Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

Eat Stop Eat

This book by Brad Pilon explains on both fasting and routine weight training practices whereby fasting takes the center stage. A day of fasting serves to get rid of all those toxic substances in addition to boosting the general bodys metabolism. Brad Pilon has been in this particular field for quite some time and I do trust that the information contained on this book- Eat Stop Eat, are as a result of his huge bank of experience and careful experimentation on the theme. With Eat Stop Eat you can forget about all of these obsessive compulsive eating habits. Your metabolism will not slow down and you will not go into starvation mode. With Eat Stop Eat you will clearly see the research behind why short periods of fasting will Never cause you to go into starvation mode. Your metabolism will stay just as high as it ever was. The goodness about this approach is that its safe and easy to follow especially for anyone who cannot stay away from their favorite meals. You will have access to your meals over the fasting periods and still get the desired result. More here...

Eat Stop Eat Overview

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Dietary Interventions

Dietary interventions can be an important modality in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to benefit individuals with cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by moderate energy intake, low animal fat, high fish intake, high olive oil, high cereals, high legumes, nuts and vegetables, and regular and moderate wine intake. In a recent randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial, 372 subjects at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet, a traditional Mediterranean diet plus virgin olive oil, or traditional Mediterranean diet plus nuts. After three months, the mean oxidized LDL levels decreased in both Mediterranean diet groups, while no changes in oxidized LDL was seen in the low-fat diet group.82 Another study examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet in individuals with a high risk of cardiovascular disease on cardiovascular inflammatory markers. The study showed that a higher consumption of fruits...

Dietary Interventions In Diabetes Mellitus

Dietary modifications can be a powerful tool for preventing and treating diabetes. If, for example, a clinician is treating a patient who is at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes before symptoms of hyperinsulinemia and or hyperglycemia become acute, this is an excellent opportunity to emphasize the potential benefit of cereal fiber. In a large prospective study of 65,173 females over six years, researchers looked for associations between the glycemic index of subjects' diets and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes.60 A glycemic index is an indication of a food's potential to raise blood glucose and the demand the food creates for insulin. Foods with a high glycemic index generally include items such as white bread, mashed potatoes, white rice, and cola beverages. More intermediate-range glycemic foods are items such as apples and orangejuice. Low-glycemic foods are generally those that maintain their natural unprocessed fibers, such as broccoli and peanut butter. In this...

Dieting for Weight Loss

Dieting, adhering to a calorically stringent diet, may be detrimental to fertility in two ways 1. Dramatic weight loss, especially when accompanied by excessive physical activity, can predispose women to amenorrhea. Although body weight and composition (fat versus muscle) are considered important for maintaining regular menstrual cycles, no single determinant of regularity is known at this time. Severe malnutrition, which can occur at times of intense caloric restriction, is known to result in amenorrhea and anovulation, among other ill effects. 2. Weight loss through less-drastic means that achieves a loss of 30 or more of body fat can also lead to menstrual irregularities and then amenorrhea.11 Patients who have participated in weight-loss programs aggressively may find it easier to become pregnant once some weight is gained back individuals vary widely in this respect. also depress hormone levels to an extent that an insufficiently sized corpus luteum fails to sustain an early...

Soy in Weight Management and Cosmetics

Obesity has become an important issue in some parts of the world as it leads to development of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CVD, with care costing a large part of the national health-care budget of the countries such as the UK and the USA. Studies have shown that a soy diet results in weight loss in women (Cope et al., 2007 Maskarinec et al., 2008). The weight-reducing property of soybean has been attributed to the low glycemic index (Blair et al., 2006) and high calcium concentration (Lukaszuk et al., 2007) present in soy foods. Furthermore, soy protein has been reported to regulate insulin levels by stimulating the adiponectin (Lihn et al., 2005) and activating the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (Morifuji et al., 2006). This may impact obesity, as a high concentration of insulin has been found to be a major cause of obesity.

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

Dietary phytochemicals are also known as phytonutrients. Phytonutrients are nutrients derived from plant material that have been shown to be necessary for sustaining human life (distinction form phytochemicals). About 800 phytonutrients are known to exist in plant kingdom.

Wise Dietary Choices

The most crucial consideration when devising a comprehensive health intervention is understanding how to prevent or slow the degenerative process best. Without question, dietary factors constitute the single most important preventive focus. In one prospective study, 586 participants without clinical symptoms of dementia, age 55 or older, had their diets assessed at the beginning of the study and were screened for symptoms of dementia an average of two years later.2 After adjusting for other factors, such as age, gender, and education, subjects with the highest total fat intake had a significantly elevated relative risk (RR) of dementia (RR 2.4 1.1-5.2 ). Other dietary factors associated with an increased risk of dementia were a high intake of saturated fat (RR 1.9 0.9-4.0 ) and cholesterol (RR 1.7 0.9-3.2 ). An encouraging finding was that a high intake of fish was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia in general (RR 0.4 0.2-0.91 ) and was particularly associated with...

Preface to the Series

The business of dietary supplements in the Western world has expanded from the health store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant-based products. Appropriate measures to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products based in London. In the United States, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognized the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the U.S. Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine, which in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was handled as...

Biochemical Reactions To Stressors

Following normal diurnal patterns for the release of serum cortisol, glucocorticoid levels are at their lowest point at approximately midnight to 1 am. Peak levels occur between 6 am and 8 am. Research has shown that elevation or suppression of daily cortisol levels indicates imbalanced hypothalamus-pituitary-axis (HPA) activity.12 This may be interpreted as hyper-function or hypofunction, depending on a patient's levels of cortisol and his or her clinical presentation. Sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system marks the compensation stage, also known as the adrenal hyperfunction stage, with a secondary influence on the HPA axis. The pituitary gland responds to the influence of sympathetic nervous system activity by releasing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In turn, the adrenal glands respond to the pituitary release of ACTH by producing excess cortisol and androgen hormones. In an attempt to compensate for this faulty hyperfunction, the HPA becomes less sensitive to...

Status And Future Developments Involving Plant Iron In Animal And Human Nutrition

Abstract Iron is an essential nutrient for humans and other animals, and must be consumed in adequate amounts to ensure proper growth and development, as well as good health of the organism. Dietary sources of iron can be divided into two types non-heme iron, mostly provided by plant foods, and heme iron, present in animal foods. Heme iron intake is usually low for the majority of humans in many developing countries because of the high cost of animal products or due to cultural constraints concerning these foods. Heme iron intake also is low in most livestock, whose major source of dietary iron comes from forages and cereal crops. For these reasons, both humans and animals rely on plants as an important source of dietary iron. However, the iron concentration of plant foods varies greatly, and low concentrations in some common food sources make it difficult for humans and animals to meet daily dietary requirements when these foods are consumed in suggested amounts. Additionally,...

Iron Absorption In Humans And Animals

Nutritional iron is usually divided into two types heme iron, which is absorbed unaffected by other food components, and non-heme iron, which is envisioned as free or as weak complexes (Theil, 2004). Heme iron contributes only 10 to 15 percent of the total iron intake (1 to 3 mg day) in diets of developed countries but may provide a substantial amount of the total absorbed iron. Where meat is consumed extensively, (e.g. Argentina and New Zealand) this contribution can rise to almost 50 percent. Heme iron intake is negligible for the majority of people in many developing countries, because of cultural constraints and the high cost of animal products (Bothwell et al., 1989). For this reason, non-heme iron is the main source of dietary iron for most people in the world.

Iron Requirements 21 Iron requirements in humans

A large segment of the world's population does not ingest enough iron to meet daily dietary requirements. Therefore, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) are estimated to affect 30-50 of the world's population (Yip and Dallman, 1996), being especially prevalent in developing countries where food intakes can be severely low. In some populations, iron deficiency is estimated to reach 85 (Kapur et al., 2002). In the United States, approximately 75 of college-aged women have low iron intake (Ramakrishnan et al., 2002), and suboptimal dietary intake of iron occurs in 90 of pregnant Americans (Swenson et al., 2001). The iron present in the human body is mostly in a stored form, and losses are usually minimal. However, dietary intake of iron is needed to replace the iron lost by passage of stool and urine, shedding of skin, and sweating. In fact, after exercising, a person can loose up to 1 mg of iron (Vellar, 1968), but on average, losses represent around 0.9 mg of iron per day...

