Zhu and Smolders 2000). Furthermore, as rhizospheric processes involving soil micro-organisms influence root uptake of radiocaesium (Gadd 1996), the obligate AM fungal symbionts could play a key role in plant uptake of radiocaesium (Entry et al. 1996,1999), even if their participation in plant K nutrition appears to be controversial (Smith and Read 1997). Indeed, if recent results show that K is taken up...
Photosynthesis takes place in subcellular membrane-bound compartments called chloroplasts. As radiotracers such as carbon-14 became available to researchers following World War II (1939-45), one application was to define the biochemistry of photosynthetic CO2 fixation. Major class divisions in the plant kingdom are based on how CO2 is fixed.
Following the steady accumulation of radionuclide inventories in soils around the world during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing prior to 1963 interest in the contribution of root uptake processes to crop contamination burgeoned. Of particular concern were the relatively long-lived isotopes 90Sr and 137Cs (half-lives 28 years and 30 years, respectively) which, as chemical analogues of Ca and K, are particularly prone to biological incorporation. The principal interest during this classical period of radioecology was the equilibrium situation where an approximately constant input of radioactivity to the ground surface as a result of fallout from the atmosphere led to a steady rate of transfer into the plant from surface layers of soils. More recently, however, and particularly since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986, the effect of 'spike' releases on plant contamination via root uptake has become of great importance, especially when the...
0.1) (Dahlman et al., 1976) although it can be seen from Table 7-14 that TF values for this element are commonly six orders of magnitude lower than this. In practice the predominant pathway of plant contamination by actinide elements is usually direct contamination due to the deposition and resuspension processes covered in the previous section. In a summary of data collected on plant root uptake from contaminated sites up to 30 years after nuclear weapons testing Dahlman et al. (1976) concluded that the vast majority of these elements remained within the soil, associated at least in part with humic substances. Concentration ratios (soil-to-plant transfer factors) were invariably 1 in unamended soils and showed a very high degree of variability (up to eight orders of magnitude - see Fig. 7-12). Interestingly, the addition of artificial chelating agents such as DTPA increased the root uptake of Pu in these studies, probably by increasing the fraction of monomeric Pu in the soils and...
Bureau of Mycology and Phytopathology. The pivotal moment in his early career came when he was sent to study genetics in England. He left for England in 1913 to study with the eminent geneticist William Bateson. He also worked with the geneticist R. C. Punnett and cereal breeder R. D. Biffen. He returned to Russia just after the outbreak of World War I to complete the thesis for his master's degree titled Plant Immunity to Infectious Diseases. In 1917 he became professor of agriculture, botany, and genetics at the University of Saratov.
Too easily woodland is associated with a thick green mass, or more precisely with a mixed forest stand with a lot of nettles and shrubs with no real visual attractiveness. It likely has no articulation between individual trees or tree layers, no interesting field-layer, and very little else one is inspired to slowly walk through. With such woodland in mind one might wish to prioritize more cultural and open park landscape types. Moreover, when reflecting upon long-term perspectives, different stages of maturity in biological systems, which all are fundamental for management issues, the fact is that there are actually very few examples that could be used as reference landscapes in urban contexts. Partly this is due to the simple fact that most European parks were created after the Second World War, when cities started to expand faster. This means that these parks are very young from an architectural and biological perspective. To come closer to a more positive and articulated meaning...
The Amsterdamse Bos was the first significant, innovative new urban forest landscape of the 20th century. It was originally conceived by the architect planner Hendrike Berlage in 1913 as part of his second development plan for Amsterdam Zuid. This plan formed part of the general expansion plans for the City of Amsterdam at the beginning of the 20th century (DRO 1994). Berlage was vehemently opposed to the concept of the Garden City, a concept that was being promoted at this time in the United Kingdom by Ebenezer Howard and others. Instead, Berlage preferred the planned expansion of existing urban settlements, and his ideas for Amsterdam Zuid were accepted by the city and implemented, including the provision of linked green space and parks. This did not however include the Amsterdamse Bos. The intervention of the First World War meant that Berlage's plan did not get underway until 1917, and this meant that detailed proposals for the new park were not considered until
Following World War II, the USA, followed by Canada, dominated the soybean industry. Soybean attained global significance shortly after World War II, when the USA made soybean exports part of its negotiated assistance packages in the reconstruction of Europe. This allowed the USA to establish a dominant position for this emerging commodity and to rule global soybean markets for two decades as the crop's sole exporter. As late as 1970, the USA accounted for two-thirds of the world's 44 million t of soybean. Canada was the second largest producer, followed by a number of European countries (Perez et al., 2008).
