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Ted McGrath is the author of Teds Woodworking, and is a famous woodworking artist. He has wonseveral awards in the field and has now become a professional woodworker possessing almost all of the woodworking skills. He has also written several other best-selling books related to woodworking which helped him earn a lot of fame and success in the area. Ted McGraths plans don't request a lot of pricey gears to make good furniture, instead the plans are simple to understand using 2D and 3D isometric. These support the wood craftsmen in all the needed steps to complete his construction with only the needed material particular for the specific job. The book is an amazing guide for all those who are looking to develop skills of woodworking easily. The book is available at a low cost which makes it even more attractive. After buying this book and following the woodworking plans, one will for sure become a successful woodworker. Read more...

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Fate of harvested wood products

Thinning or harvest operations partially replace natural mortality in a forest ecosystem and result in wood products that contain a given portion of the carbon originally stored in the biomass. The consideration of wood products as a carbon pool can resolve the conflict between wood production and carbon sequestration, which has been often reported (e.g. Fischlin, 1994). Several models are available that include carbon storage in forests and wood products, and which have been widely used to calculate C flows in plantations (e.g. Karjalainen, 1996 Masera et al, 2003). The carbon stored in harvested wood destined for use as sawn-wood and wood-based panels, which to a large extent are used in permanent constructions, is bound in these materials over decades. Other products, like fuelwood and paper, store carbon for a few years at the most. The IPCC Third Assessment Report on Mitigation (IPCC, 2001a) lists four options that influence the effect of carbon stored in wood products the level...

Differences Between Hardwood and Softwood

Hardwood is the term used for the strong, dense wood of angiosperm trees such as maple, oak, and mahogany. Usually more than 50 percent of the volume of the wood is composed of sclerenchyma fibers, cells with extremely thick, lignin-impregnated walls, which give the wood its great physical strength. The remainder of the wood consists of conducting cells, the vessel elements and tracheids, and parenchyma cells. Hardwood trees vary in the arrangement of these cells within the annual ring. Some, like oak and elm, have wide, thin-walled vessel elements in the earlywood and much narrower vessel elements in the latewood, accentuating the differences between the two parts of the annual growth ring. This pattern is referred to as ring porous wood. Other hardwoods such as maple and willow have vessel elements of more uniform diameter scattered across the growth ring. This pattern is called diffuse porous wood. The term softwood is used for the wood of conifers such as pines, firs, and spruces....

Manufactured Wood Products

Some wood products are actually manufactured that is, constructed from raw wood materials, but utilizing adhesives or other filler components to create new products useful to the construction industry. Perhaps the most important of these is plywood, a wood product made of several layers or plys of thinly cut wood. The grain patterns are normally oriented at right angles to one another prior to their lamination with various forms of adhesives. The result is a sheet stock product that is very dimensionally stable, maintains its flatness when installed properly, and can be used for a wide variety of applications flooring, sheathing for the outer shell of framed buildings, and roofing. Development of plywood has revolutionized the home construction industry, which previously relied upon sawn and processed lumber planks for these purposes. Other manufactured wood products make use of chips, coarse wood particles, and, in some cases, wood fibers or sawdust, all of which were previously...

Composite Wood Products

Due to some of the constraints mentioned above and changes in wood utilization technology, A. mangium has greater potential as a component of composite wood products. Furthermore, in view of the changing picture of available wood resources, composite products in general will become increasingly important in meeting the demand for wood products. Composite wood products (or simply, wood composites) make up a family of materials distinct from solid wood they arc composed of wooden elements of varying sizes (including fibers), held together by an adhesive bond. The bonding agent is either natural or synthetic in origin. The following are some examples of the products that have been made using A. mangium.

Reconstituted Wood Products

With the recent advances in processing technology (see Chapter 11), facilities for processing wood materials will change, most likely toward reconstituted wood products rather than solid wood panels. Traditionally, tropical hardwoods are associated with large-diameter logs, and so European and Japanese buyers are accustomed to specifying first grade wood with average widths of 8 inches (about 20 cm) and wider, and lengths of 366-426, excluding defects like pinholes, shot-holes, and unsound knots. They are also used to buying BBCC grade plywood (the letters indicating second and third levels of acceptability out of four, 'A' being defect-free) with perfect face veneer in 4 x 8 feet sizes (about 122 x 244 cm), free from defects. In view of A. mangium's fast growth rate and its acceptable density for hardwood pulp, other reconstituted wood products for which it could have potential are Medium-density fiberboard (MDF) Although it involves a very high capital cost for machinery, MDF is an...

Northern hardwood forest

Northern hardwood forest can be distinguished from other high elevation forest types by the dominance of mesophytic canopy trees (American beech, yellow birch, yellow buckeye, and sugar maple) since other high mountain forest types generally have northern red oak, red spruce, or Fraser fir as canopy dominants. Northern hardwood forest occurs on medium- to high-elevation (generally over 4,000 ft.) slopes, coves, and flats, often on north-facing slopes. The soil is usually moist, due to high rainfall and low temperatures. The relatively large trees form a dense forest except on exposed high-elevation sites where trees are dwarfed and the forest is more open. The broad-leaved deciduous trees that dominate northern hardwood forest contrast with the needle-leaved evergreens of spruce-fir forest. Perhaps the most striking feature of northern hardwood forest is its brilliant display of autumn colors. The autumn air is clearer and cooler than in summer and at no other time of year is the rich...


Woods that are used for building furniture, cabinetry, millwork, or other architectural features are typically hardwoods, although some conifer woods are also used for these items. Woods that are valued for furniture and cabinetry typically have aesthetically pleasing characteristics of uniform color, interesting patterns of earlywood and latewood in cut and surfaced lumber (this characteristic is termed grain or figure), and also possess desirable properties of hardness and durability. There are literally thousands of different species of hardwood (angiosperm) trees from around the world that have the potential for use in fine furniture and cabinetry however, there are only relatively few species that are used commercially for this purpose. This is due to the requirement of having a reliable local source for adequate amounts of lumber (which differs in various parts of the world), the wood's machineability and finishing properties to provide a pleasing end-product, and consumers who...

Other Wood Products

In addition to wood's uses for construction and furniture cabinetry manufacture, other significant uses for wood products include the harvesting of wood for use by the pulp and paper industry, production of fibers for use in industry, conversion of raw wood materials into charcoal, extraction of turpentine and similar compounds for use as solvents and paint additives, and the use of cork in the beverage and manufacturing industries. Even the material previously stripped from the logs and discarded prior to transport to the mill is now used. Tree bark is a valued commodity for use in the landscaping horticultural industry, and in some cases forms an organic component to artificial soil mixes. It is encouraging to note that today none of the parts of harvested trees are wasted the technology of wood processing is sufficiently advanced to ensure that one of the world's most valuable and sustainable resources is used as efficiently as possible. Management of forests and natural habitats...

Veneer and Plywood

The conversion of A. mangium into veneer and plywood is feasible with no specific processing requirements needed. In conventional rotary peeling studies by Wong et al. (1988), Chai (1989), and Salim (1992), the peeling process was rated as easy and the green veneers produced were tight, smooth, and of acceptable quality. They dried easily following the normal commercial species schedule to the desired moisture content. The green veneer recovery however, was found to range from 35-459 -. This fairly low return could be due to the facts that the logs were young (7-15 years old) and small in diameter with fluted boles. Wong et al. (1988) and Chai (1989) also found numerous knot marks, and some sapwood veneers marred with borer holes. At present, not many plywood plants have the facilities to peel small-diameter logs. In Malaysia, for example, only six or seven companies have such equipment. But as the appropriate processing technologies become more available. the authors believe that...

The Status of Acacia mangium Growing and Utilization in Asia and the Pacific

While international wood-product markets are adapting to the dwindling supply of tropical hardwoods from natural forests, advances in utilization technologies have made feasible conversion of small-diameter logs for use as chips and composite materials, as well as for sawn timber and veneer. State-of-the art mills in Southeast Asia are now handling logs of five centimeters in diameter. A. mangium can play a larger role in many places where an industrial market for wood products exists alongside a local market for fuel and other tree products. One example of a planting program with both industrial and local development objectives is that managed by the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (P1COP). In this program, advance funds to farmer cooperatives cover costs of growing A. mangium until the first harvest, at which time part of the yield goes to pay back the initial expenses and part is re-invested in the cooperative for further tree farm expansion. Research by the private...