Possible Solutions To Increase Iron Status In Plant Sources

We have seen that plants are essential sources of iron in the human and animal diet and that often iron concentration in plants is not enough to meet the daily dietary recommendations. In many parts of the developing world, due to elevated costs, large segments of the human population do not have access to animal sources of iron. In these cases, a commonly used strategy is iron fortification. However, iron fortification of plant foods is not always practical or economically feasible for the rural poor, and many times this fortified iron is not highly bioavailable (Boccio and Iyengar, 2003). Therefore, a more sustainable approach, that is believed relevant to both urban and rural populations, is to enhance the iron content of plant foods through biofortification. Biofortification is a process whereby the plant uses its own mechanisms to fortify or enhance the density or bioavailability of nutrients (like iron) in its edible tissues. To develop iron biofortified plants, four main...

Ore and Sulphide Minerals

Thomson et al. (1973) have reported that clinical copper deficiency in farm animals is associated with black shales in England as a consequence of them, and their superjacent soils, being enriched in molybdenum. The resulting excess molybdenum in the diet of the grazing animals reduces the utilisation of dietary copper.

David Heber MD PhD Facp Facn

Heber is board certified in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology and Metabolism by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and in Clinical Nutrition by the American Board of Nutrition. He directs the NCI-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Unit and the NIH Nutrition and Obesity Training Grants at UCLA. Dr. Heber is a past director of the American Board of Nutrition and past chair of the Education Committee of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He has written over 130 peer-reviewed scientific articles, 25 book chapters, and two professional texts Dietary Fat, Lipids, Hormones and Tumorigenesis, and Nutritional Oncology (Academic Press, 1999 second edition due out in 2006).

Processing and utilization

Soybean polypeptide is a hydrolyzed product of protein through special treatment. Generally, it consists of peptides of 3-6 amino acids. Soybean polypeptide has a high nutritional value, high digestibility coefficient and low antigenicity, and the results of experiments show that its digestibility coefficient is much better than that of protein or amino acids. Soybean poly-peptide can be used as a raw material for or additive to health foods. It has a therapeutic effect on high blood pressure and cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases, and is safe and reliable. Soybean polypeptide also decreases the deposition of subcutaneous fat and increases fat burning and it is, therefore, a safe food for people who want to lose weight. Soybean polypeptide also has an antioxidant effect, and it has been claimed that the muscle cells of athletes recover faster when they imbibe a polypeptide-containing drink (Wang et al., 2004).

Malespecific Health Considerations

No single nutrient is more important than zinc for maintaining a man's overall reproductive and sexual functioning. In fact, the prostate is the richest reservoir of zinc within the body. Zinc helps to ensure overall virility, including erectile function and sperm quality.6,7 Diet also can play a critical role in prostate health. Eating a diet high in protein can inhibit the enzyme, 5-alpha reductase. This enzyme converts testosterone into the more potent hormone dihy-drotestosterone (DHT), which when levels are elevated, causes the increased growth of the prostate, leading to pelvic congestion and an obstructed flow of urine. In contrast, a diet that is high in carbohydrates can actually contribute to a buildup of DHT. Recommendations for maintaining a healthy prostate call for a dietary balance of protein, 44 complex carbohydrates, 35 and mostly unsaturated fats, 21 .8

Risk Factors And Etiology

Studies have indicated that sleep apnea is more common in men and increases with age. In addition, it is more frequent in African-Americans than in whites.8 Males over age 40 who are obese, smoke, or use alcohol are at increased risk for snoring and OSA.7 The strongest predictor for OSA is obesity. Studies show that the risk of OSA increases fourfold with an increase of the body mass index (BMI) by 1 standard deviation. Neck circumference is also a strong predictor, suggesting that upper body or central obesity is more predictive than generalized obesity.9 Hypothyroidism and menopause have also been associated with increased risk of OSA.10,11 There are a number of anatomical abnormalities and pathologies that can also lead to sleep apnea. Studies show that obese patients with OSA have an increase in the concavity of the posterior epiglottis. This change in shape is correlated with an increased BMI and with the severity of the airway collapse and OSA.12

Markers Of Inflammation Creactive Protein and Fibrinogen

Which in turn confers an increased risk of the cardiovascular events. An elevated CRP level is normally treated with aspirin prophylaxis and hyperlipidemia medications, or statins. While obesity is, itself, a well-known risk factor for CHD, lowering CRP via lowering body fat will decrease CRP and CHD. In particular, high-sensitivity hsCRP is considered to be a promising marker for CHD and is interrelated with obesity and other risk factors, such as age, tobacco use, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.48 One of the most common causes of an elevated CRP has been shown to be periodontal disease.

Daily Essential Process

What, exactly, qualifies as a toxin A toxin is a substance that has a detrimental effect on the functioning or structure of a living cell, with deleterious effects ranging from minimal to fatal to a host organism. Although there are tens of thousands of toxic substances that affect the human body adversely, they can be categorized into the following five general groups (1) toxic chemicals, (2) endotoxins and exotoxins, (3) heavy metals, (4) dietary breakdown products, and (5) products of altered metabolic homeostasis.

Rice Breeding Challenges in the 21st Century

World population continues to increase by 75 million peopleayear, anannualgrowthrateof1.3 , with 90 of this increase occurring in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Providing for population growth now requires an expansion in world grain production of 26 million tons per year. Moreover, owing to rising living standards, food habits are changing in many countries, particularly in Asia, and people are eating more high-value foods such as meat, eggs, and milk. This is driving the demand for grain at a rapid rate. A kilogram of beef produced in the feed-lot requires 7 kg of grain, a kilogram of pork needs 4 kg, and a kilogram of poultry needs just over 2 kg (Brown 1997).

Controlling Toxic Risk

Wellness is the state of existence that arises when health-sustaining homeostatic balance is gained and maintained. Individual and cumulative toxic exposures threaten this optimal homeostatic state. However, identifying and compensating for toxic exposure can minimize the detrimental effects of the exposure. General signs, symptoms, and risks that may indicate the presence of a high risk for toxic load include diabetes congestive heart failure obesity history of alcohol abuse psoriasis and other skin disorders heavy exposure to industrial or household chemicals frequent or recurrent use of medications use of hormonal therapy, including hormone replacements and oral contraceptives and disease states that alter liver, kidney, or GI functioning. Also, due to the sensitivity of the immune system, immunologic disorders may also be seen with toxic exposures such as autoimmune diseases, immune suppression, and chronic inflammation. The review below of the mechanisms of some of the most...

Anticarcinogenic Properties

The inhibitory activity of pomegranate seed oil (PGO) against colon cancer in rats was recently evaluated by Kohno et al.63 Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Western countries. As previously discussed, pomegranate seed oil is rich in punicic acid, c9,t11,c13-conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), which makes up about 75 of the total linolenic acid in PGO. In an earlier study, Kohno et al. demonstrated that feeding rats CLN, isolated from bitter gourd, causes a significant reduction in colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane.64 These authors suggested that dietary intake of CLN may have an inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis. Their results indicated that dietary administration of PGO rich in c9,t11,c13-CLN, even at the low dose of 0.1 CLN, significantly inhibits the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic adenocarcinoma in rats without causing any adverse effects. Such results may reflect the potential chemopreventive effect of PGO on...

Environmental impact and relative toxicology

Media coverage in recent years has suggested that pesticide residues in the human diet constitute an unacceptable risk and, simply, that any detectable residue is too high and potentially carcinogenic. This perceived hazard of pesticide use, however, seldom takes into account the presence of natural toxins in our food. Ames and colleagues (1990) have compared the abundance and toxicity of natural toxins with synthetic pesticides and have concluded that 99.99 of our dietary toxin intake is from natural foods. They have estimated that Americans consume 1.5 g of natural toxins each day in roasted coffee, potatoes, tomatoes, whole wheat, brown rice and maize, which is about 10,000 times more than the amount of pesticide residues consumed. Furthermore, surprisingly few of these natural toxins have been tested for carcinogenicity. Thus, Ames et al. (1990) concluded that the health hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant when compared to human...

Supporting Detoxification Within The Body

Using this overview and framework of principal mechanisms of liver detoxification, it is wise to focus on essentials for therapeutic intervention, ensuring that the proper balance between phases 1 and 2 detoxification stages is maintained. It is believed that up to 90 of cancer cases arise from the effects of exposure to environmental chemicals, such as those found in air pollution, tobacco, chemically contaminated food, and antimetabolites that deplete nutrients that are essential for proper detoxifyication.16,17 Therefore, choosing nutrients and botanical medicines to support detoxification can improve quality of life, alleviate acute signs and symptoms of excess toxic load, and confer protection over the course of a patient's life. The next sections cover key botanicals, nutrients, and dietary constituents that represent potential clinical interventions for treating acute or chronic cases of toxicity, depending on each patient's condition.