The family-run business originated in 1932, when Linn Chilvers founded Norfolk Lavender and planted the first six acres in Heacham, Norfolk. The demand for lavender during the First World War had been intense as it was used as a disinfectant for wounds when mixed with sphagnum moss. Most of the other English lavender companies around London had died down so this became the main supplier of lavender plants and oil. In 1932, planting was done by three men and a boy in 18 days for a total cost of 15 The Second World War saw the beginning of exports of lavender to the United States, as a foreign exchange commodity, with the Home Guard defending the distillery. By the end of the war the company produced bunches of lavender, lavender oil and lavender water as well as the special lavender perfume. Next, talc was produced and bath salts.
This infamous disease has caused great losses of adult Ulmus in Europe. The Ophio-stomatal fungus, formerly named Ceratocystis ulmi (Buism.) Moreau, was first detected in Europe (France and Belgium), at the beginning of the 20th century (during World War I) and successive epidemics of aggressive strains of the fungus (e.g. the famous one of the 1970s) have devastated the susceptible elms during the past century.
The discovery of gibberellins is related to a plant disease. The infection of rice by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi results in the formation of extremely tall plants that fall over and bear no seeds. In Japan this disease was called foolish seedling disease. In 1926 Eiichi Kurozawa and collaborators (Japan) isolated a compound from this fungus that induces unnatural growth. It was named gibberellin. These results were known in the West only after World War II. Structural analysis revealed that gibberellin is a mixture of various compounds with similar structures, which also occur in plants and act there as phytohormones.
Very dramatic yield increases occur with the application of synthetic chemical fertilizers. Relatively easy to manufacture or mine, to transport, and to apply, fertilizer use has increased from five to ten times what it was at the end of World War II (1939-45). Applied in either liquid or granular form, fertilizer can supply crops with readily available and uniform amounts of several essential plant nutrients.
EOs have been used externally to eradicate fungal or bacterial infections since the Black Death (and before) doctors would wrap scarves soaked in EOs like camphor round their necks and over their mouths when visiting patients (Valnet, 1982). This did not prevent the death per se, as the doctors rarely went near the patients, and only poked them with a long stick from a distance, to ascertain whether they were alive or dead. In the Second World War, wounded soldiers had their wounds treated with EOs until penicillin and other antibiotics became available (Valnet, 1982). Many EOs have considerable antimicrobial activity (Maruzella and Henry, 1958 Maruzella and Sicurella, 1960 Youzef and Tawil, 1980 Moleyar and Narasimham, 1987 Lis-Balchin and Deans, 1997 Lis-Balchin et al, 1998). Plant EOs like thyme and oregano, are extremely potent antimicrobials in vitro and can have a considerable effect on a wide range of different bacteria (Lis-Balchin, 1995 Lis-Balchin et al, 1998). Lavender is...
About 300 B.C., Theophrastus recommended oil extracted from ferns to expel internal parasites. Rhizomes of various shield fern species (Polystichum and Dryopteris) have been used since the 18th century as a cure for intestinal worms. Cyathea manniana Hook. (Cyatheaceae) from East Africa has been used by the Chagga and by German troops in the First World War as an anthelmintic. Pteridophytes find use in Homoeopathic, Ayurvedic, Tribal and Unani prescriptions for worm infestation. Aromatic compounds, glycosides and a- and y-pyrones are responsible for the anthelmintic, antibacterial, mutagenic and antifeedant effects of ferns.
For centuries vetiver has been used in India both as an aromatic plant and for medicinal purposes, and as a plant used for soil conservation. The scented roots are used directly in the making of mats, baskets, fans, bags, curtains, etc., or indirectly by extraction for the distillation of the essential oil. From India the vetiver spread throughout the Tropics. One particular impetus for the spreading of the plant proved to be the Colonial Period, during which it spread both as an aromatic plant and as a hedge plant. After the Second World War and the subsequent end of colonialism, vetiver declined in importance in many countries.
He gave particular emphasis to basidiospores of the dry rot fungus. He observed that many residences in London and other cities in the United Kingdom, which were damaged in bombings during the World War, were inadequately repaired and hence ideal for the growth and occurrence of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans producing vast numbers of basidiospores. Gregory suggested the use of cascade impactors or Hirst's automatic volumetric spore traps instead of gravity deposition samplers to survey indoor fungal air spora.