Nomenclature and Taxonomy

Pedley (1986) proposed a reclassification of the genus Acacia based on the morphology of seedlings, leaves, flowers and inflorescences, anatomy of the pod, the occurrence of extrafloral nectaries, free amino acids of the seeds, flavonoid compounds in heartwood, cyanogenic compounds, porate and extraporate pollens, and susceptibility to rusts. These characteristics indicate that three genera Acacia Miller, Scncgalia Raf. and Racosperma Matius should be recognized. In this reclassification, section Julifiorae of subgenus Hctcropliyllum

Plantations and ecosystem services

Global demand for forest products has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade and this is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. In the Asia-Pacific region alone, annual consumption of hardwood pulp is expected to increase by 73 million cubic metres (Mm3) and annual consumption of softwood pulp by 32Mm3. There is a shift in the consumption and production of forest products. Recent studies show that current demand for forest industry products will grow less than before in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, while at the same time the demand will continue to increase considerably in many developing countries

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Associates A pioneering species because of its sunlight requirement, aspen typically forms one early part of a conifer-hardwood relationship. Among northern hardwoods, for example, aspen frequently associates with the more shade-tolerant balsam fir, and both trees are gradually replaced by climax hardwoods.

Biochemical Characteristics Of The Response

The products synthesized by the tree have been identified for the case of the hypersensitive reaction, but not for induced resin flow or traumatic resin ducts. Furthermore, studies have been conducted almost exclusively at the phloem level, where an increase of more than 100 times in terpene concentration was observed (Shrimpton, 1973 Raffa and Berryman, 1982b Lieutier et al, 1991b Raffa and Smalley, 1995), accompanied by an increase in the level of phenols and a reduction in free sugar concentration (Shrimpton, 1973). Although the relative composition of monoterpenes and resin acids varied slightly (Russell and Berryman, 1976 Raffa and Berryman, 1982b Langstrom et al., 1992), the most important alteration was an absolute increase in the concentration of these substances (Delorme and Lieutier, 1990 Lieutier et al., 1991b Raffa and Smalley, 1995). Phenols however show a considerable change in their relative composition, with the concentration of some compounds decreasing while others...

Beetle Mechanisms Of Attack And Establishment

With such sophisticated and elaborate defense systems complementing each other in the tree, how can bark beetle attacks succeed This point will be discussed while referring to the most frequent situation exhaustion of tree defenses associated with beetle establishment and tree death, which corresponds to the situation of most tree killing bark beetle species. Paine et al. (1997) stated that it is critical, at this step, to distinguish between exhaustion of tree defenses and sapwood occlusion and colonization by fungus. More broadly, this can be extended to phloem colonization by beetles. However, as we shall see below, it does not seem that this distinction can really, be done in time, since phloem and sapwood invasions start before defenses are exhausted.

Tissues Colonization And Tree Death

It is very difficult to define the moment of tree death. Paine et al. (1997) considered that gallery construction and oviposition can be used as a bioassay to indicate when tree mortality has occurred . However, tree death is very likely a continuum of events beginning with exhaustion of tree defenses (just before oviposition) and finishing with the blockage of sapwood water transfer and the fading of foliage (which can take place several weeks after beetle oviposition). According to Paine et al. (1997), the assumption that fungi play an important role in killing trees attacked by bark beetles is based on the following observations most bark beetles vector staining fungi the sapwood of bark beetle killed trees is stained and trees can be killed by artificially mass inoculating them with the fungi. Many papers have been published in these directions and references can be found in the review by Paine et al (1997). We can also add that beetles which do not vector fungi, either succeed in...

Beetle Colonization Strategies

Overcoming tree resistance is the first task that the beetles must perform. It is accomplished through exploiting tree defense mechanisms by stimulating the induced responses. This can be done in various ways but a high number of simultaneous attacks are always necessary, leading me to call this strategy the population strategy or the cooperative strategy . The tree is then killed as an unavoidable consequence of defense exhaustion, especially through invasion of its tissues by the aggressors fungi in the sapwood, and beetles in the phloem. This strategy can thus also be compared to that of a parasitoid. Most bark beetle species attacking living trees belong to that category, be they primary or secondary species. Only the way used to exhaust tree defenses and to overcome its' resistance differs. Examples of variations on such a strategy are presented below. et al., 1989a, Lieutier, 1995). Moreover, the percentage of beetles carrying the fungus is very low, around 5 (Lieutier et al.,...

Beetle Aggressiveness And Fungus Pathogenicity

We can thus hypothesize that, for beetle species choosing the cooperative (exhaustion) strategy, beetle aggressiveness is directly related to the ability of the fungus to stimulate the tree's reaction during a beetle attack. The ability to kill the tree after exhausting its' defenses may be related to fungus pathogenicity, but this is nota requirement. Instead, it may be related to the ability of the fungus to grow into the sapwood. The percentage of contaminated beetles does not need to be very high for that step (as in the case of T. piniperda).

Interactions Plant Fungal

A mycorrhiza is a fungus-root association in which the fungus infects the root without causing harm. In fact, the plant often benefits because the fungal hyphae in the soil obtain mineral nutrients that are some distance from the root. Ectomycorrhizae are commonly found on both hardwood and coniferous trees in the forest or yard. A fungal mantle covers the root, and a network of hyphae can be found between cells in the root cortex. A special benefit of this mycorrhiza is that pathogens cannot penetrate the root. Many different fungi may serve as the fungal symbiont. A mushroom or puffball in the forest may be evidence of an ectomycorrhizal association.

Agricultural Implements

A proper tool handle is one of the basic requirements for the safety and high productivity of forest workers. Several forest tools have wooden and metallic parts. Substantial amount of work has been done throughout the world to design tool handles, which fulfill the agronomical and physical requirements of the job. In the case of wooden handles, the choice of the species depends upon its strength and other desirable characteristics. Beside strength and elasticity, other properties such as smoothness and the type of splintering that takes place during the failure of a handle are also important 14 . Inhabitants of the area use different plants species in making agricultural implements, ploughs, tools handles, sticks, sickle, dagger, hoe, axe and knife handles. They are made from locally available hard and soft wood. Quercus leuctrichophora, Dalbergia sissoo, Morus spp. Diospyrus lotus, Acacia spp. Juglans regia, Melia azedarach and Olea ferruginea are among the commonly utilized...

Choice of tree species

If the objective is to avoid the implications of the cumulative effect of increased CO2 and temperature, planting slow-growing trees yielding long-lasting wood products would help to reduce climate change impacts. Changing to fast-growing plantations with high product yields and with high substitution efficiencies can be a tool to store carbon rapidly in the short term (Dewar and Cannell, 1992).

Construction Material

In overall botanical importance to human existence, only food plants rank above wood and wood products. In early human history wood had been of greater importance than the food plants, as a fuel and for weapons and tools. There are over 4500 products that come wholly or in part from the wood of forest trees. Wood is used for housing, furniture, fuel, paper, charcoal and distillation by products, and synthetic materials such as rayon, cellophane and acetate plastics. One of the most obvious uses for trees is the production of building and furniture. Many millions of board feet of certain softwoods are used each year for home construction. Because of the grains, colors and durability of hardwoods, they are most often used in furniture making. Now a day is introduced in house construction like concrete roofs, iron doors and windows but plants still play very important in the construction of homes. The most preferred species used for the said purpose are Acacia spp, Pinus rox-burghii,...

Carbon vs other goods and services

The design of carbon management strategies should consider the trade-offs between these alternative options. Increasing forest ecosystem carbon stocks must be evaluated against increasing the sustainable rate of harvest and transfer of carbon to meet human needs (Nabuurs et al, 2007). The selection of mitigation strategies should minimize net greenhouse gas emissions throughout all sectors affected by these activities. For example, stopping all forest harvesting would increase forest carbon stocks, but would reduce the amount of timber and fibre available to meet societal needs. Other energy-intensive materials, such as concrete, aluminium, steel and plastics, would be required to replace wood products, resulting in higher greenhouse gas emissions (Gustavsson et al, 2006). Climate-effective measures therefore need to increase incentives for management systems that maintain high average C stocks in the long term, such as long-rotation forestry and conservation, which otherwise are at...

Caring for lavenders in the garden

It is possible to save old gnarled lavender, which has much bare wood topped with a mass of growth. Prune to within 10 cm of the bare wood to see if this encourages shoots to sprout further down the plant. If it does, then when next pruned do the same again, until the new growth starts at ground level.

Canada hemlock eastern hemlock

Habitat range Mostly on dry, exposed sites with rocky, acidic, nutrient-poor soils, occasionally on moister sites. High-elevation rock outcrops and open forests in small, pure stands or with mixed hardwoods. Uncommon. A southern Appalachian endemic with rare outlier populations in the upper piedmont. Ecology Carolina hemlock grows with hardwoods such as chestnut oak and red maple and understory species such as rhododendron and mountain laurel. Never abundant, it sometimes occurs in nearly pure stands, particularly on dry, rocky soils where most trees can't survive. Carolina hemlock is tolerant of both drought and deep shade. Its slow growth and small evergreen leaves help it cope with nutrient-poor soils. Its ability to grow and reproduce in shaded environments, coupled with its long lifespan, eventually enable it to replace earlier established trees. The dense foliage of Carolina hemlock shades the understory, making it difficult for other species to overtop it. Carolina hemlock is...