Nutritional Strategies for Prevention

Many of us have known, or will know, someone who suffers with colon cancer. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 73,182 men and 70,763 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and 27,990 men and 27,793 women died from colorectal cancer in 2003.1 Commonly recognized risk factors for colon cancer include obesity and low consumption of vegetables, fish, and whole-grain cereals.2 Additional risk factors include a genetic predisposition, as in the case of familial polyposis, and other conditions, such as chronic ulcerative colitis. This article reviews a portion of the growing evidence that nutrition and supplementation may have very significant roles to play in maintaining a healthy, cancer-free colon. Since it was first suggested that a high-fiber diet was protective against colon cancer,3 several potentially preventative mechanisms against cancer have been proposed and...

AGEs and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a medical condition characterized by central obesity, elevated triglycerides, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, low beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, increased inflammation, and insulin resistance. AGE accumulation and RAGE expression is correlated with the symptoms of this condition. A variant of RAGE known as endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) is believed to be a decoy receptor for AGEs and increased levels of esRAGE have been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, esRAGE levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and triglycerides.13 (See Chapter 24 on metabolic syndrome.)

Cadmium and Copper Uptake and Homeostasis

As important suppliers of dietary minerals for humans and animals, plants form a bridge between the soil elemental composition and the food chain. Consequently, contaminated soils with potentially toxic elements such as Cd and Cu may affect crop production and the food chain and, hence, human health (Cuypers et al. 2011a).

Chemical Composition and Inulin Chemistry

Jerusalem artichoke tubers contain little or no starch, virtually no fat, and have a relatively low calorific value. Of the small amount of fat present, trace amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported, but no saturated fatty acids (Whitney and Rolfes, 1999). The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic (18 2 cis, cis n-6) and a-linoleic acid (18 3 n-3) have been recorded as present at 24 mg and 36 mg-100 g-1 of raw tuber, respectively (Fineli, 2004). The tubers are a good source of dietary fiber, because of the presence of inulin.

Environmental and Lifestyle Factors

Although the conditions mentioned previously are all contributors to infertility, there are many other factors that appear in the environment and or that occur as a result of a person's lifestyle that may contribute to infertility. Among these are workplace hazards (chemical exposures), environmental toxins (endocrine disruptors), habits such as smoking or alcohol consumption, dietary factors (insufficient nutrition), oxidation, and even the type of underwear worn. Although these factors are not always indicated as causes of infertility, they must be considered to ascertain whether these factors contribute to a particular person's infertility.

Carotenoids and Plant Development

Carotenoid composition and plastid biogenesis, morphology and protein translocation (Lu et al. 2006 Cuttriss et al. 2007 Tzvetkova-Chevolleau et al. 2007). Understanding how carotenoids are sequestered within plastid types will ultimately improve metabolic engineering attempts to enhance a plant composition of essential dietary micronutrients, such as the carotenes.

Provisioning of nonwood forest products in diverse plantations

Information about the role of plantations in the provisioning of huntable animals is even scarcer, although large-bodied mammals and birds are a major source of dietary protein, in particular in many parts of the tropics (Robinson and Bennett, 2004). This lack of information is probably related to the scale of investigation, since the home range of many of these animals is defined by landscapes comprising a variety of land use and forest types, and where it is difficult to relate hunting and habitat preferences to particular landscape units such as plantations. The habitat quality for huntable animals is likely to depend on the structural diversity of plantation forests as well as the diversity of the landscape and the proportion of native ecosystems in the landscape (e.g. Nasi et al, 2008). One study, which investigated subsistence hunting patterns in a landscape with different land-use types in tropical Brazil, showed that most of the kills were sourced from primary forest (Parry et...

BCarotene and the Biosynthesis of Vitamin A

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading worldwide cause of preventable blindness, affecting 127 million children and 7 million pregnant women worldwide and increasing the risk of disease and death from severe infections (West 2003). Vitamin A (retinol) is generated from non-hydroxylated p-ring containing provitamin A carotenoids in the diet. Three carotenoids have provitamin A activity, namely p-carotene, a-carotene and p-cryptoxanthin. p-carotene is cleaved to form two retinals (vitamin A aldehyde) by human carotenoid cleavage enzymes such as p-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (von Lintig and Vogt 2000 Wyss et al. 2000). The deduced amino acid sequence of p-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase shows homology to the plant carotenoid cleavage enzymes, in particular, the viviparous 14 (Vp14) carotenoid dioxygenases from maize, which is involved in the synthesis of the stress responsive hormone ABA (Schwartz et al. 2003). Considerable health benefits could be obtained through the production of...

Female Hormonal Health So Much More Than Pms Or Menopause

Even in the new millennium, with all the technology and broad dissemination and free flow of information, many busy clinicians are still performing the same diagnostic hormonal workups that have been conducted for decades. Frequently, a few specific data points are targeted, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) or estradiol and progesterone. Yet, primary care practitioners have all been trained to realize that hormonal pathways are dependent upon homeostasis of other pathways to promote and sustain optimal health.1 Thus, it makes sense that examining the bigger hormonal picture, the lay of the land,'' so to speak, yields facts needed to maximize clinical outcomes. The common practice of examining select and narrow hormonal indices is akin to looking at a few trees within a forest and making ajudgment on the ecology of the entire forest. Until recently, affordable testing that provided a truly comprehensive look at a patient's hormonal profile was not...

Conclusions and Future Prospects

The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is now well understood. The major challenge is to provide insight into the regulatory aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis during nuclear transcription, protein translocation, plastid biogenesis and plant development. Understanding needs to be improved of how phytohormones, abiotic stress and metabolic feedback affect carotenoid composition and regulation. As knowledge of the regulatory processes increases, researchers will be able to make informed decisions about the effects of manipulating the pathway. This will allow the development of the next generation of crops which enhance and build upon the benefits of 'Golden Rice'. The result could entail significant health benefits for society by providing essential antioxidant micronutrients and vitamin A derivatives. As the health benefits from these crops can be obtained by changing the composition of foods already eaten without altering the eating habits of the consumer, they will have a much greater...

Sugar Calories and Energy

In addition to its flavor, which was the original reason for its popularity, sugar supplies an important nutritional factor in the form of energy. Sugar contains four calories per gram and one teaspoon of white table sugar (sucrose) weighs about 3.5 grams. The basic calorie requirement for maintaining life (respiration, circulation, muscle tone) varies between 750 and 1,630 per day in a state of complete rest. Intense muscular effort may require upwards of 7,000 calories during the day. Carbohydrates are an essential component of the human diet, and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for nutrients in the American diet have been established by the National Academy of Sciences. The RDAs suggest that the average dietary energy intake (in calories) should consist of 10 to 15 percent protein, 35 to 40 percent fat, and 45 to 50 percent carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, therefore, contribute the major part of the available energy in the human diet. In less-developed areas, it is not unusual...

Fructose and Short Chain Fructans

The characteristic inulin biochemistry of Jerusalem artichoke makes it an excellent source of fructose. Fructose is the sweetest of the natural sugars its sweetness is around 16 greater than sucrose (Shallenberger, 1993). Fructose syrups are widely used by the food industry. They have a high solubility in water, fewer calories than sucrose, and are less viscous. With these properties, fructose has gained in importance within the food processing industry as a sweetener. It is an ideal sugar for use in reduced-calorie foods, foods for diabetics, and products to combat obesity. A range of fructose-containing products can be obtained from Jerusalem artichoke, including sugar solutions, pure fructose syrup, and crystalline fructose.

Diet And Lifestyle Changes

Dietary and lifestyle interventions, without question, are the most challenging with regard to compliance for all patients. However, tackling the very patterns of behavior that have contributed to onset of a disease state is essential when reestablishing a health-promoting homeostasis. The maintenance and protection of the 60,000 miles of blood vessels that include 18,000 miles of capillaries are governed by what a person eats and how much that person exercises. Both a healthy diet and a consistent exercise routine are important keys to preventing and controlling hypertension. In a randomized and multicenter study published in 2004 of more than 800 patients, the group that was involved in increased physical activity, weight loss, and decreased sodium and alcohol intake had its baseline rate of hypertension cut by more than half.3 Moreover, a recent epidemiologic study assessing the contribution of Western society's common risk factors in hypertension found that physical inactivity...

Health Benefits Of Fruit Consumption

Current dietary guidelines recommend the inclusion in the daily diet of several servings of fruit due to their relatively low caloric value and negligible sodium, cholesterol, and fat (with the exception of almonds, which provide approximately 80 percent of energy as fat) (USDA, 2000). More important, the variety and combination of nutrients in fruit and vegetables are thought to have potential health Total dietary fiber benefits. Numerous epidemiological and some intervention studies indicate that increased consumption of fruit, nuts, and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of heart disease, cancer, and possibly other chronic diseases (Kris-Etherton et al., 1999 Ness and Powles, 1997 Steinmetz and Potter, 1996). Some of the potentially beneficial nutrients found in temperate tree fruit include dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherol, and phenolic compounds. Dietary fiber (both soluble and insoluble forms) Dietary fiber is important for...

