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Dietary Interventions

Dietary interventions can be an important modality in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The traditional Mediterranean diet has been shown to benefit individuals with cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by moderate energy intake, low animal fat, high fish intake, high olive oil, high cereals, high legumes, nuts and vegetables, and regular and moderate wine intake. In a recent randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial, 372 subjects at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet, a traditional Mediterranean diet plus virgin olive oil, or traditional Mediterranean diet plus nuts. After three months, the mean oxidized LDL levels decreased in both Mediterranean diet groups, while no changes in oxidized LDL was seen in the low-fat diet group.82 Another study examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet in individuals with a high risk of cardiovascular disease on cardiovascular inflammatory markers. The study showed that a higher consumption of fruits...

Dietary Interventions In Diabetes Mellitus

Dietary modifications can be a powerful tool for preventing and treating diabetes. If, for example, a clinician is treating a patient who is at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes before symptoms of hyperinsulinemia and or hyperglycemia become acute, this is an excellent opportunity to emphasize the potential benefit of cereal fiber. In a large prospective study of 65,173 females over six years, researchers looked for associations between the glycemic index of subjects' diets and their risk of developing type 2 diabetes.60 A glycemic index is an indication of a food's potential to raise blood glucose and the demand the food creates for insulin. Foods with a high glycemic index generally include items such as white bread, mashed potatoes, white rice, and cola beverages. More intermediate-range glycemic foods are items such as apples and orangejuice. Low-glycemic foods are generally those that maintain their natural unprocessed fibers, such as broccoli and peanut butter. In this...

Dieting for Weight Loss

Dieting, adhering to a calorically stringent diet, may be detrimental to fertility in two ways 1. Dramatic weight loss, especially when accompanied by excessive physical activity, can predispose women to amenorrhea. Although body weight and composition (fat versus muscle) are considered important for maintaining regular menstrual cycles, no single determinant of regularity is known at this time. Severe malnutrition, which can occur at times of intense caloric restriction, is known to result in amenorrhea and anovulation, among other ill effects. 2. Weight loss through less-drastic means that achieves a loss of 30 or more of body fat can also lead to menstrual irregularities and then amenorrhea.11 Patients who have participated in weight-loss programs aggressively may find it easier to become pregnant once some weight is gained back individuals vary widely in this respect. also depress hormone levels to an extent that an insufficiently sized corpus luteum fails to sustain an early...

Soy in Weight Management and Cosmetics

Obesity has become an important issue in some parts of the world as it leads to development of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CVD, with care costing a large part of the national health-care budget of the countries such as the UK and the USA. Studies have shown that a soy diet results in weight loss in women (Cope et al., 2007 Maskarinec et al., 2008). The weight-reducing property of soybean has been attributed to the low glycemic index (Blair et al., 2006) and high calcium concentration (Lukaszuk et al., 2007) present in soy foods. Furthermore, soy protein has been reported to regulate insulin levels by stimulating the adiponectin (Lihn et al., 2005) and activating the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (Morifuji et al., 2006). This may impact obesity, as a high concentration of insulin has been found to be a major cause of obesity.

Current research on dietary phytochemicals

Dietary phytochemicals are also known as phytonutrients. Phytonutrients are nutrients derived from plant material that have been shown to be necessary for sustaining human life (distinction form phytochemicals). About 800 phytonutrients are known to exist in plant kingdom.

Fresh Weight Gain

Inhibition of growth due to stress can be scored by monitoring fresh weight gain. Plate the seeds (wild type and mutant) on MS agar plates, and 1-2 days after germination, transfer them onto MS plates containing different concentrations of mannitol (0-500 mM) or NaCl (0-200 mM). For accurate comparison, wild-type and mutant plants must be grown on the same plate. One week later, measure fresh weight of -40 plants. Be sure to remove any condensed water from seedlings before weighing them.

Wise Dietary Choices

The most crucial consideration when devising a comprehensive health intervention is understanding how to prevent or slow the degenerative process best. Without question, dietary factors constitute the single most important preventive focus. In one prospective study, 586 participants without clinical symptoms of dementia, age 55 or older, had their diets assessed at the beginning of the study and were screened for symptoms of dementia an average of two years later.2 After adjusting for other factors, such as age, gender, and education, subjects with the highest total fat intake had a significantly elevated relative risk (RR) of dementia (RR 2.4 1.1-5.2 ). Other dietary factors associated with an increased risk of dementia were a high intake of saturated fat (RR 1.9 0.9-4.0 ) and cholesterol (RR 1.7 0.9-3.2 ). An encouraging finding was that a high intake of fish was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia in general (RR 0.4 0.2-0.91 ) and was particularly associated with...