Why Does Deforestation Occur

Deforestation caused by humans often results in permanent deforestation. Even when humans were living as small bands of hunters and gatherers they were deforesting areas for hunting animals or to practice swidden agriculture, planting areas they had cleared and moving on after the soil was spent. Over time, population levels grew and areas of permanent agriculture were established, around which civilizations began to grow. These civilizations began intensely farming fields to meet the growing demand for food. As civilizations expanded, more land had to be cleared for fields and forests had to be cut to meet the demand for wood products. The stress on forested areas grew as pressure was exerted from both swidden and permanent agriculture. These stresses intensified in times of conflict as people were forced to use more marginal areas or to overcut forests to meet their needs.

Alternative Strategies to Deforestation

Burden placed on forests by instituting recycling programs and by using alternative materials like plastics in place of wood. In business, companies have begun to use wood products that come only from certified renewable forests that are carefully managed to ensure that they are cut in a sustainable way. Alternative methods of agriculture, such as agroforestry and permaculture, promote the use of trees and the diversification of crops to reduce the stress placed on forests by large-scale agriculture. Protecting forests by creating parks and reserves is another strategy to keep forest resources intact. For those areas that are already devastated, great efforts are being made to replant once-forested lands with native species.

Climatic indicators

Pinkish grey to purple brown heartwoi sapwood is distinctively paler. Moden strong and very tough when seasoned. Diverse uses include casks, handles, r( shingles flooring, packing cases, partii board and turnery. Air dry density 77C kg m3. Wood from young trees (20 ye. is pale in colour with an air dry density of 450-500 kg m3.

The Interaction of Cortical Microtubules and Cellulose Microfibrils in the Secondary Wall

The structure of the secondary wall is not homogeneous. The secondary wall consists of three main layers the outermost layer (S1 layer) the middle layer (S2 layer) and the innermost layer (S3 layer) facing the lumen side. Each of these layers can be identified by polarization microscopy, as originally described by Kerr and Bailey (1934) and Bailey and Vestal (1937). The identification of the three layers is facilitated by differences in orientation of the cellulose microfibrils in the various layers. The cellulose microfibrils in the S1 and S3 layers form a flat helix relative to the cell axis, whereas those in the S2 layer form a steep helix. Detailed models for the structure of cell walls in tracheids and wood fibers have been proposed from the results of electron microscopy (Wardrop 1964 Harada and C t 1985 Abe and Funada 2005). Electron microscopic observations of cross sections reveal that the S2 layer dominates. In tracheids and wood fibers, about 80 of the cell wall (in terms...

Characteristics of the phloem and the cortex

Ring boundaries, are represented by a marginal, uniseriate band of thick-walled fibers (Figs. 1 and 2). Vessels are arranged solitary or in short radial multiples (Fig. 1). The earlywood vessel diameter varies from 100-200 pm and vessel density varies from 10-30 mm2. Vessels contain exclusively simple perforations. Inter-vessel pits are predominantly large and round and are arranged in alternating position. Vessels in the heartwood contain tylosis. Tension wood is frequent (Fig. 2). Radial walls of fibers are perforated by small pits (1-2 pm). Fibers within the annual ring are round to poly-angular and thin-to thick-walled, while those at the ring boundary are rectangular and thick-walled (Fig. 2). Parenchyma is apotracheal in aggregates (Fig. 3). Rays are 2-4-seriate (Fig. 4), and homocellular with procumbent cells. Crystals are absent.

Potential Approaches to the Control of Cellwall Texture

The secondary xylem cells of woody plants, such as tracheids, vessel elements, and wood fibers, are characterized by cell walls with a highly organized As mentioned above, with respect to control of cellulose microfibril orientation and deposition in secondary xylem cells, cortical microtubules are considered to play important roles both in normal wood and reaction wood. Cortical microtubules might control the movement of cellulose synthesizing complexes (terminal complexes) in the plasma membrane (Baskin 2001 Paradez et al. 2006). Therefore, to control the microfibril angles, it is important to identify the genes that determine the angles of the S2 layer. Although the mechanism of microtubule reorientation is not yet fully understood, valuable information has accumulated from recent molecular approaches. For example, the change of one amino acid in the tubulin protein resulted in altered orientation of cortical microtubules in epidermal cells of Arabidop-sis thaliana (Thitamadee et...

Provisioning of nonwood forest products in diverse plantations

In addition to the production of wood, the production function of plantations also extends to other plant products and animals that may be harvested for human consumption. Forest products that are not related to timber have been important to human beings since the hunting and gathering age. The importance of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) for the livelihood systems of people all over the world, in developing as well as industrialized countries, has been clearly pointed out in the literature (Wickens, 1991 SCBD, 2001 Chamberlain et al, 2002 Ticktin, 2004 Kaushal and Melkani, 2005 Emery et al, 2006). Here, the term non-wood forest products (NWFPs) will be used for all the biological material (other than wood products) that can be utilized within the household, be marketed or have social, cultural or religious significance (Wickens, 1994). Typically this includes nuts, fruits, berries, mushrooms, herbs, bark, resin, rubber, etc. This definition does not include forage, which sustains...

Sources of Natural Sugar

Sucrose, fructose, dextrose, and glucose are the natural sugars most frequently used. Although many fruit-bearing plants like the date palm and the carob produce sugar as a product of photosynthesis, the world's major supply of sugar is obtained from the cultivated or managed crops of sugarcane, sugar beet, corn, sugar maple, and sweet sorghum. Sugarcane, corn, and sweet sorghum are cultivated grass plants that store sugar in their stalks or seed. Sugar beet is a broadleaf plant that stores sugar in its root. Sugar maple is a hardwood tree with sugar in its sap, and honey is produced by honey bees from the nectar of plant flowers that contains sugars.

Characteristics of the xylem

Rings of all species are diffuse-porous to semi-ring-porous and ring boundaries are distinct (Figs. 1, 4 and 5) or at least recognizable (Figs. 2 and 3). Vessels are arranged solitary or in short radial multiples (Figs. 4 and 5). Vessel diameter varies from 20-40 pm in herbaceous plants (Figs. 1-3), and 50-100 pm in shrubs (Figs. 4 and 5). Vessels have exclusively simple perforations, and intervessel pits are round, arranged in opposite position (Fig. 6). Vessels of Lythrum salicaria and the shrubs contain phenolic substances in the heartwood (Fig. 3). Fibers are thin- to thick-walled (Figs. 1-5 and 8). Fiber pits are small with

Sequoia sempervirens Cupressaceae

Don) Endl., the coast redwood, is one of the most striking members of coastal forests of the western United States. The range of the redwoods extends from southwestern Oregon to the Santa Cruz region of central California. Although restricted to a strip of coastal North America at the present time, fossil evidence shows that Sequoia was well developed in the Upper Jurassic and that the genus enjoyed a wide distribution in appropriate habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Despite the importance of this species, both from the commercial forestry standpoint as well as a species of major tourist attraction, comparatively little work had been done on establishing limits of variation with the apparent exception of varieties based upon leaf and branch morphology (Dallimore and Jackson, 1966). In order to rectify this state of affairs, Hall and Langenheim (1987) undertook a study of monoterpenes of the leaves of redwood collected from sites representing...

Woodytissue and fine root respiration

Woody-tissue respiration also changes with the transition between active and dormant periods of a tree. Data available for Larix decidua (Havranek 1985) and Pinus cembra (Havranek 1981 Wieser 2002 Wieser and Bahn 2004) so far suggest that most of the annual variation in woody-tissue respiration reflects variations in growth and sapwood production at any given time.

Box 64 Agroforestry systems initiated by smallholders

Commonly smallholders grow single trees of species with domestic or commercial value on their land using a wide range of technologies (Alcorn, 1990 Budowski, 1990 Byron, 2001 Hoch et al, 2009) such as planting, transplanting and promoting or simply tolerating natural regeneration (Alcorn, 1990 Peck, 1990 Sears et al, 2007). In the Ecuadorian Amazon, for example, two-thirds of the trees found in coffee fields and in pasture originated from natural regeneration (Ramirez et al, 1992). While fruit trees generally play an important role, many farmers also consider slow-growing but valuable tropical hardwood species such as mahogany or tropical cedar (Browder et al, 1996 Smith et al, 1996 Pichon, 1997 Simmons et al, 2002 Almeida et al, 2006). The trees, normally grown with the agricultural crops, allow a relatively high agricultural production during the first years. Even after 3-5 years, the production of shade-tolerant permanent crops such as cacao and coffee can be maintained.