An Evolutionary Proposal

Aged widespread recruitment of iron as a cofactor in biological redox chemistry. By contrast, under oxidizing conditions ferric iron is poorly soluble 9 . Today, all multi-cellular and, essentially, all single -cell organisms require iron for growth, despite the biological availability of iron being extremely limited by the insolubility of iron hydroxide. This is the reason why microbes synthesize low-molecular weight chelating agents, called siderophores, to bind and solubilize iron. Such ferric siderophore complexes are then transported into the bacteria by specific receptor proteins. In fact, competition for iron between a host and a bacterium is an important factor in determining the course of a bacterial infection. Because of that, different organisms utilize structurally varied siderophores to also competitively bind iron and gain selective growth advantages. Such competition even occurs in mammals where dietary iron is absorbed and bound to transferrin, the iron transport...

Flavonoids And Cardiovascular Diseases

Flavonoids compose the largest and the most studied group of plant phenolics. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been identified to date. Flavonoids are grouped into anthocyanins and anthoxanthins. Anthocyanins are glycosides of anthocyanidin, and they are the most important group of water-soluble plant pigments, responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors of flowers and fruits. Anthoxanthins are colorless or colored white-to-yellow, and include flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavans, and isoflavones. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants, and their activity is related to their chemical structure.118,119 Plant flavonoids can act as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation,120,121 or of macrophage oxidation.122 Dietary consumption of flavonoids was shown to be inversely related to morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease.123 Moreover, an inverse association between flavonoid intake and subsequent occurrence of ischemic heart disease, or cerebrovascular disease, was...

Pharmaceutical Scientist

As society's health care needs have changed and expanded, there has been an increased emphasis on the use of herbal remedies as dietary supplements or the search for new prescription drugs from natural sources such as microbes and plants. As a result, an increased number of pharmaceutical scientists hold doctoral degrees in natural products chemistry, pharmacognosy, or medicinal chemistry and are involved in biodiversity prospecting for the discovery of new medicines. At the turn of the twenty-first century there exists a shortage of specialists in this area, and they are in great demand if they are also trained in ethnobotany.

Essential Fatty Acids

Disease, increase the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, and decrease both nitrite production and the Th1-cell secretion of IFN-gamma.41 Quercetin, a dietary fla-vonoid found in many plants and known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, was found to attenuate EAE, and decrease IL-12-induced T-cell proliferation and Th1-cell differentiation.42 A further finding in MS has been that of low levels of the antioxidant nutrients beta-carotene, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid in serum or CSF.43

Natural Supports For Gaining And Maintaining Muscle Mass

Insulin resistance is a state in which the pancreas secretes increasingly higher levels of insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into skeletal, hepatic, and adipose tissue cells. Obesity, the most common cause of insulin resistance, is associated with a decreased number of receptors and with postreceptor failure to activate the tyrosine kinase. The beta subunitofthe insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase, which is activated when insulin binds to the alpha subunit the kinase activity autophosphorylates and mediates multiple actions of insulin. Specific glucose receptors in muscle and adipose tissue are poorly responsive to high levels of insulin in the blood. Moderate weight loss has been shown to reduce insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemia increases intracellular lipid accumulation, which, in turn, may increase insulin resistance. Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle has lower oxidative capacity and has decreased fatty-acid oxidation favoring lipid accumulation.3 In addition, high lipid...

Ferritins And Iron Accumulation In Seeds

Studies on the fate of Fe during the course of vegetative organs growth and development have evidenced the dynamic nature of this process. Iron concentration changes within organs, in a tissue specific manner, during the course of development. The role of ferritin as a transient Fe buffer for important Fe-dependent processes like photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation has been well documented in these developmental processes. Ferritins are also key proteins in long-term Fe storage, as evidenced by seed formation studies. An important amount of Fe is stored in pea seeds, and an increase in Fe uptake by the roots occurs at early stages of seed development (Lobreaux and Briat, 1991). Iron is also remobilized from vegetative organs to the seed. For example, it has been documented that leaf Fe can account for 20-30 of the total seed Fe content (Grusak, 1994 Hocking and Pate, 1978). In legumes such as soybean, it has been suggested that 40 to 60 of the seed Fe could come from nodules (Burton...

Naturopathic Approach To Treating Pain

Most importantly, from the perspective of removing the cause, physicians perhaps do their greatest service by altering the course of a person's health away from a protracted period of pain and concomitant disability. The first intervention involves setting a course for healing the tissues that are the source of the pain. Removing dietary perils that prevent the body from being in its optimum state of health includes limiting refined carbohydrates and optimizing protein, micronutrient, and fatty-acid intakes. Excess carbohydrate intake exerts a negative effect on insulin metabolism, provoking weight gain and the inflammatory cascade. Insufficient protein intake, at levels less than 30 of the recommended daily allowance (0.8 g of protein per kg of body weight per day), may limit repair and regeneration. An excess of foods that contain arachidonic acid, a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid, is a known promoter of inflammation,

The Effect Of Pomegranate Juice On Macrophage Atherogenicity

LDL oxidation by macrophages is considered to be the hallmark of early athero-genesis, and it is associated with cellular uptake of oxidatively modified LDL, leading to macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. We thus studied the effect of dietary consumption of PJ by E mice on macrophage athero-genicity, including macrophage lipid peroxidation and subsequently macrophage activities related to foam cell formation, such as cell-mediated oxidation of LDL and cellular uptake of lipoproteins.

Structure and Occurrence

Carotenoids are synthesized in the plastids of a plant cell and typically contain forty carbon atoms derived from eight subunits of the five-carbon compound, isoprene. Larger and smaller carotenoids do occur. Two categories of carotenoids occur in nature. These are the carotenes that contain only carbon and hydrogen, and the xanthophylls (also termed oxycarotenoids) that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Each carotenoid has its own distinctive color. Their chemical structure makes carotenoids very insoluble in water, but they are fat-soluble. Therefore they are usually associated with cell membranes and lipids, the primary water-insoluble component of cells. Some plant carotenoids occur as crystals in a protein matrix, and in some animals carotenoids occur with proteins. These animal carotenoproteins can be a very different color than their component carotenoids. For example, the carotenoprotein responsible for the distinctive blue color of some live lobsters breaks into a...

Commercial Importance

The color of food is an important variable contributing to its selection for consumption. Carotenoids in plant extracts such as red palm oil, saffron, annatto, and paprika have been used as food colors through much of history. More recently, industrially produced (synthetic) carotenoids have also been used as food color. Poultry, fish, and mammalian food animal diets also are frequently supplemented with natural or synthetic carotenoids to not only provide a dietary vitamin A source, but primarily to color meat and animal products and make them more appealing for consumers. Medicines and cosmetic products are often colored with carotenoids to enhance their appeal. see also Pigments Plastids.

Soybean protein is as good as animal protein

Soybean is the second largest source of protein, after lupin, for the vegetarian population of the world. On average, the protein content in commercial cultivars is approximately 40 , ranging from 34 to 48 depending upon the genotype, growing environment and cultural practices of the crop. Most of the soybean produce is processed for extraction of the oil and the resultant meal contains approximately 48 protein. Soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate are two widely used soy products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The former is soy flour devoid of soluble carbohydrates and contains about 70 protein, while the latter is soy flour devoid of both carbohydrates and dietary fibre and contains as high as 90 protein. Until 1990, according to protein quality evaluation methods, the protein efficiency ratio (based upon the requirement of young growing rats) of soy protein was considered inferior to that of animal protein. Subsequently, in 1991 the World Health Organization...

Functional Components

Effect (Cho et al., 2007) Anti-obesity (Rho et al., 2007) Fermented soy products are a rich source Black soybean is rich in anti-obesity peptides As methyl group inhibits the formation of homocysteine Synthesis of VLDL which transport dietary alcohol from liver Soy liposomes

Perspectives And Future Directions

All these antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols were demonstrated in vitro, as well as in vivo in humans and in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Dietary supplementation of pomegranate juice rich in polyphenols to patients with severe carotid artery stenosis or with diabetes168 or to atherosclerotic mice resulted in a significant inhibition in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, and this may be attributed to the protection against oxidation of lipids in the arterial wall as well as in serum. Furthermore, administration of pomegranate byproduct, which includes the whole pomegranate fruit left after juice preparation, to the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice reduced the atheroslerotic lesion size by up to 57 . Since a combination of antioxidants can provide a wider range of free-radical scavenging than an individual antioxidant, clinical and nutritional studies in humans should be directed toward the use of combinations of several...