Preface to the Series

The business of dietary supplements in the Western world has expanded from the health store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant-based products. Appropriate measures to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products based in London. In the United States, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognized the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the U.S. Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine, which in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was handled as...

Biochemical Reactions To Stressors

Following normal diurnal patterns for the release of serum cortisol, glucocorticoid levels are at their lowest point at approximately midnight to 1 am. Peak levels occur between 6 am and 8 am. Research has shown that elevation or suppression of daily cortisol levels indicates imbalanced hypothalamus-pituitary-axis (HPA) activity.12 This may be interpreted as hyper-function or hypofunction, depending on a patient's levels of cortisol and his or her clinical presentation. Sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system marks the compensation stage, also known as the adrenal hyperfunction stage, with a secondary influence on the HPA axis. The pituitary gland responds to the influence of sympathetic nervous system activity by releasing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In turn, the adrenal glands respond to the pituitary release of ACTH by producing excess cortisol and androgen hormones. In an attempt to compensate for this faulty hyperfunction, the HPA becomes less sensitive to...

Status And Future Developments Involving Plant Iron In Animal And Human Nutrition

Abstract Iron is an essential nutrient for humans and other animals, and must be consumed in adequate amounts to ensure proper growth and development, as well as good health of the organism. Dietary sources of iron can be divided into two types non-heme iron, mostly provided by plant foods, and heme iron, present in animal foods. Heme iron intake is usually low for the majority of humans in many developing countries because of the high cost of animal products or due to cultural constraints concerning these foods. Heme iron intake also is low in most livestock, whose major source of dietary iron comes from forages and cereal crops. For these reasons, both humans and animals rely on plants as an important source of dietary iron. However, the iron concentration of plant foods varies greatly, and low concentrations in some common food sources make it difficult for humans and animals to meet daily dietary requirements when these foods are consumed in suggested amounts. Additionally,...

Iron Absorption In Humans And Animals

Nutritional iron is usually divided into two types heme iron, which is absorbed unaffected by other food components, and non-heme iron, which is envisioned as free or as weak complexes (Theil, 2004). Heme iron contributes only 10 to 15 percent of the total iron intake (1 to 3 mg day) in diets of developed countries but may provide a substantial amount of the total absorbed iron. Where meat is consumed extensively, (e.g. Argentina and New Zealand) this contribution can rise to almost 50 percent. Heme iron intake is negligible for the majority of people in many developing countries, because of cultural constraints and the high cost of animal products (Bothwell et al., 1989). For this reason, non-heme iron is the main source of dietary iron for most people in the world. nutrients in food are absorbed (Grusak and Dellapena, 1999). Iron in any food has a particular bioavailability, which is a function of its chemical form and the presence of food components (in that food, or in the diet)...

Iron Requirements 21 Iron requirements in humans

A large segment of the world's population does not ingest enough iron to meet daily dietary requirements. Therefore, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) are estimated to affect 30-50 of the world's population (Yip and Dallman, 1996), being especially prevalent in developing countries where food intakes can be severely low. In some populations, iron deficiency is estimated to reach 85 (Kapur et al., 2002). In the United States, approximately 75 of college-aged women have low iron intake (Ramakrishnan et al., 2002), and suboptimal dietary intake of iron occurs in 90 of pregnant Americans (Swenson et al., 2001). The iron present in the human body is mostly in a stored form, and losses are usually minimal. However, dietary intake of iron is needed to replace the iron lost by passage of stool and urine, shedding of skin, and sweating. In fact, after exercising, a person can loose up to 1 mg of iron (Vellar, 1968), but on average, losses represent around 0.9 mg of iron per day...