When the United States entered World War I in 1917, shortages of certain goods were felt. This caused Carver's substitutes and alternatives to gain attention. Sweet potato products and peanut milk were especially of interest. In 1921 Carver appeared before a congressional committee to testify on the importance of protecting the U.S. peanut industry by establishing a tariff on imported peanuts, and a tariff was established. This event brought Carver national and international recognition as a scientist. Carver spent the remainder of his life conducting agricultural research and sharing his knowledge with individuals in the South and throughout the world. see also Agriculture, Organic Breeder Breeding Economic Importance of Plants Fabaceae.
During the World War II, almost no scientific information from abroad came to Japan. Professor Kamiya who had stayed in William Seifriz's laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania from 1939 to 1942 (Kamiya 1989), and who revisited the USA in 1950 on the invitation of Seifriz told us after his return to Osaka that biology in Japan was at least 10 years behind that of USA. After the end of the War, we were very eager to catch up the level of the USA. At that time, many biology departments in old universities were divided into a Botany Department and a Zoology Department. In contrast, biology in Osaka, irrespective of whether the material was plant or animal, aimed at analyzing the biological phenomena on a cellular and physicochemical basis. We named this approach based on fundamentals as opposed to the traditional approach based on taxon, modern biology, and we students were proud of studying modern biology.
This history has involved, albeit peripherally, some of the world's great scientists (Priestley, for example, and the von Hevesy, Calvin and Libby group as well), but the first half of this history is mainly the story of an elite group of sea-going ocea-nographers from countries around the North Sea. Technical limitations prevented accurate measurement of plankton productivity before World War II, although good qualitative descriptions of the dynamics of plankton productivity were achieved. After World War II a greatly expanded international cohort of biological oceanographers, newly armed with Steemann Nielsen's 14C uptake method, enthusiastically set out to answer three key questions How productive is the ocean What is the regional pattern of productivity And what is the seasonal pattern of productivity As it turned out, answers did not come easily because temporal and spatial variability of the ocean was more important than had been suspected and also because the sensitive 14C...
It was recognised in medieval times that the rotation of crops with fallow was the best means to conserve soil fertility and to prevent the build-up of pests, diseases and weeds. The later use of 'cleaning ' crops (such as turnips and potatoes) allowed weed control by hand during active growth, and was balanced against ' fouling ' crops (such as cereals) which could not be similarly weeded. By the mid-nineteenth century fertility was maintained from clover and livestock manure, and weed control by 'cleaning' crops, so that the unprofitable fallow period could be avoided. The advent of chemical fertilisers in the early twentieth century removed the need for clover, and profitability increased by the use of sugar beet as a combined cleaning and 'cash ' crop. However, after the Second World War, increased urbanisation and industrialisation reduced the available workforce, and herbicides have gradually replaced the hoe. Similarly, farm practices have become increasingly mechanised, such...
Chemical weed control is a twentieth-century technology. Copper sulphate was the first chemical used at the turn of the twentieth century to control charlock (Sinapis arvensis) in oats, and soon after came corrosive fertilisers (such as calcium cyanamide) and industrial chemicals (including sodium chlorate and sulphuric acid). Modern synthetic herbicides first appeared in France in 1932 following the patenting of DNOC (4,6-dinitro-o-cresol) for the selective control of annual weeds in cereals. Further dinitro-cresols and dinitro-phenols soon appeared, but these compounds had variable effectiveness and appeared to kill animals as well as plants. The discovery of the natural plant growth 'hormone' auxin in 1934 led to the further discovery of the synthetic growth regulators 2,4-D and MCPA based on phenoxyacetic acid chemistry. These compounds were the first truly selective herbicides that could reliably kill broad-leaved weeds in cereal crops, and they developed widespread popularity...
The agrochemical industry, based on the production of chemicals for crop protection, largely came into being after the Second World War with the commercialisation of the first truly selective broadleaf weed herbicides 2,4-D (1945) and MCPA (1946). These non-toxic molecules were effective at low doses and were cheap to produce. Furthermore, they became available when maximum food production was essential and farm labour was scarce. Their success stimulated European and North American chemical companies to invest in research that led to the discovery of the wide range of herbicides now available. Early successes created a market value approaching US 3 billion in 1970 and an average of 6.3 real growth per annum was recorded over the following decade. By 1980 it had slowed to 4.5 per annum, averaged 2.2 growth during the 1980s and was predicted to average below 2 for the 1990s. By 1998 the market had become static, with only 0.1 real growth, but one still worth US 31 billion.