The Immune System and Cancer Prevention

By boosting the immune system, it has been claimed that fructooligosaccharide supplements reduce the risk of colorectal cancer developing (Kowhi et al., 1978, 1982 Pool-Zobel et al., 2002). In mice and rats, for example, fructooligosaccharides reduced colon carcinogens and the occurrence of colon tumors (Pierre et al., 1997), while dietary inulin and fructooligosaccharides suppressed chemically induced tumors (Taper and Roberfroid, 2002) and reduced genotoxic damage to the colonic epithelium in rats (Rowland, 1998). The release of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, from fermenting inulin and fructooligosaccharides, may play a role in suppressing colon cancer. Butyrate has been shown to have a direct antiproliferation effect on tumor cells in vitro (Kruh, 1982), while the release of butyrate has been correlated with a protective effect against colon cancer in experimental studies with rats (Bornet, 2001 McIntyre et al., 1993). Moreover, inulin injections can prolong the survival of...

Overall Naturopathic Approach

One of the ways in which this dietary approach may have been beneficial to dieters was via the alteration of their gut flora. Stool samples from the 27 fasting vegetarian subjects and 26 controls were analyzed for their content of various fatty acids, which are components of the cell walls of intestinal bacteria. Significant changes were found between the fatty-acid profiles of dieters who were high-responders to the diet and those who were low-responders.''40 Hence, addressing GI integrity and ecology is essential when autoimmune-modulated responsiveness to potential antigens can serve as triggers. From a nutritional perspective, the prudent clinician must scrutinize GI health closely, for the alimentary tract is the most crucial boundary With regard to the study, there were no significant changes seen within the control group throughout the year. Within the dieting group, changes in fatty-acid profile, and thus changes in gut flora, were apparent at each of the stages of the diet...

Pigment Occurrence and Function

Animals rely on plant carotenoids as their ultimate source of all vitamin A. Some of the carotenoids, including beta-carotene, possess a chemical structure that allows them to be converted to vitamin A by animals that consume them. Some animals also derive their pigmentation from carotenoids. For example, pink flamingoes and yellow goldfish obtain their colors from dietary carotenoids.

Economic Importance of the Cell Wall

The cell wall is unmatched in the diversity and versatility of its economic uses. Lumber, charcoal, and other wood products are obvious examples. Textiles such as cotton and linen are derived from the walls of unusually long and strong fiber cells. Paper is likewise a product of long fiber cell walls that are extracted, beaten, and dried as a uniform sheet. Cellulose can be dissolved and regenerated as a manmade fiber called rayon or in sheets called cellophane. Chemically modified cellulose is used to make plastics, membranes, coatings, adhesives, and thickeners found in a vast array of products, from photographic film to paint, nail polish to explosives. In agriculture, cell walls are important as animal fodder, whereas in the human diet, cell walls are important as dietary fiber or roughage. Pectin is used as a gelling agent in jellies, yogurt, low-fat margarines, and other foods, while powered cellulose is similarly used as a thickener in foods and as an inert filler in medicinal...

Subcellular Partition of Metals

Over the past decades, chemistry-orientated models have been developed to predict the bio-availability and toxicity of metals focusing on identifying which metal forms are present in the aquatic environment, and investigating their interaction with the biological site of action (Paquin et al. 2002). The free ion activity model (FIAM) relied on the free metal ion activity and assumed that uptake from solution was determined by the availability of free metal ions, whereas the biotic ligand model (BLM), which is an extension of the FIAM, assumes that the effect is proportional to the concentration of metal bound to the target site (biotic ligand) and that this site is in direct contact with the external environment. These models perform well in the prediction of metal bioavailability in waterborne exposures of aquatic organisms, but also for plants (Antunes et al. 2006). When considering the contribution of the dietary route of metal exposure the gut instestine can also act as a biotic...

Bioactivity of Aloe arborescens preparations

Arborescens refers to the tree-like habit and A. arborescens var. natalensis (Kidachi aloe in Japanese, which is also called 'doc-buster'), is naturalized on the west coast (West Sonogi penisula in Nagasaki) and the south coast (Izu penisula and Shikoku island) of Japan. A. arborescens hybridises readily with other species of Aloe with which it co-occurs. Morphologically, it is hard to discriminate A. arborescens from A. arborescens var. natalensis, and we are studying a phylogenetic analysis of Aloe species in an internal transcribed spacer 1 in A. arborescens and A. arborescens var. natalensis. The results up indicate a high sequence similarity matrix between them (unpublished data). The preparations from Kidachi aloe gel are not as popular as those of A. vera gel on the market in the U.S.A., because the gel part of Kidachi aloe leaf (leaf length, width and thickness are 200 X 50 X 20 mm on average) is comparatively smaller than the rind part and it is difficult to separate only the...

Coffeefunctional Food And Medicinal Herb

Noteworthy is that this discussion focuses on the benefits of coffee from a botanical perspective. The social use of coffee in its modified forms latte or ''mocha,'' where dairy and sugary flavors are added, are clear sources of empty calories. For diabetics and weight management many a clinician will find in discussion with their patients that indeed an enlarging waistline, reactive hypoglycemia, and increased blood sugars do not implicate coffee, but the chosen delivery of this therapeutic food ''a la empty calories.''

Pregnancy indications

There appears to be a common misconception among patients and some practitioners alike that the terms safe and natural are interchangeable (Boon et al., 1999). Consequently, many women are inclined to believe that natural remedies are safer than pharmaceutical drugs (O'Hara et al., 1998). This perceived safety of natural products over manufactured drugs could increase the potential for adverse effects in both the mother and her developing fetus. This is due to the fact that many women initiate treatment with supplements such as Echinacea without obtaining medical advice they either self-prescribe or take the advice of others. An added potential for concern is posed by the fact that many consumers may be unaware that unlike conventional medications, herbal products such as Echinacea are not under enforced regulations by the Food and Drug Administration. To further complicate matters, every country differs in their regulatory laws regarding these products. For example, minimal...

Bioaccumulation And Trophic Transfer Of Trace Elements

Bioaccumulation of trace elements in receptor biota and humans through food is essentially related to trophic transfer of trace elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Increasingly, sophisticated analytical methods such as stable isotope analysis are being used to resolve food chain structure and define trophic position of biota in the food web 13,14 . Trophic transfer of trace elements within the food web has been demonstrated by relating the metal levels in the dietary components with those assimilated by animals 15 indices such as bioaccumulation, bioconcentration, and biomagnification factors have been routinely used to estimate trophic transfer in the food chains 16 .

Bioaccumulation in Planktonic Organisms and Aquatic Invertebrates

Differences in trace metal contents in tissues of different prawn species have been attributed to habitat differences (estuarine, marine, etc.) and also to contaminant levels and dietary shifts due to change in habitat types 118-121 . Changes in the trace element content in body tissues of aquatic biota have also been attributed to seasonal differences. Rapid growth of aquatic invertebrates at relatively high temperature leads to low concentration of non-essential metals such as Cd and Pb due to growth dilution. In penaid prawn (Metapenaeopsis palmensis) found in tropical coastal waters of Hong Kong, growth dilutes the Cd body concentration 122 . In contrast, typical Cd concentration in temperate caridean species is higher due to slower growth rates 123 .

Bioaccumulation in Fish and Trophic Transfer

Burger et al. 135 estimated trace element levels (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, and Sr) in 11 species of fish occupying different trophic levels with varied dietary habits. They found that species-specific differences existed in all the species studied with respect to all the trace elements. Bowfin and channel fish (both piscivores) had the highest level of all the elements except Mn and Sr. They also found that trophic relationships alone were not able to account for the elemental concentration in different fish species and suggested that metal levels in fish may also reflect age older and larger fish have higher levels of trace elements. Such a correlation has been seen for mercury 146 .

Human Exposure To Trace Elements

Exposure of the human population to trace elements occurs from multiple media (water, air, soil) and food. Estimation of exposure to trace elements from food is extremely complex due to varied dietary habits of human populations. Factors that influence dietary intake include age, sex, race,

Increased demand for livestock feed protein from soybean

The increased sourcing of livestock feed protein from soybean has been associated with an increased commercialization of pork and poultry production that demands a higher minimum quality of feedstuffs in terms of energy and protein content (USDA, 2005). As the livestock industry grows to meet the increasing demand for livestock products, the use of soybean meal in feed (especially for pig, chicken and rabbit production) is also becoming more important in response to changes in dietary habits and shifts in tastes and consumer preferences (Nakamura, 1961 USDA, 2005). Protein for animal feed manufacturing is increasingly sourced from soybean meal instead of fish meal, as has been the case in the past (Nakamura, 1961 Mwasha, 2006 Zulu, 2006). The problems with sourcing livestock feed proteins from fishmeal include high levels of bacterial (e.g. Salmonella) contamination, which causes serious production problems in poultry (diseases can lead to 100 mortality in poultry farms, about 50...