Alnus acuminata Kunth

Betulaceae SC SE North America (S Mexico to Panama) NW MW MC SC South America (Colombia to N Argentina) L D hel hyg mes sili acid dr fr fw (charcoal, fuel) ma pl pp (shortfibre pulp) sa (agroforestry, antierosion, soil improvement) ti (boxes, furniture, light construction, plywood, veneer)

Biology and Habits

The beetle usually bores into cut logs, but sometimes bores into green shoots and twigs for the purposes of feeding or hibernation. The axial tunnels made as a result may girdle or kill leaders of seedlings or saplings. Beetles bore into the stems of sickly or dying poles with varying success. Horizontal tunnels are made just within the circumference of the cambium layer and (in resistant species) these become filled with a black gum that exudes from the entrance hole and runs down the bark. Due to the exudation of gum, the borers do not remain to lay eggs. Eggs are laid only in clean tunnels. Larval galleries run upwards and downwards in the stems broken as a result of adults' girdling. They are tightly packed with find wood dust. Pupation takes place in a cell at the extreme end of the larval tunnel the beetle bores out by a direct route to the surface.

Alnus jorullensis Kunth

Betulaceae SC SE North America (C Mexico to SE Guatemala) int N MW MC SC South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina) L D hel hyg mes acid- neut dr fr fw (charcoal, fuel) ma pl (living fences) pp sa (against erosion, grazing amelioration) ti (boxes, furniture, matchboxes, matchsticks, moulding, particleboards, pencils, plywood, shaving, shoes, turned work) e MountJorullo alder alder p.p. (USA) f aulne du mont Jorullo aune (France) s abedul, aile (Colombia, Mexico) alisales (Colombia) aliso (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela) aliso del cerro, aliso del r o, aliso montano (Argentina) alnus jaul (Costa Rica) cerezo, chaquiro (Colombia) ilite verde (Mexico) jaul (Chile, Costa Rica) ja l (Costa Rica) lambran, lambr n (Peru) olmo del pa s, palo de guila (Mexico) palo de lama (Guatemala) ram-ram (Peru) ramram (Chile)

Conclusions and Perspectives

Potentially, many more foreign species would find suitable conditions for vigorous development in Europe. Undoubtedly this will constitute a very important factor that will greatly determine the health of our European forests, both rural and urban, in the years to come. Therefore, appropriate quarantine procedures should be strictly applied to all shipments of wood, wood products and tree planting materials to prevent the potential invasion of new territories by exotic species. In such situations the significance of a well-trained custom service cannot be overestimated.

Melaleuca leucadendra L L

Pinky grey heartwood sapwood usually paler. Strong and durable. High silica content, rapidly blunts saws and planes. Can be used for unsawn rough construction timber, sleepers, fence posts, mine props, boat building, poles and piles. Air dry density 725-800 kg m3. Used for windbreaks, erosion control and as an ornamental. Flowers regularly and is a good source of nectar.

Development Of An Ipm Plan For C Scripta

The majority of SRWC commercial hardwood operations have been developed in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and in Europe, but more recently are being established throughout several other locations in the U.S. and Canada (van Oosten 2000). Present management methods for insect pests, such as C. scripta, in commercial plantations are currently quite dependent upon applications of broad-spectrum organic or biorational insecticides. Often, this is still done on a calendar schedule, but commercial growers are beginning to recognize the desirability of monitoring for pest activity and levels and timing applications to increase efficacy and reduce losses. They are becoming aware that repeated applications of a single pesticide may contribute to the development of insect resistance to that material. The development and initiation of an IPM program is the next step in Populus pest management. IPM is designed to be more environmentally-friendly and incorporate many different control...

Eucalyptus astringens Maiden Maiden

Description, occurrence and uses Moderately fast-growing, small to medium tree (10-25 m). Straight trunk with smooth grey bark. Leaves are alternate, lanceolate and glossy-green. Creamy-yellow flowers appear in spring. Occurs in south-west Western Australia on sandy or clay loam soils with 350-550 mm rainfall. Poor coppicing ability. Adaptable to most soils, including heavy clays, provided drainage is suitable. Low susceptibility to insect attack no insect pests reported. Moderately frost- and salttolerant. Drought-hardy. Heartwood is light red-brown to dark grey-brown sapwood is paler. Timber is fine textured, strong and moderately durable. Air dry density 980 kg m3. Excellent firewood, fence posts, mining props, tool handles, bark has high tannin content. Ornamental. A good source of nectar and pollen.

Local Induced Defence

Trees react to attack by microorganisms such as bark beetle vectored fungi with the formation of a necrotic zone around the attack area, both in the phloem and the sapwood. This is considered as a hypersensitive reaction (Berryman, 1972 Christiansen et al., 1987). The resistance of conifers to bark beetle attack depends mainly on the efficiency of these induced local reactions. The reaction seems to be induced by wounding itself, but also the fungi introduced by the beetle into the wound can stimulate considerably the development of the reaction (Lieutier et al.,

Economic Importance of the Cell Wall

The cell wall is unmatched in the diversity and versatility of its economic uses. Lumber, charcoal, and other wood products are obvious examples. Textiles such as cotton and linen are derived from the walls of unusually long and strong fiber cells. Paper is likewise a product of long fiber cell walls that are extracted, beaten, and dried as a uniform sheet. Cellulose can be dissolved and regenerated as a manmade fiber called rayon or in sheets called cellophane. Chemically modified cellulose is used to make plastics, membranes, coatings, adhesives, and thickeners found in a vast array of products, from photographic film to paint, nail polish to explosives. In agriculture, cell walls are important as animal fodder, whereas in the human diet, cell walls are important as dietary fiber or roughage. Pectin is used as a gelling agent in jellies, yogurt, low-fat margarines, and other foods, while powered cellulose is similarly used as a thickener in foods and as an inert filler in medicinal...

Anatomy of a Woody Stem

Many trees have a darker region of wood at the center of the trunk or root called heartwood. The coloration arises from tannins and other substances that retard decay created by xylem parenchyma cells before they die. Since the conducting cells (vessel elements and tracheids) and the sup porting cells (sclerenchyma fibers) are already dead, the entire heartwood is nonliving. The lighter wood toward the outside of the trunk is called sapwood. Sapwood contains living parenchyma cells that function in storage and to recover nutrients from the sap. Although the entire sapwood region is moist, usually only the outer growth rings nearest the vascular cambium actually transport water from the roots to the leaves. Another conspicuous feature of woody stems and roots are the panels of parenchyma tissue called rays that extend radially from the center of the heartwood, across the cambium, and into the bark. The ray parenchyma cells are produced by specialized cambium initials called ray...

Assessment of Hazard Trees

The technique requires the insertion of screws or nails through the bark into the sapwood. The presence of defects can be detected, but the type of defect cannot be distinguished (decay, cracks, cavities), nor the severity of strength loss. Some decay fungi cannot be detected, such as Ustulina. This technique requires comparison with measured radial sound velocity of defect-free trees.

Compartmentalisation in Trees

Throughout their life span, trees are wounded due to abiotic and biotic factors (storm breakage, insects, birds, etc.) and activity of man (vandalism, car accidence, building operations, pruning, etc.). Wounding is a first stage in a series of complex events that can lead to wood discoloration and decay (Shigo 1984, 1986a,b). The damage to the tree depends, among others, on its active and passive defense mechanisms (Blanchette and Biggs 1992). Defensive function has been variously attributed to adverse micro-environmental factors, accumulation of phytoalexin-like antimicrobial compounds, cell wall alterations (suberisation) and deposition of insoluble polyphenolic compounds (Bauch and Baas 1984 Blanchette and Biggs 1992 Liese and Dujesiefken 1996 Pearce 1996). Such defensive elements had been assumed many years previously, but have received only limited attention until formulation of the compartmentalization concept proposed by Shigo and coworkers (Shigo and Marx 1977 see also Shigo...

Lumber Production and Preparation

All production of wood products begins with the logging of timber by a number of methods (e.g., clear-cutting versus selective cutting). In intensively managed forest stands, softwood lumber (particularly dimension lumber or pulp lumber) can be produced quite efficiently. In contrast, the inherently slow growth of hardwood species restricts the methods of harvest primarily to selective methods from naturally occurring timber stands. Once logs have been felled and are ready for transport, they are moved from the timber stands by vehicle or by using waterways to float them to a milling operation. At the sawmill, the logs are sawn to optimize the quantity and quality of the lumber. The sawyer needs to know the characteristics of the wood being cut and how the lumber will respond to drying and further milling operations. When cut, live timber is very wet the cell spaces in the xylem are filled with water (a moisture content of approximately 100 percent). This water (free water) must be...