Possible Solutions To Increase Iron Status In Plant Sources

We have seen that plants are essential sources of iron in the human and animal diet and that often iron concentration in plants is not enough to meet the daily dietary recommendations. In many parts of the developing world, due to elevated costs, large segments of the human population do not have access to animal sources of iron. In these cases, a commonly used strategy is iron fortification. However, iron fortification of plant foods is not always practical or economically feasible for the rural poor, and many times this fortified iron is not highly bioavailable (Boccio and Iyengar, 2003). Therefore, a more sustainable approach, that is believed relevant to both urban and rural populations, is to enhance the iron content of plant foods through biofortification. Biofortification is a process whereby the plant uses its own mechanisms to fortify or enhance the density or bioavailability of nutrients (like iron) in its edible tissues. To develop iron biofortified plants, four main...

Ore and Sulphide Minerals

Thomson et al. (1973) have reported that clinical copper deficiency in farm animals is associated with black shales in England as a consequence of them, and their superjacent soils, being enriched in molybdenum. The resulting excess molybdenum in the diet of the grazing animals reduces the utilisation of dietary copper.

David Heber MD PhD Facp Facn

Heber is board certified in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology and Metabolism by the American Board of Internal Medicine, and in Clinical Nutrition by the American Board of Nutrition. He directs the NCI-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Unit and the NIH Nutrition and Obesity Training Grants at UCLA. Dr. Heber is a past director of the American Board of Nutrition and past chair of the Education Committee of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition. He has written over 130 peer-reviewed scientific articles, 25 book chapters, and two professional texts Dietary Fat, Lipids, Hormones and Tumorigenesis, and Nutritional Oncology (Academic Press, 1999 second edition due out in 2006).

Partitioning To Tree Organs

Patterns of fruit growth differ quite markedly between pome and stone fruit (see FRUIT GROWTH PATTERNS for details). Pome fruit growth rate (weight gain per day) increases rapidly in the first third of the season, then levels off and is fairly stable until harvest. Stone fruit growth rate increases initially similar to pome fruit, but then shows a decline in midseason, followed by another peak before harvest. The final stage of growth is very accelerated and many fruit will increase 40 to 60 percent in a matter of two to three weeks. Growth of wood structures has not been examined in many cases. Also, patterns of growth of new roots in fruit trees are not consistent, even from year to year under the same trees. It appears that root production only occurs when the environment (temperature and water) and internal competi In the case of roots, several studies in apples and peaches indicate that net seasonal dry weight gain may be near zero with the heaviest crop loads. This maybe...

Processing and utilization

Soybean polypeptide is a hydrolyzed product of protein through special treatment. Generally, it consists of peptides of 3-6 amino acids. Soybean polypeptide has a high nutritional value, high digestibility coefficient and low antigenicity, and the results of experiments show that its digestibility coefficient is much better than that of protein or amino acids. Soybean poly-peptide can be used as a raw material for or additive to health foods. It has a therapeutic effect on high blood pressure and cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases, and is safe and reliable. Soybean polypeptide also decreases the deposition of subcutaneous fat and increases fat burning and it is, therefore, a safe food for people who want to lose weight. Soybean polypeptide also has an antioxidant effect, and it has been claimed that the muscle cells of athletes recover faster when they imbibe a polypeptide-containing drink (Wang et al., 2004).

Malespecific Health Considerations

No single nutrient is more important than zinc for maintaining a man's overall reproductive and sexual functioning. In fact, the prostate is the richest reservoir of zinc within the body. Zinc helps to ensure overall virility, including erectile function and sperm quality.6,7 Diet also can play a critical role in prostate health. Eating a diet high in protein can inhibit the enzyme, 5-alpha reductase. This enzyme converts testosterone into the more potent hormone dihy-drotestosterone (DHT), which when levels are elevated, causes the increased growth of the prostate, leading to pelvic congestion and an obstructed flow of urine. In contrast, a diet that is high in carbohydrates can actually contribute to a buildup of DHT. Recommendations for maintaining a healthy prostate call for a dietary balance of protein, 44 complex carbohydrates, 35 and mostly unsaturated fats, 21 .8

Risk Factors And Etiology

Studies have indicated that sleep apnea is more common in men and increases with age. In addition, it is more frequent in African-Americans than in whites.8 Males over age 40 who are obese, smoke, or use alcohol are at increased risk for snoring and OSA.7 The strongest predictor for OSA is obesity. Studies show that the risk of OSA increases fourfold with an increase of the body mass index (BMI) by 1 standard deviation. Neck circumference is also a strong predictor, suggesting that upper body or central obesity is more predictive than generalized obesity.9 Hypothyroidism and menopause have also been associated with increased risk of OSA.10,11 There are a number of anatomical abnormalities and pathologies that can also lead to sleep apnea. Studies show that obese patients with OSA have an increase in the concavity of the posterior epiglottis. This change in shape is correlated with an increased BMI and with the severity of the airway collapse and OSA.12