Applications of modified levels of plant PDglucans

Officinarum), while numerous forage and fodder grass species support the production of sheep, cattle and other domesticated livestock. Maize (Zea mays) is also used widely for animal feed, while switchgrass (Panicum virga-tum) and other perennial grasses are showing considerable promise as future biomass energy crops in North America (McLaren 2005 Burton et al. 2006 ). In the areas of human health, the (1,3 1,4)-P -d- glucans are components of dietary fibre that are highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of serious human health conditions, including colorectal cancer, high serum cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes (Brennan & Cleary 2005). In contrast, (1,3 1,4)-P-d-glucans have antinutritive effects in monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry (Brennan & Cleary 2005), and are important in many cereal processing applications, including malting and brewing.

Sources And Distributions Of Trace Metals In Manure

Animals ingest trace metals through consuming plant materials however, dietary metal requirements may not be met because of low metal concentrations in the feed sources. In many cases, the absorption and bioavailability of the trace metals by livestock are low consequently, trace minerals have traditionally been supplemented to animal diets to ensure an adequate supply. Unfortunately, trace metals are frequently supplemented in amounts that exceed the daily recommended intake amount 41 . For example, daily dietary concentrations of 150 to 250 mg kg Cu2SO4 and 2500 to 3000 mg kg ZnSO4 (more than 25 times the minimum requirement) have been reported to stimulate swine growth 42,43 . On an international scale, the U.S. National Research Council recommends between 3.5 and 6.0 mg Cu kg in the daily diet of swine (piglets to finishing pigs). However, Europe's current recommendation through Directive 70 534 EEC allows maximum Cu levels between 35 and 175 mg kg 41 . Current European...

Reasons for increases in the price of soybean products

Meal have increased dramatically over the last decade (i.e. between 2000 and 2010). Prices of soybean oil and soybean-based foods have also increased, due mainly to increasing dietary health in high-income countries. The increasing soybean prices have also been driven by rising incomes and the consequent higher demand for livestock products and dietary health concerns that increase demand for vegetable-based diets and fibre-rich foods. declined slightly in response to increasing dietary health and livestock-related food safety concerns. Soybean is perceived as having health benefits that address these concerns. In the USA, the Federal Food and Drug Administration allows foods containing 5 g of soybean protein per serving to be labelled as reducing heart disease (Ash et al., 2006). The use of high amounts of soy protein (soy isoflavones) in fortified foods and supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis is growing rapidly.

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

Obesity prevention, and exercise.10 Mild to moderate alcohol intake, particularly red wine, has been shown to be protective.11 However, one does not need to look far for the basic causes of metabolic syndrome. All four conditions (obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia) can be linked to one related cause poor dietary choices, namely, imbalanced consumption of simple carbohydrates. Thus, the main treatment for metabolic syndrome is dietary therapy. One study in women with a family history of cardiovascular disease, following a low-GI diet for four weeks, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity after a glucose challenge and increased glucose uptake in isolated fat cells. Even in lean young adults, a low-GI diet reduced muscle triglycerides, a marker of insulin resistance.12 In addition, consuming high levels of high-glycemic carbohydrates causes enhanced appetite and a tendency to overeat.13,14 However, a complete reversal of consuming refined carbohydrates...

Natural Therapies To Preserve And Enhance Cognition And Memory

For many patients, one of the most disturbing prospects of aging is the possibility of a decreasing ability to recall desired memories and comprehend new information and stimuli. This is understandably a very real concern considering the reports that in 2007, there are now more than 5 million people in the United States living with Alzheimer's disease, and it is estimated that the prevalence could reach 7.7 million people with this disease by 2030. Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death for individuals over the age of 65. Additionally, the direct and indirect costs of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias amount to more than 148 billion annually.1 It is safe to estimate that less-severe mental deterioration is substantially more prevalent. This chapter explores some of the simplest interventions, such as modest dietary changes and botanical and supplemental interventions. Essential to maintaining cognitive...

Bryophytes as food and as shelter

While bryophytes thus offer appropriate habitat conditions for a variety of invertebrates, direct consumption appears to be remarkably low. Although some invertebrates tolerate or circumvent the chemical defences of bryophytes and feed on them (Longton 1992, Parker et al. 2000), they most often display a strong dietary preference for angiosperms when confronted with a feeding choice (Smith et al. 2001). Snails forced to feed on moss suffer a significant weight loss (Oyesiku & Ogunkolade 2006). Similarly, although accidental ingestion may occur, thereby enhancing dispersal by endozoo-chory (Section 6.2.2.2), vertebrate herbivores have never been shown to graze heavily on mosses, except in Arctic regions. This can result locally in a dominance of bryophytes over grasses in heavily grazed habitats, as shown, for example, in Welsh oakwoods (Rieley et al. 1979).

The bean with an ideal ratio of n6 to n3

Apart from rapeseed (Brassica species) and canola (Brassica campestris) oil, soybean oil is the important source of a-linolenic acid (n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid, for vegetarians, among various vegetable oils available on the global market. The dietary intake of linoleic and linolenic acid needs to be well balanced and the ratio of n-6 n-3 should be around 5 1 this is near to human cell membranes, as indicated in a clinical study (Chan et al., 1993). An imbalance in the n-6 n-3 ratio has been suggested as a cause of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, CVD and osteoporosis (Simopoulos et al., 1999). Therefore, the hype that arose around the total dietary intake of PUFA during 1980s has subsided and the type of PUFA, rather than total PUFA, is currently being emphasized. The Paleolithic diet of Homo sapiens (i.e. green plants, fruits, vegetables and grains) had equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (Eaton and Konner, 1985). With the opening of oilseed processing units at the turn...

Salacia reticulata Wight

A study reported that lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects of hot water-soluble extract from the roots of S. reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents in rats. A randomized single center double blind crossover trial, studied the efficacy of an herbal tea containing S. reticulata (Kothala Himbutu tea) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for longer than 6 mon and with evidence of stable glycemic control over the preceding 6 mon (as assessed by HbA1C) participated in the study. They were randomized to receive a standard preparation of Kothala Himbutu tea for 3 mon followed by placebo in similar tea bags for a further 3 mon (n 28) or in reverse order (n 23). All patients received detailed advice on diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. HbA1C was measured at recruitment, at 3 mon and on completion of the study at 6 mon. Liver and renal functions were assessed biochemically at baseline, at 3...

L temulentum in History and Literature

Darnel was not only all too familiar to people in the early modern period as a dietary threat and a potential (although highly problematic) medicine or 'simple', it was also, as a malign mimic of cereals, a frequent literary trope for subversion and treasonous behaviour. This tradition in part derives from the long-standing use of darnel in religious writings and scriptural exegesis, where the wheat in the Biblical parable (Matthew 13 24-30, 36-43 King James Version) represents the godly and faithful (those who read the Bible 'correctly'), even as tares (darnel - Table 3) stands for the heretic and schismatic (who read the Bible 'incorrectly'). The herbal of Levinus Lemnius (1587) is an example of the way in which early modern discourses of religion and politics come together in the shape of darnel. The coupling of religious and political sedition is reflected in the following example from William Gamage (1613)

Huntsmans Horns Sweet Trumpets and Cobra Lilies

I've put all the taller carnivorous plants in this particular chapter for a reason. For one thing, because they are tall they require extra space for growing to their destined dimensions for another, because their cultural life shies are similar. And finally, because they have similar insect attracting, catching, and eating habits. After all, when you've studied several hundred thousand over the years, and observed so many more from coast to coast and overseas, you just naturally develop patterns with these carnivorous plant friends.

Natural Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Elevated blood sugar has been shown to cause several physiological reactions in the body leading to disease states. One of these reactions involves adding sugars to molecules, a process known as glycosylation. Advanced glycosylation end products'' (AGEs) are formed by the attachment of reducing sugars onto biological proteins. This reaction is irreversible causing these proteins with sugars attached to accumulate over time. One well-known example of AGEs is hemoglobin A1C, which is frequently measured to evaluate long-term blood sugar control in diabetics. It is proposed that AGE formation is a normal physiological process that functions as a signal for recognition of old molecules to be broken down and excreted by the kidneys. With increasing age, the excretion of these molecules decreases. AGE formation and accumulation is greatly accelerated with high levels of circulating sugars and oxidative stress seen in conditions such as diabetes.2 A study was performed with individuals...