Mechanical Properties

A. mangium falls under the Light Hardwood classification, i.e., with low to moderate strength properties. Table 11.3 shows the basic mechanical properties of 12-year-old A. mangium compared with other popular furniture species. With younger stock, Wang et al. (1989) indicated marginally lower strength properties

Eucalyptus melliodora ACunn ex Schauer

Description, occurrence and uses Moderate to very slow-growing, medium to tall tree (15-30 m). Rough, grey to yellow-brown (or darker) bark which is persistent on the lower part of the trunk. The bark is usually shed from the upper trunk and main branches, leaving a smooth whitish or yellowish surface. Adult leaves are alternate, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate and are light green to grey-green. At all stages the intramarginal vein is conspicuously remote from the leaf edge. White flowers appear in springsummer. Widely distributed on the plains and tablelands from western Victoria, through New South Wales to southern Queensland, and in sub-coastal areas such as the Hunter and Bega valleys. Occurs mainly in woodlands on gentle slopes and foothills, but is restricted to flats near watercourses in the drier parts of its range. Best development is on light to somewhat heavy alluvial soils, loams and sandy loams with 500-900 mm rainfall. Coppices well. Varying susceptibility to insect...

Carbohydrates In Wood

Localization In a tree's trunk, tissues which serve different tasks are arranged in a highly coordinated way. In cross sections, a sequence of tissues can be distinguished The outer bark or rhythidome (protection shield to the environment) is followed inwards by the inner bark (secondary phloem, transport and storage of organic material), the cambium (meristematic tissue) and the wood (secondary xylem, transport of water, minerals and organic material dominant storage tissue of the trunk). Sapwood trees (Alnus glutinosa, Tilia cordata, Populus tremuloides, Acer pseudoplatanus, or A. platanoides) contain sapwood the living, physiological active wood of pale color which contains living cells and reserve material (72) even in the oldest, innermost trunk zones. In most tree species, however, the wood is not a homogenous tissue and an outer sapwood zone surrounds a dead, either uncolored (ripewood, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, or Picea abies) or dark-colored inner heartwood core...

Amendment additive anaerobic without oxygen

Arcto-Tertiary geoflora the fossil flora discovered in Arctic areas dating back to the Tertiary period this group contains magnolias (Magnolia), tulip trees (Liriodendron), maples (Acer), beech (Fagus), black gum (Nyssa), sweet gum (Liquidambar), dawn redwood (Metasequoia), cypress (Taxodium), and many other species

Laminated Veneer Lumber LVL

LVL is a material made by parallel lamination of veneers instead of placing adjacent veneer layers with their grains at right angles, as in plywood. LVL is generally fabricated to thicknesses common in solid sawn timber the veneers currently used vary from 2 to 3.2 mm in thickness. Laminating lower strength timber (such as A. mangium) reduces the strength variability within the timber and consequently raises the strength value. This ultimately permits an increase in allowable working stresses (Plate 11.4). Acacia mangium Growing and Utilization Table 11.8. Shear strength, bending strength and stiffness of solid wood and LVL. Solid Wood (N mm2) Solid Wood (N mm2)

Medium Density Fiberboard MDF

Meet various grade requirements of the Japanese Industrial Standards (J1S A5906) for MDF. The boards' mechanical properties were greatly influenced by the density, and isocyanate proved superior to other adhesives tested for MDF. Furthermore, MDF made from A. mangium were better than those of Japanese softwoods studied Pinns densiflora (Akamatsu), Cryptomeria japonica (Sugi), Chamoecyparis obtusa (Hinoki), and Larix leptolepis (Karamatsu)(Tomimura et al. 1987).'

Improved ecosystem services from plantations of the future

The projections also stress that we need to be mindful about the possible consequences of replacing natural ecosystems that provide great benefits to human societies such as clean drinking water, soil protection, etc. Many of the ecosystem services they provide are irreplaceable, or the technology necessary to replace them is prohibitively expensive (Palmer et al, 2004). Thus the role of both natural and replacement, or man-made ecosystems in maintaining these services becomes increasingly important. In the past, tree plantations have had ambivalent roles with regards to ecosystem services. Their production function has served in a very efficient way to meet the growing demand for wood products. However, where tree plantations have replaced native ecosystems (forests or grasslands), many ecosystem services have deteriorated. The expansion of fast-growing industrial plantations for pulp, together with the rapid expansion of oil-palm plantations, has been a...

Climate change mitigation

Extending the length of rotations in existing forests is currently unlikely to receive the financial reward required to compensate for not harvesting trees at their economical maturity. Increasing the proportion of wood supply from fast-growing and sustainably managed plantations to permit a reduction of harvesting and the setting aside of native forests for conservation purposes, as we have discussed above in the context of biodiversity values, may also be a substantial contribution of plantations to the protection of carbon stocks in these forests, which may be old-growth forests with high C density. Increasing the use of long-lasting wood products and improving recycling rates has the potential to reduce the pressure on forest resources however, this is a broader issue that is not exclusive to plantation products.

Poverty reduction and the social effects of plantations

Owing to their capacities regarding capital and know-how, companies, governments and other actors with sufficient capital are predestined to initiate large-scale forestry plantations. The economic benefit of these types of plantations is often expressed as the return to investors, which has been in the range of 3-11 per cent internal rate of return for short-rotation pulpwood and 1-7 per cent for longer-rotation solid-wood plantations (RISI, 2007). The most important social benefit of these types of plantations at a local level is through employment. However, in consideration of the immense demand on land, the employment opportunities generated by the tree growing in plantations are rather limited, if compared to other more labour-intensive land uses such as family agriculture (Cossalter and Pye-Smith, 2003 Schirmer and Tonts, 2003). Against this background, the social balance of these type of plantations depends mainly on the attractiveness of alternative land-use options given by...

Commercial cultivation of Magnolia 621 Main uses and habits of Magnolia

Nearly two-thirds of commercial Magnolia species can be used in making furniture products (Priester, 1990). The sapwood of Magnolia is creamy white, while the heart-wood is light to dark brown, often with greenish to purple-black streaks or patches. The high-quality wood of Magnolia is even-textured and moderately heavy, fairly hard and straight grained. It is resistant to heavy shrinkage, is highly shock absorbant, and has a relatively low bending and compression strength. It takes glue well, has a good nailing quality, and stains and varnishes easily (Godfrey, 1988). Magnolia wood is also used by the food industry for making cherry boxes, flats, and baskets, and is used for popsicle sticks, tongue depressers, broomhandles, veneers, and venetian blinds, in North America (Duncan and Duncan, 1988 Godfrey 1988). The main habits or botanical characteristics of 53 taxa of Magnolia are also given in Table 6.3. In general, they are evergreen or deciduous arbors or shrubs. Most arbor species...

Economic Significance

Conifers are also considered the most important gymnospermous group from an economic perspective. Coniferous trees are a very important source of timber for lumber and paper. They are harvested in North America, parts of Europe and Asia, and in Australia. In addition to timber, conifers provide Christmas trees, ornamental trees and shrubs, turpentine, and resin. Pine nuts (or pignoli), the seeds of some pine trees, are used as food. An important cancer-fighting drug, taxol, has been derived from the bark and leaves of the Pacific Coast yew (Taxus). Other gymnosperms also are the source of drugs and herbal medications. The powerful stimulant ephedrine derived from the gnetophyte Ephedra is often used in cold and allergy medications, and compounds shown to improve the mental capacities of the elderly have been discovered in Ginkgo. Ginkgo seeds are also quite nutritious and are used as food in Asia. Ginkgo and cycads are also important as ornamentals. see also Coniferous Forests...

Carbohydrate Relations

The amount of carbohydrates translocated in woody plants exceeds that of all other solutes combined. Carbohydrate transport may occur downward, upward, and laterally. When radioactive sucrose is applied to the cambial region, it moves along the rays to the inner sapwood (Holl, 1975). Sugar uptake from xylem vessels by contact ray cells also occurs and is followed by transport along the rays to the phloem (Van Bel, 1990). Lateral movement of sugar occurs almost entirely through the ray symplast (Sauter and Kloth, 1986). Norway spruce needles transported carbohydrates downward in the shoot axis as well as laterally along the rays (Fig. 3.1). Sugars were transported via the leaf trace phloem, then to the base of the stem in the sieve cells of the latest increment of secondary phloem. On the way down sugars moved radially from the sieve cells into phloem parenchyma cells, the cambium, rays, the inner periderm, and some cells of the pith and cortex, including the epithelial cells around...

