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Common woodland variety is the evergreen wood fern (D. s. intermedia), which prefers limy or neutral soil the laciness of the leaves is a good field mark. D. flix-mas inhabits rocky northern woodlands, also on limy ground. The green-bronze tint and large leaf size of D. goldiana provide good identity clues to this neutral-soil species. Millions of spores empty from the dried spore cases (sporangia) in the fall and are wind dispersed. Spreading rhizomes, howeverone end dying as the other...

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And snowshoe hares have also been known to consume the leaves to some extent. Fall. Though not a major wildlife food, the translucent red berries are eaten by ruffed grouse, Eastern chipmunks, and white-footed mice. Lore The bittersweet berries, although not poisonous, are not very palatable. Mountain-Ash, American (Sorbus americana) Rose family. Shrub or small tree in cool, moist woods openings. Its alternate compound leaves with eleven to seventeen leaflets, gummy red buds, flattish sprays of...

Melanconis Juglandis

Nut dieback or walnut canker, caused by a sac fungus (Melanconis juglandis). No actual lesion or canker is formedthe slow-growing fungus works from withinbut branches progressively die back, producing the stag-headed appearance of the crown. Black spots like ink drops may sometimes appear on dead branches, and the entire tree declines and slowly dies. Lore See this tree while you can, if you can. Once common, butternut trees are rapidly declining throughout their range, primarily because of...

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Roots are shallow and spreading, sending up vigorous sprouts after fire, cutting, or browsing. Wounds are slow to heal, since a large area of cambium surrounding an injury dies back before new growth begins. Branches break easily from wind and ice, so red maple, though more adaptable than sugar maple, is generally less hardy. Associates Red maple grows in mixed stands. In lowland forest areas, it associates with American elm and yellow birch, among other trees. On uplands, it may be found with...