Trophic Ecotoxicology of Cd Accumulation

)n another study, Notten et al. (2005) examined an area with elevated soil metal concentrations, where the most dominant plant species was the stinging nettle Urtica dioica. This species contained very low metal concentrations, far below the maximum values found in plants from non-polluted sites. Nevertheless, the herbivore snail feeding on these plants, Cepaea nemoralis, contained high metal concentrations (Notten et al. 2005). Cadmium in particular was accumulated to very high levels, with consequent negative effects on reproduction (Notten et al. 2005, 2006). Dietary accumulation of Cd has also been demonstrated in aphids. In an examination of the trophic movement of Cd and zinc (Zn) between wheat grown on Cd-contaminated soils and aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion ave-nae), aphids were demonstrated to bioaccumulate both Cd and Zn up to ten times the concentrations in wheat (Merrington et al. 1997a, b).

Health Benefits of Carotenoid Derived Vitamins and Nutrients

Processes which control an individual plant's production of these health-promoting micronutrients. They are generally classified into fat and water soluble vitamins, depending on their biochemical properties. The group of fat soluble vitamins consists of provitamin A (typically a- or p-carotene), vitamins D (calciol), E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and K1 (phylloquinone). The water soluble class of vitamins include vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin, nicotinamide, folate and pantothenate), B6 (pyridoxal), B12 (cobalamine), C (ascorbate) and H (biotin). A dietary sufficiency of these essential micronutrients is not typically a major hurdle for residents of wealthy nations. They can be obtained from a balanced diet or via vitamin and mineral supplements. However, people from developing nations rely upon only a few staple crops, such as rice, maize, wheat and cassava, all of which are poor sources of essential nutrients. Even if people consume large quantities of these foods, they...

Applications Of Nodule Proteomics

Legumes are unique in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic relationships with rhizobia, resulting in accumulation of high protein content in the host plants and the portioning of nitrogen in the soil (Lei et al., 2007). In the current global environmental scenario, these are only legumes that can supply dietary protein needed by millions of mouth. Unfortunately, commercial legumes, such as soybean and alfalfa, have large

Applications Of Raw Honey

It is a living, organic, instant energy building food, an antioxidant containing all the essential minerals necessary for life seven vitamins of the B complex group, amino acids and enzymes. Honey goes into the blood stream in 15 minutes. Honey produces more energy than its weight and in doing so it uses part of the accumulated fat and cholesterol. It therefore is excellent in any weight reduction plan.

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar is not properly taken up into cells. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. The uptake of glucose into the body's cells is controlled by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is due to the pancreas failing to produce sufficient insulin. It is often caused by genetic factors. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond very efficiently to the insulin produced. It is associated with obesity, overnutrition, excess dietary fat and sugar, and other factors. Type 2 diabetes accounts for around 90 of all diabetes. Both types of diabetes are treated by the injection of insulin, which acts to reduce the blood glucose concentration by facilitating the uptake of glucose by the cells in type 1 diabetes, and by supplementing the body's insulin in type 2 diabetes. Over 18 million adults in the U.S. have diabetes (CDC, 2006), and over 170...

Pomegranate Phytochemicals

The major source of dietary pomegranate phytochemicals is the fruit. Pomegranates are popularly consumed as fresh fruit, as beverages (e.g., juices and wines), as food products (e.g., jams and jellies), and as extracts wherein they are used as botanical ingredients in herbal medicines and dietary supplements. Commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) is obtained by a hydrostatic pressing process of whole fruits whereby two predominant types of polyphenolic compounds are extracted into PJ flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs).32 The flavonoids include flavonols such as luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol found in the peel extract17 and anthocyanins found in the arils.14,15 Anthocyanins are the water-soluble pigments responsible for the bright red color of PJ. Pomegranate anthocyanins include pelargonidin-3-gluco-side, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside14,15 (Table 1.1). Recently, there has...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Chronic hyperinsulinemia is intimately linked to diet, lifestyle, and the development of a hormonal profile that correlates with increased breast cancer and hormone-related disease risk. What is noteworthy is the ability of insulin to inhibit hepatic synthesis of SBHG and enhance ovarian production of androgens.12-14 Addressing the cause of hyperinsulinemia is a significant clinical intervention, thus lowering the adverse risk associated with this hormonal disturbance. Overweight women with high intra-abdominal fat stores have a particular risk for developing breast cancer as a result of hormone-modifying factors, including insulin resistance, increased insulin levels and insulin-like growth factor-I, low serum levels of SBHG, and high sexhormone levels.15-18 DIETARY INTERVENTIONS FOR HORMONE MODULATION Isoflavone- and Indole-Rich Foods Dietary interventions, particularly phytoestrogen-rich foods,19,20 can help to control and modulate the availability of sex hormones. These...

Soy Food Industry and Market in India

The major food uses of soybean in India are currently edible oils, TSP, flours, bakery products, milk paneer (tofu), soy protein concentrate iso-lates hydrolysates, lecithin and others. There is a need is to create an awareness about soy products and their benefits and make such products available on the market through small-scale decentralized soy food processing enterprises. Domestic-level processing and utilization of soybean for food and feed needs to be given priority, especially in the rural sector. Central and state developmental agencies may come forward to form an implementation plan. The hardware and technology are available to create a number of soy foods that match with Indian food recipes and food habits. Despite possessing a number of good features, soybean is associated with a few constraints for food uses. These are the beany flavour of soy food products and the oxidative instability of soybean oil. So far, two major approaches have been used to overcome these...

Quality issues with echinacea products

Not long after this publication, ConsumerLab.com, an independent evaluator of dietary supplements, released the results of its product review of Echinacea products (ConsumerLab.com, 2001). Eleven of 25 Echinacea products available on the U.S. market (i.e., 44 per cent) did not pass the criteria set by ConsumerLab.com for its quality review. Six products did not provide sufficient label information to identify the amount and form of Echinacea used or the species or plant part used (a Food and Drug Administration requirement), and were dropped from further testing. Four products had insufficient levels of marker compounds and one product exceeded the World Health Organization limit for microbial contamination.

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

Direct grazing of Pos idonia is relatively unimportant in temperate Australian waters, as evidenced by considerable empirical data, with the large number of dietary studies of fishes and invertebrates in temperate beds consistently indicating an extremely low proportion of species that directly consume Posi-donia material (Klumpp et al., 1989). The only temperate Australian fishes known to ingest large quantities of seagrass are the garfish Hyporhamphus melanochir and the leatherjackets Meuschenia fr-eycineti, Monacanthus chinensis, Meuschenia tra-chylepis, and Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus (Bell etal., 1978a,b, 1987 Robertson and Klumpp, 1983 Edgar and Shaw, 1995b), while the crab Nectocarci-nus integrifrons is also a Posidonia grazer (Klumpp andNichols, 1983 Edgar, 1996). Studies on the food web structure in Posidonia beds (by the direct observation of dietary linkages through gut content analysis or by indirect analysis dietary tracers lipids and other biochemical markers (Klumpp...

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Diseases

There are several factors that increase the risk of developing CVD. These risk factors may be nonmodifiable, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease, race (black, aborginal), and age.1,3,19 However, many of the risk factors for heart attack and stroke are indeed modifiable with changes in behavior, drugs, or diet. Eighty percent of the Canadian population has at least one modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.3 Smoking is the single most important cause of preventable illness and premature death for Canadians.3 Other risk factors that can be controlled are diabetes and obesity (or metabolic syndrome20,21), sedentary lifestyles, stress, hypertension,3,10 and dyslipidemia.3,8 Thus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease can be attenuated by increases in physical activity, smoking cessation, controlling diabetes with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, controlling hypertension with various antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering therapy with drugs, and...

Natural Treatments For Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X or cardiovascular metabolic syndrome, is comprised of hyperlipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol), central (abdominal) obesity, hypertension, and concomitant insulin re-sistance glucose intolerance. Although no specific cause-and-effect relationship has been established, the outcomes of these associative factors are significantly increased risks for developing diabetes and heart disease. Eric S. Freedland, M.D., a senior editor of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders1 based in Boston, Massachusetts, notes that the escalating worldwide epidemic of metabolic syndrome affects each of us either directly or indirectly. It demands multidisciplinary efforts and cooperation to e nsure better understanding of its causes and to develop effective approaches to preventing and treating its associated conditions.'' Using a sample of 3,477 Mexican-American, 3,305 African-American, and 5,581...