Economics and Market Prospects

As the international market for wood products adjusts to the dwindling supply from natural forests, market acceptance of fast-growing tree products is unavoidable. Despite constraints common to fast-growing plantation species that limit its marketability as sawn lumber and certain veneers, A. mangium is very suitable for pulp, paper, and the growing industry of reconstituted wood products (particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, etc.).

Acacia acuminata Benth

Description, occurrence and uses Moderately fast-growing, large bushy shrub to small tree (3-5 m) with erect, spreading branches. Deeply furrowed grey coloured bark on lower part of trunk. Phyllodes have 1-3 prominent veins. Fragrant brilliant yellow flowers, in dense spikes, appear in winter. Occurs in south-west Western Australia where the mean annual rainfall is 300-500 mm. Grows on gently undulating topography, soils range from clays to red sand and granite gravels. Tolerates drought, light frosts, moderately alkaline and moderately saline soils. Medium susceptibility to insect attack in Western Australia due to unidentified borers and occasionally to fungal leaf and stem galls. Reddish brown heartwood with a pale yellow sapwood. Timber is hard and very durable in the ground. Air-dry density ca. 1100 kg m3. Odour from freshly cut timber .smells like raspberry jam. Used for fence posts (major use in Western Australia), craft and wood turning, shelter and erosion control.

Geography of Eucalypts

It has been little more than two hundred years since the founders of modern botany recognized Eucalyptus as an evergreen hardwood genus belonging to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is a large genus, consisting of at least six hundred species, almost all of which grow in a mosaic of temperate, desert, tropical, and sub-alpine environments in Australia and Tasmania (see map). Most of these Australian hardwoods are distributed unevenly. Many eucalypt species are widely dispersed, being more abundant on the more hu Eucalypts are woody plants of various sizes. Some are among the tallest broad-leaved trees in the world, towering 100 m (328 ft) above the ground. For example, the mountain ash (E. regnans), which exists in a discontinuous belt across southern Victoria and Tasmania between 370 and 43 S latitude, is the tallest tree in Australia.4 It is the tallest hardwood in the world, and second overall to the coastal sequoias of California.5 Early botanists exaggerated or miscalculated...

Propagation of Pepper

Single node stem cuttings with the attached leaf quick dipped in IBA at a concentration of 2 mg ml in 50 per cent alcohol gave 75 per cent rooting in 21 days in a standard cocoa propagator with coir dust as the medium (Copper 1955). Traditional Indian method of using semi hardwood cuttings with 3-4 nodes was reported to give only 15 per cent rooting after six months (Creech 1955). The same author described a method using bamboo poles covered with moist sphagnum moss. The pepper vines planted at the base of the bamboo, kept slantingly, were allowed to grow over the post. The vines got rooted at every node, the nodal cuttings along with leaves were planted in a green house. Such plants were ready for planting in six weeks (Creech 1955, Konstantinov and Bodreva 1962). Cuttings from selected plants were rooted in bamboo baskets, and those selected and planted in March gave 90-95 per cent rooting (Nambiar and Kurian 1963). Garayar and Corbera (1957) found that the most satisfactory shoots...

Conium Maculatum Phytoremediation

Hardwoods, 4 128, 173-177 Haustorium haustoria, 2 180, 3 45, 110, 111, 118 Hawaiian Islands, 2 4, 3 92, 4 31 endangered species hot spot, 1 69 invasive species, 3 49 plants of, 1 101 species diversity, 1 78-79 threatened plants, 1 71 Hawk moths, 1 114, 3 178-179, 4 8 Hay fever, 3 174 Head (inflorescence type), 3 38 Heart disease, 3 11, 70, 71-72, 172 Heartwood, 4 172 Heather family. See Ericaceae Heaths, tundra species, 4 138 Heat stress, adaptations, 4 80

Alchornea latifolia Sw

Euphorbiaceae SC SE North America (S Mexico to Panama, West Indies) N MW MC South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador Coast, Andes, Amazonas Peru, Bolivia) L E D hel hyg- mes calc sili acid dr (flowers, leaves and twigs infusion against tuberculosis, leaves infusion against chest cold) fr (seeds wildlife) fw (fuelwood) ma pl sa ti (agricultural implements, boxes, framing, furniture, interior construction, light carpentry, plywood, posts) Alchornea cyclophylla Croizat Alchornea haitiensis Urb.

History Of Cryptomeria Japonica Plantation In Japan

In the year 2000, the bark midge, R. odai, was distributed in Kyushu Island and in the westernmost part of Honshu Island, and is believed to be spreading eastward on Honshu Island (Sudo et al. 2000). In these areas, the damage caused by R. odai is serious for Japanese cedar forestry. When the larvae of this insect feed on Japanese cedar, timber values are reduced by stains in the sapwood. A project to breed Japanese cedar that is resistant to R. odai started in 1985. In this project, trees that were not infested by R. odai and those on which no stains were formed, although they were infested by this insect, were considered as resistant and have been selected (Tajima 1990). The mechanism of resistance is still unclear. However, resistance is closely related to the thickness of the inner bark. The stain is formed by the digestive fluid secreted by the larvae feeding on the surface of the inner bark. When the inner bark is thick enough to prevent the fluid from reaching the cambium, no...

Xeric hardpan forest

Black Desert Online

Prairies are dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants, rather than by trees and shrubs. While generally associated with Midwestern states such as Kansas and Illinois, prairies were once widely scattered throughout the piedmont (as well as in the black belt region from eastern Alabama to northern Mississippi). Evidence for historic piedmont prairies comes from literary accounts of European explorers (such as John Bartram) as well as early maps of the region. Historic piedmont prairies were kept open largely because of the frequent use of fire by Native Americans to improve game hunting. Because of fire suppression and the extirpation of large grazing animals such as elk and bison, the piedmont prairie ecosystem has largely disappeared from the southeastern landscape. Not all is lost, however, as remnants of the prairie flora persist in open areas of xeric hardpan forest, in disturbed areas such as roadsides and unsprayed power line corridors, and in...

Seed Stands Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards

The seedling seed orchard has been the most commonly established type in the past decade or so. Sabah Softwoods Sdn. Bhd. (SSSB) pioneered in this, starting theirs in 1980 (Sim 1984). Other early seed orchards of this type were In Thailand, a seed orchard consisting of 20 selected, open-pollinated families (15 from Australia, 4 from PNCi, and 1 from a plantation in the Philippines) has been established in Chachoengsao Province under a joint program by Thai Plywood Company and the Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University (Bhumibhamon and Atipanumpai 1992). The families have shown significant differences in height, diameter, crown growth, and (lower production. Flowering occurred at only 28 months. The families from PNG were the most prolific flower producers. The narrow-sense heritability values obtained were quite high, indicating that the characteristics were strongly inherited and significant gains can be expected from selection. Height growth had the lowest heritability (0.19)....

Allocasuarina luehmannii RBaker

Description, occurrence and uses Fast-growing, medium tree (10-20 m), with dull green branchlets and rough, brown bark. Male and female flowers occur on separate trees male flowers are yellowish and form spikes towards the ends of the branchlets, female flowers are in short compact heads. Flowers appear mainly in summer. Has a wide distribution in eastern Australia, from north Queensland to eastern South Australia. Occurs mainly on the plains and gentle slopes. Grows on a wide range of soils, from poor, well-drained sands to sandy loams and poorly-drained clays, all usually low in nutrients. Rainfall 400-800 mm. Root-suckering is rare. Low susceptibility to insect attack no insect pests reported. Tolerates wind, light frost, drought, poorly aerated soils, waterlogging and moderate salinity (similar to Allocasuarina verticillata). Dark red beartwood sapwood usually paler. Durable, coarse grained timber. Air dry density 1100 kg m3. Good firewood, mine props, posts. Negligible value for...

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Associates Red maple grows in mixed stands. In lowland forest areas, it associates with American elm and yellow birch, among other trees. On uplands, it may be found with oaks, hickories, and black cherry. Northern hardwood associates include sugar maple, American beech, American basswood, and Eastern hemlock. As one of the most commercially valuable hardwoods, maple uses include furniture, flooring, cabinets, veneer, musical instruments, and recreational items. A distorted grain in sugar maple is bird's eye or curly maple, highly prized in furniture making.

The Influence of Cortical Microtubules on Heterogeneous Cell Wall Structure

The secondary xylem cells develop localized ridges made of parallel bundles of cellulose microfibrils on the innermost surface of the secondary wall. The cellulose microfibrils are oriented helically with respect to the cell axis. Such a thickening of the cell wall is known as helical thickening or spiral thickening. Helical thickenings are observed in tracheids or wood fibers of only a few species, but they are relatively common in vessel elements (Ohtani 2000). Helical thickenings vary considerably among species in terms of helix direction, width and height of ridges, frequency of thickenings, and the interval between ridges. In differentiating vessel elements of hardwoods, such as Aesculus hippocas-tanum, in which helical thickenings are generally formed, similar bands of cortical microtubules are observed (Chaffey et al. 1997c, 1999). At the final stage of formation of the secondary wall, wide and nearly transverse bands of cortical microtubules are present. Later, the bands are...