Response To The Abiotic Environment

Abiotic stress such as high salt or low temperature adversely affects plant growth and development. Salt stress inhibits seed germination, retards plant growth, and accelerates senescence. Freezing or drought stress can cause cell damage and plant death. The following parameters can be used to evaluate plant tolerance to salt, drought, or freezing stress root elongation, fresh weight gain, seed germination, electrolyte leakage, or water loss measurement. Several stress mutants have been characterized using these tests, including hosl and hos2, which show higher expression of some stress-regulated genes when exposed to low-temperature stress (Ishitiani et al. 1998 Lee et al. 1999) hosS, which shows higher expression of some stress-regulated genes under ABA and salt treatments (Xiong et al. 1999) sfr mutants, which are deficient in freezing tolerance (Warren et al. 1996) and eskimol, which is constitu-tively freezing-tolerant (Xin and Browse 1998). Note that the levels of stress...

Markers Of Inflammation Creactive Protein and Fibrinogen

Which in turn confers an increased risk of the cardiovascular events. An elevated CRP level is normally treated with aspirin prophylaxis and hyperlipidemia medications, or statins. While obesity is, itself, a well-known risk factor for CHD, lowering CRP via lowering body fat will decrease CRP and CHD. In particular, high-sensitivity hsCRP is considered to be a promising marker for CHD and is interrelated with obesity and other risk factors, such as age, tobacco use, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.48 One of the most common causes of an elevated CRP has been shown to be periodontal disease.

Daily Essential Process

What, exactly, qualifies as a toxin A toxin is a substance that has a detrimental effect on the functioning or structure of a living cell, with deleterious effects ranging from minimal to fatal to a host organism. Although there are tens of thousands of toxic substances that affect the human body adversely, they can be categorized into the following five general groups (1) toxic chemicals, (2) endotoxins and exotoxins, (3) heavy metals, (4) dietary breakdown products, and (5) products of altered metabolic homeostasis.

Rice Breeding Challenges in the 21st Century

World population continues to increase by 75 million peopleayear, anannualgrowthrateof1.3 , with 90 of this increase occurring in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Providing for population growth now requires an expansion in world grain production of 26 million tons per year. Moreover, owing to rising living standards, food habits are changing in many countries, particularly in Asia, and people are eating more high-value foods such as meat, eggs, and milk. This is driving the demand for grain at a rapid rate. A kilogram of beef produced in the feed-lot requires 7 kg of grain, a kilogram of pork needs 4 kg, and a kilogram of poultry needs just over 2 kg (Brown 1997).

Controlling Toxic Risk

Wellness is the state of existence that arises when health-sustaining homeostatic balance is gained and maintained. Individual and cumulative toxic exposures threaten this optimal homeostatic state. However, identifying and compensating for toxic exposure can minimize the detrimental effects of the exposure. General signs, symptoms, and risks that may indicate the presence of a high risk for toxic load include diabetes congestive heart failure obesity history of alcohol abuse psoriasis and other skin disorders heavy exposure to industrial or household chemicals frequent or recurrent use of medications use of hormonal therapy, including hormone replacements and oral contraceptives and disease states that alter liver, kidney, or GI functioning. Also, due to the sensitivity of the immune system, immunologic disorders may also be seen with toxic exposures such as autoimmune diseases, immune suppression, and chronic inflammation. The review below of the mechanisms of some of the most...

Anticarcinogenic Properties

The inhibitory activity of pomegranate seed oil (PGO) against colon cancer in rats was recently evaluated by Kohno et al.63 Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Western countries. As previously discussed, pomegranate seed oil is rich in punicic acid, c9,t11,c13-conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), which makes up about 75 of the total linolenic acid in PGO. In an earlier study, Kohno et al. demonstrated that feeding rats CLN, isolated from bitter gourd, causes a significant reduction in colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by azoxymethane.64 These authors suggested that dietary intake of CLN may have an inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis. Their results indicated that dietary administration of PGO rich in c9,t11,c13-CLN, even at the low dose of 0.1 CLN, significantly inhibits the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic adenocarcinoma in rats without causing any adverse effects. Such results may reflect the potential chemopreventive effect of PGO on...