Doses of Salacia based preparations

All the three species of Salacia have demonstrated alpha-glucosidase inhibiting activity like acarbose, with salacinol and kotalanol, as possible active principles. These studies have provided insights into potential protective and anti-obesity roles of Salacia species also. Some animal studies have demonstrated that Salacia might have antidiabetic action like conventional PPAR-gamma activators. Clinical trials have also reported efficacy of Salacia species in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Toxicity data shows this herb is devoid of genotoxic and teratogenic effect but it should be avoided during pregnancy.

Inulin and Bone Health

Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density that causes the bones, especially in postmenopausal women, to become fragile and vulnerable to fracture. It is a growing global problem, which can be alleviated by dietary approaches. Calcium is a key factor in bone strength. By optimizing peak bone mass in early adulthood and by minimizing bone loss during the postmenopausal period, the risk, for example, of hip fracture can be significantly reduced. Improved calcium nutrition during development is critical and can reduce hip fracture rates later in life by around 50 (Coxam, 2005). In Japan, where mineral deficiency can be a nutritional problem, the beneficial effects of fructooligosaccharides on calcium absorption have been recognized in the labeling on dietary supplements since 1999 (Hidaka et al., 2001).

Allelopathic Plant Materials

The lowest dosage of 1 concentration (10 g L-1) may seem high, but is similar to that widely used for therapeutic purposes. Earlier studies have shown that water hyacinth was relatively tolerant to allelochemicals, as 100 ppm of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was required to cause death, whereas 50 ppm concentration was sufficient for other weeds (Pandey, 1996b). Similarly, fungal oxalates and pure oxalic acid that caused considerable and severe chlorosis in other aquatic weeds induced only slight chlorosis in water hyacinth (Charudattan and Lin, 1974). Under these circumstances, a crude extract of a safe medicinal herb C. amboinicus, causing death of water hyacinth within 9 days, might offer an effective control strategy. Further, a stable inhibitory response caused by C. amboinicus powder applied to cut leaves of water hyacinth under controlled conditions in static water at dosages ranging from 30 g L-1 down to 1.0 g L-1 reduced fresh weight from 61 to 49 respectively, suggesting that C....

The Japanese health food and nutrition food association JHNFA

JHNFA is a public service corporation approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare and was established in 1980 with the aim of encouraging people to develop and maintain healthy dietary habits. JHNFA recognized 47 business items including 1081 commodities as health foods until March, 2000. Both Aloe arborescens and Aloe vera processed preparations were registered with the serial number of 44 as a health food by JHNFA on March, 1997. What follows is a public announcement about the standard of Aloe arborescens processed food and the standard of Aloe vera processed food translated by Prof. Dr Yagi.

Decrease in Biodiversity

The effect of intensified and extended agriculture on the diversity of species can be seen worldwide. It is a direct consequence of increasing populations as well as of changes in food habits, including increased meat consumption which requires more animal feed (only 5 of N eaten by animals is converted into meat). Despite all attempts to increase agricultural production, cereal production per head of the world population (Fig, 5.5.3 A WBGU 1999) is decreasing at present. With increasing scarcity of food, the scope for reduction of agricultural expansion is very limited, as is the scope for the stabilisation and protection of climate, and also for the

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

Soybean, being rich in protein and calories, has a great potential to tackle the problem of protein-calorie malnutrition from which many people in India and other developing countries suffer. Soybean contains twice as much protein as pulses, groundnut, meat and fish three times as much as eggs and more than ten times that of milk. In addition, soybean is the most economical source of dietary protein in the world and is superior to other plant proteins. Soybean does not contain lactose. Hence, soy milk and other dairy analogues are best suited to lactose-intolerant people. Soybean is also a very good food source for those with diabetes. Overall, soybean is an environment-friendly crop that is needed for better global health. India has a population of > 1100 million people. The majority (65-70 ) are vegetarians who derive their proteins from pulses, cereals and milk and to some extent from oilseeds such as groundnut, sesame and soybean. In general, the quality of the protein eaten by...

Iron requirements in animals

Dietary iron requirements (mg kg of diet dry matter) in different animal classes (adapted from NRC 1981, NRC 1985, NRC 1989, NRC 1994, NRC 1996, NRC 1998, NRC 2001). _ Table 1-2. Dietary iron requirements (mg kg of diet dry matter) in different animal classes (adapted from NRC 1981, NRC 1985, NRC 1989, NRC 1994, NRC 1996, NRC 1998, NRC 2001). _

Heci Yu and Matti Kaarlas

During the last decade, along with growing interest in CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) therapy and changes in the regulation of dietary supplements, Echinacea has become one of the most popular herbal medicines throughout the Western countries, particularly in Europe and in North America, its original source (Asher et al., 2001 Barrett, 2003 Borchers et al., 2000 Kessler et al., 2001 Kligler, 2003). Echinacea is also becoming popular in Australia (Wilkinson and Simpson, 2001). In North Africa, South America, and China, people are also paying increasing attention to this herb (Berti et al., 2002 Dou et al., 2001 El-Gengaihi et al., 1998 Hevia et al., 2002 Li et al., 2002 Luo et al., 2003 Shalaby et al., 1997a, b Wang et al., 2002 Zhang et al., 2001).

Phytochemical and Nutritional Prevention and Treatment

The American Heart Association (AHA) identifies increasing age, male gender, and heredity as uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease. Tobacco smoking, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity overweight, and diabetes are modifiable risk factors for heart disease. Other negative risk factors identified by the AHA as contributory to heart disease include stress levels and responses, sex hormones, birth control pills, and excessive alcohol intake.3 Despite the acknowledgment of this problem and intense educational efforts in this country to make people aware of CVD, large numbers of people are continually diagnosed each year in this country and the in rest of the world.

Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Animals and Trophic Transfer

Differences in the exposure of animals to trace elements arise due to differences in habitat home range temporal patterns of a species behavioral pattern, particularly foraging behavior food chain effects and spatial distribution of animal populations. Because habitat characteristics affect the home range of animal species, it becomes an important factor in determining the amount of exposure to trace elements. Attuquayefio et al. 59 found that small mammals inhabiting unproductive ecosystems had significantly larger home ranges than those inhabiting productive and species-rich habitats. It is well known that heavy metal-contaminated habitats have low primary productivity, which could probably result in animals foraging in adjacent areas where contamination is low and the abundance of food is greater. The consequential dilution of trace metals intake can lead to lack of correlation between dietary metal intake and the body tissue concentration. Exposure to trace elements such as Cd and...

Phytomedicine and cancer

Recently, numerous reviews of plant derived chemo preventive compounds have identified their role in the treatment of cancer. The chemo preventive compounds, precisely known as phytopharmaceuticals, are dietary ingredients, which being food derived, are considered pharmacologically safe. Some of the common chemo- preventive dietary compounds derived from dietary ingredients are depicted in Fig. 6.11. Fig.6.11 Common chemo- preventive dietary compounds. Source Jonathan (2005). Fig.6.11 Common chemo- preventive dietary compounds. Source Jonathan (2005).

Gastrointestinal Health Oral Mucositis

Glutamine supplementation can help prevent GI toxicity induced by chemotherapy and radiation, thereby assisting normal GI function.4 In animal models, glutamine supplementation reduced whole-body protein breakdown rate during chemotherapy in tumor-bearing rats. In addition, glutamine supplementation in patients with esophageal cancer demonstrated enhanced lymphocyte mitogenic function and reduced permeability of the intestines during radiochemotherapy.5 Glutamine is a preferential metabolic substrate for the enterocytes and is thought to play a regulatory role in the intestinal tissue by influencing cellular proliferation and differentiation.6 As a result, the GI tract is the largest consumer of glutamine in the body7 suboptimal dietary amounts of glutamine can lead to atrophic changes, including ulceration and necrosis of the intestinal tissue.

Probiotics Prebiotics and Bifidobacteria

A number of health benefits attributed to Jerusalem artichoke tubers in human and animal diets are related to its role as a promoter of probiotic activity in the large intestine. Probiotics have been a dietary element for thousands of years. However, the term probiotic only gained its current usage By promoting bifidobacteria and other beneficial microorganisms, prebiotics help to suppress harmful microorganisms through competitive inhibition. Thriving populations of beneficial bacteria can outcompete other bacteria for nutritional resources and adhesion sites on epithelial cells lining the intestinal wall. Good adhesion is important to prevent bacteria being removed by host secretions and intestinal flow the attachment ability of different Bifidobacterium species is correlated with their ability to colonize the large intestine (Crociani et al., 1995). Bifidobacteria also release antibacterial agents, as a result of fermenting inulins (Gibson and Wang, 1994). Lactobacilli secrete...

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