Byrsonima Rues And Lignum Vitae

Heart wood is yellow to yellowish brown, hard, tine grained, and highly valued. The wood is quite decorative and is prized in the construction of fine furniture as well as in the production of high-quality paneling and veneer. However the demand lor its wotxl has had a dramatic and detrimental impact on this tree. In Puerto Rico, for example, the tree was exploited so heavily that even the stumps and roots were removed and shipped to foreign markets, foday this slow-growing tree is not common in any pan of its range and is particularly rare in Florida, The lignum vitae's common name literally means wood of life1* and reflects a longheld belief that the tree's timber exhibits powerful medicinal properties. The pi ant was discovered during the early explorations of the New World. From the beginning of the 1500s large quantities were shipped back to the European continent. For over 200 years the pfani was thought to be an effective remedy for venereal disease, and its heart wood became a...

Effect of Seedling

The age of stock plants from which cuttings are taken is the most important single factor affecting root formation. Cuttings of difficult-to-root species are normally rooted more easily from younger stock plants than from older stock. For A. mangium, rooting percentage decreases significantly with older stock plants. For example, cuttings taken from 6- and 12-month-old seedlings give a higher rooting perceniage than those taken from IS- and 24-month old seedlings (Table 4.1). Similar results arc reported for A. catechu and A. decurrens (Nanda et al. 1970) and some tropical hardwood species, including Shorea bractoelata. S. leprosula, and Dipterocarpus chartaceus (Srivastava and Pcnguang Manggil 1981).

Cellular Mechanisms of Wood Formation

Gives rise to the secondary xylem and phloem (Fig. 1 IAWA Committee 1964). The cambium consists of fusiform cambial cells and ray cambial cells. The mean lengths of fusiform cambial cells range from 1100 m to 4000 m in conifers (gymnosperm trees) and from 170 m to 940 m in hardwoods (an-giosperm trees) (Larson 1994). The lengths of fusiform cambial cells vary depending on the species and the age of the cambium. The higher resolution in the third dimension of confocal scanning electron microscopy showed that the long fusiform cambial cells were mononucleate in all cases despite their length (Kitin et al. 2002). by environmental conditions. The resting stage of dormancy is a physiological state wherein the cambium cannot divide, even under favourable growth conditions. By contrast, during the quiescent stage of cambial dormancy, the cambium is able to divide when exposed to appropriate environmental conditions. Cambial activity generally resumes in the spring, with a change from the...

Compensatory Forest Plantation Project for General Utility Logs

For these analyses, the price of A. mangium logs had to be proxied (that is, represented by the price for another product), because A. mangium did not yet have a commercial value in the Malaysian timber market since none had yet been harvested. Kanapathy et al. used the average log price of mixed light hardwood timber in Peninsular Malaysia as a proxy in the early 1980s, this ranged from US 28.8-40.8 per m3. The analyses assumed an average proxy price of US 36.

Understanding Natural Communities

The most abundant or conspicuous species are community dominants. Chestnut oak forest, spruce-fir forest, and oak-hickory forest are examples of communities whose names reflect the dominant species. In contrast, communities such as cove forest, northern hardwood forest, and alluvial forest lack clear dominants. The term indicator species refers to species that are more or less unique to a particular community, or due to their abundance, impart a distinct identity to the community. Fraser fir (Abiesfraseri), for example, is considered to be an indicator species of spruce-fir forest as it's both abundant and largely restricted to this community type. To some extent, one can predict forest change by comparing the species composition of trees in the canopy to the tree species that are growing as seedlings saplings on the forest floor. If the canopy trees and tree seedlings saplings on the forest floor are similar, this indicates that the current forest is self-perpetuating. In contrast,...

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Lifestyle Mountain-ash rivals flowering dogwood as one of the most beautiful flowering forest trees in spring. It grows in acid habitatsconiferous and northern hardwood forests, bogs, rocky hillsides. Unlike the dogwood, it is mainly a short-lived edge species rather than a forest understory resident, though it is moderately shade tolerant and slow growing.

Tree growth and physiology

Filtration of ambient UV-B using Plexiglas (Bogenrieder & Klein, 1982) led to an increase in dry matter accumulation in four of five hardwood species tested, with one species showing no effect (Table 2). Different sensitivities to UV-B were demonstrated in two ecotypes of Acer pseudoplatanus from low and high elevations, with the dry matter production of the lowland ecotype reduced by UV-B but increased in the high elevation ecotype. Kaufmann (1978) undertook field supplementation of seedlings of two high elevation conifers (Table 2) but found no morphological changes after one growing season. Sullivan and Teramura (1988) suggested that this lack of deleterious effect was due to the low doses of UV-B applied (approximating 10-15 ozone depletion) or that high elevation species may be inherently tolerant of UV-B radiation. However, visible symptoms and increased mortality in Investigation of UV-B effects on the many interactions between trophic levels in a forest ecosystem are difficult...

Managing forests for carbon sequestration

Plantation and harvested wood products (Harmon et al, 1990 Kurz et al, 1998 Schulze et al, 2000). In their comprehensive review of the change in soil carbon after afforestation, Paul et al (2002) found a clear age effect, indicating carbon losses in most young afforestations, variable trends in 5-30-year-old plantations and prevailing soil carbon gains 30 years and more after afforestation. Furthermore they documented species differences in surface soil (

Beech Oaks And Chinquapin

The beeches, oaks, and chinquapins are members of the family Fagaceae, a targe and broadly distributed assemblage of hardwood trees that are as equally well known for the uses of their wood as for their beauty in the landscape, Worldwide, the family consists of about 8 genera and more than 500 species. The three genera native to Florida are represented by about 30 species, most of which are oak trees.


Protective effects of the methanolic extract of P. marsupium heartwood were evaluated on NIDDM-induced rat gastric ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors. NIDDM was produced in 5-d-old rat puppies by administering streptozotocin (70 mg kg, i.p). The animals showing blood glucose level 140 mg dl after 12 wk of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive rats. P. marsupium (750 mg kg) decreased the blood sugar level both in normal and NIDDM rats.

Ocd And Medicinal Plants

Induction of secondary metabolism by ozone stress. One-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plants were exposed for 40 days to various ozone concentrations (8 h daily) and afterwards grown under natural conditions until autumn of the following year. A The fla-vane catechin (see Box 1.9.6), an antioxidant secondary metabolite, accumulated after the termination of ozone treatment and remained high during the following year. The concentration required to induce flavane accumulation was above the naturally occurring concentration but less than double the natural concentration. B Stilbenes are inducible phytoalexins (see Chap. in sap wood and needles, but are constitutive in the heart wood. Their accumulation depends on the time and ozone concentration incorporation into the cell wall caused a reduction in the soluble stilbene. The memory effect can clearly be seen in the case of stilbenes. (After Langebartels et al. 1997)

Sided Leaves

Recognition A medium-sized tree with leaves nearly al1 scalelike and long. They occur in 4 rows around twigs but are flattened froin the sides. Central leaves show tiny glands, lwigs and leaves occur in flattened sprays that typically are aligned vertically. Heart wood light-colored. Cones more or less bell-shaped, about W long. A prostrate, carpet) ike form occurs in Quebec. Bark is fibrous with numerous cross-thatched ridges. Recognition A medium-sized tree usually with both scalelike and longer, sharply 3-sided, needlelike leaves. Leaves Vi6 - , entirely green, in pairs in 4 rows along 4-sided twigs and branchlets. Heart wood reddish. Fruits more or less globular, hard, whitish- to blackish-green berries about M in diameter, 1-2 seeds. Bark dry, shreddy, not ridged. Rarely in windswept locations shrubby and creeping. Height 40'-50' (62') diameter l'-2' (4'). Heart wood is aromatic and of rose-brown color. It is light, strong, durable, and widely used for cedar chests, cabinets,...

Genetic erosion

The Mangifera species have their centre of diversity and origin in South-east Asia, a region that has experienced great economic development in recent years. Vast wooded areas have been completely or partially deforested either for expanding agriculture or for removal of tropical hardwoods for export.