Environmental impact and relative toxicology

Media coverage in recent years has suggested that pesticide residues in the human diet constitute an unacceptable risk and, simply, that any detectable residue is too high and potentially carcinogenic. This perceived hazard of pesticide use, however, seldom takes into account the presence of natural toxins in our food. Ames and colleagues (1990) have compared the abundance and toxicity of natural toxins with synthetic pesticides and have concluded that 99.99 of our dietary toxin intake is from natural foods. They have estimated that Americans consume 1.5 g of natural toxins each day in roasted coffee, potatoes, tomatoes, whole wheat, brown rice and maize, which is about 10,000 times more than the amount of pesticide residues consumed. Furthermore, surprisingly few of these natural toxins have been tested for carcinogenicity. Thus, Ames et al. (1990) concluded that the health hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant when compared to human...

Supporting Detoxification Within The Body

Using this overview and framework of principal mechanisms of liver detoxification, it is wise to focus on essentials for therapeutic intervention, ensuring that the proper balance between phases 1 and 2 detoxification stages is maintained. It is believed that up to 90 of cancer cases arise from the effects of exposure to environmental chemicals, such as those found in air pollution, tobacco, chemically contaminated food, and antimetabolites that deplete nutrients that are essential for proper detoxifyication.16,17 Therefore, choosing nutrients and botanical medicines to support detoxification can improve quality of life, alleviate acute signs and symptoms of excess toxic load, and confer protection over the course of a patient's life. The next sections cover key botanicals, nutrients, and dietary constituents that represent potential clinical interventions for treating acute or chronic cases of toxicity, depending on each patient's condition.

Nutritional Strategies for Prevention

Many of us have known, or will know, someone who suffers with colon cancer. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 73,182 men and 70,763 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and 27,990 men and 27,793 women died from colorectal cancer in 2003.1 Commonly recognized risk factors for colon cancer include obesity and low consumption of vegetables, fish, and whole-grain cereals.2 Additional risk factors include a genetic predisposition, as in the case of familial polyposis, and other conditions, such as chronic ulcerative colitis. This article reviews a portion of the growing evidence that nutrition and supplementation may have very significant roles to play in maintaining a healthy, cancer-free colon. Since it was first suggested that a high-fiber diet was protective against colon cancer,3 several potentially preventative mechanisms against cancer have been proposed and...

AGEs and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a medical condition characterized by central obesity, elevated triglycerides, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, low beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, increased inflammation, and insulin resistance. AGE accumulation and RAGE expression is correlated with the symptoms of this condition. A variant of RAGE known as endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) is believed to be a decoy receptor for AGEs and increased levels of esRAGE have been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, esRAGE levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and triglycerides.13 (See Chapter 24 on metabolic syndrome.)

P Tuberosa On Prenatal Development In Rats

As an important facet of contraceptive development, it is essential to evaluate its effects on fetal development. It is also pertinent to note that contraceptives may not produce congenital malformations but show other side effects. Accordingly, studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of the butanolic extract of P. tuberosa on prenatal development in the foetus of rats. Adult female rats were selected on Day 1 of pregnancy. The mated females were caged individually and divided into various groups. The animals received the extract on gestation Day 8 through Day 15 (period of organogenesis). All animals were delivered by caesarian section on Day 20. The number of live and still born foetuses were noted for each female. Results demonstrate that both the litter size and weight were, comparable to those of the controls. The body weight gain of mothers and offsprings also were normal and comparable to those of the controls. No abnormalities were detected in the offsprings during...

Growth Patterns Of Different Fruit Sigmoid Growth Pattern

Different fruit grow in different ways, although there are a few general patterns of fruit growth. One common pattern is the sigmoid form of growth in which the fruit begins to grow slowly initially after bloom but then grows increasingly rapidly (see diameter curve in Figure F3.2). The growth rate is the greatest in midseason, followed by a slowing growth as harvest approaches. This type of growth pattern means that the growth rate in weight gain per day is low early and late in the season and greatest in midseason. Apples and pears often show a seasonal growth pattern that at first appears to be sigmoid due to a slowing of growth in cooler temperatures near harvest, although there is normally an extended linear portion of growth in midseason.