Citric acid was isolated from lemon juice in 1784, but its composition was made clear only after almost a century. The procedure for obtaining citric acid from citrus juice (above all, lemon, lime and bergamot), also known as the Scheele process, consists of two parts the precipitation of citric acid in the form of calcium citrate, and then the 'decomposition' of the citrate itself, which permits the production of a citric solution of sufficient purity to allow its crystallization. For a long time the Scheele process was used, above all, in England. From the eighteenth century onwards, there was the production in Sicily of agrocotto, a dark liquid obtained by concentrating lemon juice, containing around 40 per cent citric acid. This production was aimed at supplying the industry that was developing in England. In truth, it seems to have been a sort of agrocotto that was produced in Roman times for medicinal purposes, prepared from the endocarp of the citrus fruit. Later, with the aim...
Like many drugs , absinthe came to be viewed as a major social problem. By 1910, 20 million litres were being consumed annually, while in Switzerland, absinthe-related crime resulted in its ban in 1907. In the USA, it was banned in 1912, and was finally outlawed in France due to pressure exerted by army generals who were desperate to place blame elsewhere for their lack of success in the First World War. In addition to the problems that can be caused by alcoholic beverages containing wormwood extracts as a flavouring agent, toxic effects can also be seen if wormwood is used for certain medical purposes. If used over a long period, or in large doses, it can become habit forming (Simon et al., 1984), causing restlessness, vomiting, convulsions and even brain damage, all classic signs of narcotic poisoning.
One of the major aspects of plant pathology is to enhance crop production by introducing genetically improved (high-yielding, less susceptible to pathogens) cultivars, enhanced soil fertility via chemical fertilisation, pest control via synthetic pesticides, and irrigation. Besides physical control methods e.g. mowing, slashing, burning, flooding, hand removal, physical barriers (i.e. netting, fences), use of pesticides is very common method for controlling various phytopathogens. The use of synthetic pesticides in the US began in the 1930s and became widespread after World War II. By 1950, pesticide was found to increase farm yield far beyond pre-World War II levels. Farmers depend heavily on synthetic pesticides to control insects in their crops. There are many classes of synthetic pesticides. The main classes consist of organochlorines (e.g., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT, toxaphene, dieldrin, aldrin), organophosphates (e.g., diazinon, glyphosate, malathion), carbamates...
Made from rigid material, usually clay, or wood, which had the disadvantage of a shorter life, or metal. With the advent of manufactured plastics, much cheaper, lighter and equally long-lasting containers could be made. The wide spread of containerized plants was pioneered in California after World War II, when an enormous demand for ornamental trees arose in the post-war building boom. The building boom spread to other parts of the USA, and to Europe by the 1960s, where the use of containerized plants developed later because of a long tradition for using bare-rooted and root-balled stock.
Gibberellin was first discovered in Japan, prior to World War II, by scientists who were studying rice infected with the foolish-seedling disease. The causal agent is a fungus that triggers plants to grow taller than normal and eventually lodge. The name of the family of gibberellin compounds was taken from the fungus. Nearly 100
Photoperiodism is an organism's response to the relative lengths of day and night (i.e., the photoperiod). We have always known that plants are tied to the seasons each kind of plant forms flowers at about the same time each year for example, some in spring, some in summer, some in autumn. Botanists knew that plants responded in various ways to temperature and other changes in the environment, but it was not until World War I (1914-18) that anyone tested plant responses to photoperiod. At that time Wightman W. Garner and Henry A. Allard at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Maryland began to control various parts of the environment in their greenhouses to see if they could make a new hybrid tobacco bloom in summer rather than only in winter. Nothing worked until they put plants into dark cabinets for various times overnight in midsummer. Long nights caused their tobacco plants to flower, and they soon tested other species. They published their results in 1920.
A reputation for tea tree oil as a safe, effective antiseptic had been established by the time of the outbreak of the Second World War, and its record impressive enough that cutters and producers were exempted from military service. In addition, the oil was incorporated in army and navy first-aid kits for use in tropical regions (Drury 1991) and added to machine A number of factors led to a decline in the industry following the Second World War. As well as competition in the market-place from newly-developed synthetic agents, the product was inadequately promoted and the supply was inconsistent, both in quality and quantity. The natural stands of trees, located in swampy areas, were difficult to harvest and different chemotypes, with oils of variable composition, were difficult to distinguish in a simple manner.
During World War II (1939-41) Calvin devised a method for obtaining pure oxygen from the atmosphere onboard destroyers or submarines. He purified and decontaminated the irradiated uranium in fission products and isolated and purified plutonium by his solvent extraction process.