Preformed Defenses

Resin ducts form an elaborated resin system in the genera Pinus, Picea, Larix and Pseudotsuga, which do not possess blisters (Bannan, 1936). Vertical and radial ducts are connected to each other and resin is synthesized by secretory cells lining these ducts (Bannan, 1936 Shrimpton, 1978) (Figure 2). Vertical ducts are the most abundant and are located in the sapwood only, while radial ducts occur in both the sapwood and the phloem. There is contiguity between the sapwood radial ducts and those of the phloem but usually no communication exists between them (Shrimpton, 1978). However, communications exist between the vertical and radial ducts of the sapwood. Consequently, the main location of the resin duct system is sapwood and the amount of resin flow exuded by a wound has been correlated with the density of resin in conifer species that have resin ducts. The beetles cut resin ducts in the phloem and superficial sapwood when they bore their galleries. When galleries do not sever the...

Induced Defenses

This tree reaction develops around each point of aggression, in both the phloem and the sapwood. It is visible as a longitudinal resin impregnated zone associated with extended cell necrosis (Reid et al., 1967 Berryman, 1969, 1972 Lieutier and Berryman, 1988a among others) (Figure 5). The zone is considerably enriched with terpene and neosynthesized phenolic compounds and impoverished with sugars (Shrimpton, 1973 and see section 111.2 below). The synthesized compounds invade

Conifer Diversity

Most conifers are evergreen, but a few genera (notably bald cypress, dawn redwood, and larch) shed their leaves during the winter. The majority of conifers have narrow, needle-shaped leaves, arranged in spirals or sometimes in pairs, or are found in tightly clustered whorls on short branches. Pines are unusual in having their leaves extremely tightly clustered in needle clusters (fascicles) with almost no stem elongation between the leaves. Some conifers have their leaves very reduced and scalelike (most of the cypress family), while subtropical to tropical conifers in the podocarp and araucaria families may have the leaves flattened and are relatively broad.

Conifer Distribution

Several genera of conifers with only a single living species of very restricted distribution were once much more widespread in the fossil record and have been termed living fossils. These include the dawn redwood (Metasequoia) from China and the sequoia and giant sequoia from California. Another remarkable genus, Wollemia (from the araucaria family), was known only as a fossil from Australia until 1994, when a living plant of this species was discovered growing in a remote canyon area near Sydney, Australia.

Economic Uses

Conifers are extremely important economically as sources of lumber and other wood products, and are also widely planted as ornamental trees and shrubs. The most important sources of softwood lumber in the world are trees in the pine family, especially species of pine, spruce, larch, and Douglas-fir, which are widely used for dimensional timber for building construction and boat building, and for general construction uses such as utility poles, doors, and cabinetry. These woods are also widely used for plywood and veneer and as sources of wood pulp for paper and cardboard and other modified wood products, such as charcoal. Southern yellow pines, such as slash pine and loblolly pine, are widely grown in their native southeastern United States as sources of lumber and pulp, while the Monterey pine from coastal California is now widely planted as a commercial timber tree in the Southern Hemisphere. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is a particularly important timber species in the...

Mountain maple

Habitat range Found on cool, moist sites at higher elevations. Spruce-fir forests, northern hardwood forests, mountain bogs, and boulder fields. Locally abundant. Southeastern Canada, northeastern United States, south in mountains to Georgia. Habitat range Moist, fertile soils on mountain slopes, coves, and along streams. Mainly in northern hardwood forests and cove forests, occasionally in spruce-fir forests and red oak forests. Common in mountains, rare in piedmont. Eastern United States. Ecology Yellow buckeye is one of the largest and most common trees in northern hardwood and cove forests of the southern Appalachians. It's one of the first trees to leaf out in early spring and drop its leaves (in midsummer). Bumblebees are the primary pollinators but hummingbirds also visit and occasionally pollinate the tubular flowers. Each inflorescence has many flowers, but relatively few develop into fruits because most flowers are staminate (only produce pollen). The unusually large seeds...


Taxonomy Yellowwood is the only southeastern species in the genus the other 5 species occur in eastern Asia. The pinnately compound leaves resemble ash (Fraxinus) but the leaves (and leaflets) of yellowwood are alternate, whereas ash leaves are opposite. Freshly-cut heartwood is a light to brilliant yellow color, providing the common name.

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Similar militancy took place about the same time in Karnataka, India, after international groups, including the World Bank, collaborated with national and state agencies in covering thousands of hectares with quick-growing eucalyptus plantations. Again, rural folk felt excluded. In Spain and Portugal, farmers and others have also yanked seedlings out of the ground. There, protesters characterized the multiplication of gridlike stands of these hardwoods as capitalist or fascist, thus equating major plantings with right-wing politics during the Franco era.1 The popularity of eucalyptus trees and the ubiquity of their use has also turned them into targets. Environmentalists and other critics argue that euca-lypts typify recent trends in large-scale, modern agro-forestry and tree farming. In their eyes, the trees are components of forestry schemes often drawn up by distant officials, who collaborate with international corporations and entrepreneurs in maximizing cash profits by setting up...


It is not at all obvious that the death of the tree is a prerequisite for beetle establishment. Rather, it seems that beetle population establishment proceeds in two successive (and not simultaneous) steps 1- exhaustion of tree defense 2- tree killing and completion of invasion of the tree tissues by the aggressors. This statement is in agreement with the conclusions by Parmeter et al. (1992), Nebeker et al. (1993) and Hobson et al. (1994). Meanwhile, Berryman's statement about tree killing (1972) can be enlarged and specified by inferring that both insect and fungi are needed to kill the tree after both are needed to overcome its resistance. The phenomena involved during the time sequences leading to beetle establishment would be the following First, tree resistance is weakened, through the stimulation of tree defense mechanisms leading to their exhaustion by the aggressors. During that first step, the aggressors begin to invade the tree tissues (beetles and fungi in the phloem,...

Rotation length

Rotation length (i.e. the time from stand establishment to harvest) is commonly used to manage timber yield and income from forests and directly influences carbon stocks in biomass, soil and wood products (Liski et al, 2001 Harmon and Marks, 2002 Pussinen et al, 2002 Kaipainen et al, 2004). Changing the rotation length can therefore be considered an effective measure for managing the carbon budget of forests for climate change mitigation. Kaipainen et al (2004) investigated the effect of rotation length in different European forests on carbon stocks in forest biomass, soil and wood products using the CO2FIX model. Biomass carbon was affected most. An increase in rotation length usually results in an increase in biomass carbon stocks (Figure 3.5). The effect of rotation length on carbon stocks in harvested wood products depends on both the quantity and the quality of harvested timber (Kaipainen et al, 2004). While a longer rotation might reduce the harvested yield per hectare due to...

Black walnut

Ecology Red cedar thrives almost everywhere, except in deep shade and standing water. It grows on ridgetops, slopes, and flatlands, on deep, moist soils on the edges of swamps, and on dry, shallow soils associated with rock outcrops. Its wide elevational range (from sea level to 5,000 ft.) demonstrates its ability to grow under a wide range of climates. One of the first woody plants to invade abandoned fields, eastern red cedar is often replaced by more shade-tolerant hardwoods. In addition to shade, eastern red cedar's worst enemy is fire, as its low stature, thin bark, shallow roots, and inability to resprout make it particularly vulnerable to even low-intensity surface fires. Eastern red cedar is more common today than it was 200 years ago, due to widespread fire suppression over much of the past century. It's often parasitized by the cedar-apple rust fungus, which forms large masses of gelatinous orange tissue. Uses The heartwood is used in cedar chests, the fruits flavor gin, and...

Thinning intensity

In many forestry regions, forest stands are thinned, providing early revenues and making site resources available to fewer individual trees. Optimal timing and intensity of thinning increases the volume of individual trees compared to unthinned stands (Nyland, 1996). However, at the stand level, thinning reduces tree density and therefore reduces carbon in the biomass pool. Between well-timed thinning operations, the number of trees remains unchanged, meaning that thinning mimics self-thinning processes. This reduces the loss of carbon through natural decomposition and leaves more carbon for harvest, wood products and substitution. Depending on tree species, the trees remaining after a heavy thinning that reduces stand density below a critical level cannot compensate for the loss in crown cover of the removed trees at the stand level (Assmann, 1968), and biomass increment also declines. B ttcher et al (2008) show how increasing thinning intensity (with more biomass ending in slash or...

Defense Mechanisms

The hypersensitive reaction has been mostly studied in the phloem but the existence of resin-impregnated zones in the sapwood demonstrates that resistance takes place at this level also. However, sapwood defense mechanisms have almost never been investigated in the case of bark beetle attacks. Paine et al. (1997) stated that exhausting the host defense system corresponds to phloem colonization, but the development of sapwood defenses also certainly contributes to exhausting the host's defenses.

The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing

The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing

Wood finishing can be tricky and after spending hours on building your project you want to be sure that you get the best outcome possible. In The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing you will learn how to get beautiful, professional results no matter what your project is, even if you have never tried your hand at wood finishing before. You will learn about every step in the wood finishing process from a professional wood finisher with years of experience.

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