Double Sigmoid Pattern

The most practical expression of growth is the daily dry weight gain, as it represents most closely the energy in most fruit that contain primarily starch and sugars. For the two main growth patterns described earlier, the seasonal pattern of dry matter growth per day is very different (Figure F3.4). The expolinear growth of pome fruit leads to a rapid increase in dry weight gain per day for the first half or so of the season, followed by a quite constant rate. The pattern for the double-sigmoid growth of stone fruit, however, reflects the two phases of rapid growth with a slower growth rate occurring in midseason and near harvest. These curves represent general patterns for these fruit growing without significant competition and stress. The actual growth curves may vary somewhat with cultivar, and crop load or environmental stress may limit growth at times.

Mechanisms Of Resistance Of Douglasfir Trees To The Western Spruce Budworm

The various mechanisms of resistance reported below were evaluated using a combination of laboratory and greenhouse experiments, plus field observations on 40 pairs of mature Douglas-fir trees that are phenotypically resistant versus susceptible to damage from the budworm (Clancy, 2001). Three-generation laboratory diet bioassays (Clancy, 1991b) were used to quantify the budworm's nutritional niche with regard to levels of nitrogen (Clancy, 1992a), sugars (Clancy, 1992b), minerals (Clancy & King, 1993 unpublished data), and monoterpenes (Clancy et al., 1992 Clancy, 1993 unpublished data) that occur in Douglas-fir foliage. The budworm's response curves from the diet bioassays were compared to levels of the nutrients and terpenes in current-year foliage from pairs of Douglas-fir trees that appeared to be resistant versus susceptible to western spruce budworm defoliation. Twelve pairs of trees on the Pike National Forest (NF) in Colorado were sampled in 1988, 1989, and 1990 the trees...

Cadmium and Copper Uptake and Homeostasis

As important suppliers of dietary minerals for humans and animals, plants form a bridge between the soil elemental composition and the food chain. Consequently, contaminated soils with potentially toxic elements such as Cd and Cu may affect crop production and the food chain and, hence, human health (Cuypers et al. 2011a).

Chemical Composition and Inulin Chemistry

Jerusalem artichoke tubers contain little or no starch, virtually no fat, and have a relatively low calorific value. Of the small amount of fat present, trace amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported, but no saturated fatty acids (Whitney and Rolfes, 1999). The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic (18 2 cis, cis n-6) and a-linoleic acid (18 3 n-3) have been recorded as present at 24 mg and 36 mg-100 g-1 of raw tuber, respectively (Fineli, 2004). The tubers are a good source of dietary fiber, because of the presence of inulin.

Environmental and Lifestyle Factors

Although the conditions mentioned previously are all contributors to infertility, there are many other factors that appear in the environment and or that occur as a result of a person's lifestyle that may contribute to infertility. Among these are workplace hazards (chemical exposures), environmental toxins (endocrine disruptors), habits such as smoking or alcohol consumption, dietary factors (insufficient nutrition), oxidation, and even the type of underwear worn. Although these factors are not always indicated as causes of infertility, they must be considered to ascertain whether these factors contribute to a particular person's infertility.

Carotenoids and Plant Development

Carotenoid composition and plastid biogenesis, morphology and protein translocation (Lu et al. 2006 Cuttriss et al. 2007 Tzvetkova-Chevolleau et al. 2007). Understanding how carotenoids are sequestered within plastid types will ultimately improve metabolic engineering attempts to enhance a plant composition of essential dietary micronutrients, such as the carotenes.

Provisioning of nonwood forest products in diverse plantations

Information about the role of plantations in the provisioning of huntable animals is even scarcer, although large-bodied mammals and birds are a major source of dietary protein, in particular in many parts of the tropics (Robinson and Bennett, 2004). This lack of information is probably related to the scale of investigation, since the home range of many of these animals is defined by landscapes comprising a variety of land use and forest types, and where it is difficult to relate hunting and habitat preferences to particular landscape units such as plantations. The habitat quality for huntable animals is likely to depend on the structural diversity of plantation forests as well as the diversity of the landscape and the proportion of native ecosystems in the landscape (e.g. Nasi et al, 2008). One study, which investigated subsistence hunting patterns in a landscape with different land-use types in tropical Brazil, showed that most of the kills were sourced from primary forest (Parry et...