The use of tea tree oil in Australia spans many centuries. There is evidence to show that the leaves have been used by aborigines for thousands of years for a variety of ailments. When Australia was discovered by the British, log book entries show the leaves were used as an infusion or tea in an attempt to control the scurvy from which the first fleet suffered and hence the name tea tree oil. Unfortunately Melaleuca leaves contain no vitamin C but the name remained. In the 1920's scientists became aware of its antiseptic properties and it was issued to Australian Army personnel during the second world war. With the discovery of antibiotics its use declined until recently. It has now been rediscovered as an effective natural antiseptic with a wide variety of uses in the pharmaceutical and personal care industry.
Finally, the increased interest in urban environmental problems will probably mean a considerable increase in urban forests and trees over the coming decades. Most of these will be laid out in the larger cities of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Fig. 16.14). Obviously, we are all looking forward to this. Similar expansion of the green infrastructure was carried out in Europe and North America during the years after the Second World War and up to the 1970s. It was done with a strong belief in high technology, heavy machines and liberal application of chemical aids. Over the coming years, the main challenge is to ensure that the expansion and management of the green infrastructure of the world's urban areas will be implemented within the framework of sustainable development, without the use of a technology and methods inimical to man and nature.
The development of drugs based on ergot alkaloids (EA) was probably the primary driving force leading to the first attempts at the standardization of ergot preparations in the second half of the 19th century. Elemental analysis, titration, melting point, optical rotation, some color reactions, various physiological experiments and precipitation tests were the only guides used for this purpose practically till the thirties of the 20th century (Evers, 1927). Standardization of ergot preparations, and particularly the monitoring of some degradation processes were the main objectives of the analytical chemistry of EA between the wars (for a review see Swanson et al., 1932). The first colorimetric methods introduced by Evers (1927) and van Urk (1929) can be considered a milestone in the analytical chemistry of EA. Since these procedures are limited to the determination of the total content of EA only, regardless of their activity, bioassays dominated the field until the fifties, when the...
Yards are supposed to be miniature estates, showing that we have the wealth to use land decoratively rather than for subsistence. Although few of us have enough yard to feed ourselves completely, most of us could at least put a dent in our grocery bill and our waistlines by eating more home-grown vegetables. In World War II, victory gardens were considered patriotic. Why, now, are they considered counterproductive to our cash economy, or embarrassing indications of lower-class status Why is slow food a movement of the rich As a wise student, Rosemary Flenory, noted in one of my classes, soul food has been with the poor for generations, and both slow food and soul food involve cooking hearty, home-grown meals with respect for love and tradition thrown like spices into every pot. We can grow food and be farmers, epicures, or simply frugal people. Whether we pick the edible weeds or sow the heirloom vegetables, the shameless production of vegetables at home ennobles us.
Jerusalem artichoke tubers have been utilized as a staple or sustenance crop at various times and in diverse places other parts of the plant are not part of the human diet. Native Americans were the first to cultivate the crop and consume it in substantial amounts, as it originated in North America. After its introduction in 1607, it became for a time a major source of carbohydrate in the Western European diet, until the potato replaced it in the mid-18th century. It was again cultivated as a staple in Europe immediately after the Second World War, especially in France and Germany, due to a scarcity of potatoes. Today, the consumption of Jerusalem artichokes is much less than it has been in the past in the U.S. and Europe.
The main occurrence of this species is in western and south-western Tasmania, with small areas on Maria and Bruny Islands, on the Tasman Peninsula and at Blue Tier in the north-eastern highlands. The species was present on King Island until World War II, after which time it was cleared for soldier settlement.
For Indonesia, pepper had been an important commodity ever since it was introduced, long-long time ago. Pepper was the first spice that Indonesia traded to Europe through Persia and Arabia. Now its value from export ranks fifth in Indonesia, after rubber, oil palm, coffee and tea. Before World War II Indonesia shared about 80 per cent of the total world pepper production. But after the war, production and share of Indonesia's pepper decreased much. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) many plantations in main producing areas were left uncultivated, in Bangka for example, only about 100,000 vines left in 1950 compared to 20 million in 1941. Indonesian pepper industry is mostly owned by smallholders. Planting pepper in estates did not last long in Java. The characteristics of pepper cultivation and its labour and capital intensive nature have played important roles in determining the mode of farming system of pepper in Indonesia (Wahid and Chaniago 1977). It was noted that during...
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