BCarotene and the Biosynthesis of Vitamin A

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading worldwide cause of preventable blindness, affecting 127 million children and 7 million pregnant women worldwide and increasing the risk of disease and death from severe infections (West 2003). Vitamin A (retinol) is generated from non-hydroxylated p-ring containing provitamin A carotenoids in the diet. Three carotenoids have provitamin A activity, namely p-carotene, a-carotene and p-cryptoxanthin. p-carotene is cleaved to form two retinals (vitamin A aldehyde) by human carotenoid cleavage enzymes such as p-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (von Lintig and Vogt 2000 Wyss et al. 2000). The deduced amino acid sequence of p-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase shows homology to the plant carotenoid cleavage enzymes, in particular, the viviparous 14 (Vp14) carotenoid dioxygenases from maize, which is involved in the synthesis of the stress responsive hormone ABA (Schwartz et al. 2003). Considerable health benefits could be obtained through the production of...

Female Hormonal Health So Much More Than Pms Or Menopause

Even in the new millennium, with all the technology and broad dissemination and free flow of information, many busy clinicians are still performing the same diagnostic hormonal workups that have been conducted for decades. Frequently, a few specific data points are targeted, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) or estradiol and progesterone. Yet, primary care practitioners have all been trained to realize that hormonal pathways are dependent upon homeostasis of other pathways to promote and sustain optimal health.1 Thus, it makes sense that examining the bigger hormonal picture, the lay of the land,'' so to speak, yields facts needed to maximize clinical outcomes. The common practice of examining select and narrow hormonal indices is akin to looking at a few trees within a forest and making ajudgment on the ecology of the entire forest. Until recently, affordable testing that provided a truly comprehensive look at a patient's hormonal profile was not...

Conclusions and Future Prospects

The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is now well understood. The major challenge is to provide insight into the regulatory aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis during nuclear transcription, protein translocation, plastid biogenesis and plant development. Understanding needs to be improved of how phytohormones, abiotic stress and metabolic feedback affect carotenoid composition and regulation. As knowledge of the regulatory processes increases, researchers will be able to make informed decisions about the effects of manipulating the pathway. This will allow the development of the next generation of crops which enhance and build upon the benefits of 'Golden Rice'. The result could entail significant health benefits for society by providing essential antioxidant micronutrients and vitamin A derivatives. As the health benefits from these crops can be obtained by changing the composition of foods already eaten without altering the eating habits of the consumer, they will have a much greater...

Sugar Calories and Energy

In addition to its flavor, which was the original reason for its popularity, sugar supplies an important nutritional factor in the form of energy. Sugar contains four calories per gram and one teaspoon of white table sugar (sucrose) weighs about 3.5 grams. The basic calorie requirement for maintaining life (respiration, circulation, muscle tone) varies between 750 and 1,630 per day in a state of complete rest. Intense muscular effort may require upwards of 7,000 calories during the day. Carbohydrates are an essential component of the human diet, and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for nutrients in the American diet have been established by the National Academy of Sciences. The RDAs suggest that the average dietary energy intake (in calories) should consist of 10 to 15 percent protein, 35 to 40 percent fat, and 45 to 50 percent carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, therefore, contribute the major part of the available energy in the human diet. In less-developed areas, it is not unusual...

The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA

Patients are maintained on the diet for several weeks, on the theory that allergy symptoms that have been caused by previously removed allergenic foods will be reduced or removed and that reintroduction of such foods at a later date will cause significant clinical symptoms that are reportable by patients. This type of testing for food allergies is advisable because singular tests are unable to identify specific triggers for patients who experience a wide array of symptoms (such as nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, cramping, and diarrhea), which may be the result of various mediators of allergy, such as mast cells, eosinphils, IgE, and IL-4. To achieve specificity, however, more testing may be required.

Fructose and Short Chain Fructans

The characteristic inulin biochemistry of Jerusalem artichoke makes it an excellent source of fructose. Fructose is the sweetest of the natural sugars its sweetness is around 16 greater than sucrose (Shallenberger, 1993). Fructose syrups are widely used by the food industry. They have a high solubility in water, fewer calories than sucrose, and are less viscous. With these properties, fructose has gained in importance within the food processing industry as a sweetener. It is an ideal sugar for use in reduced-calorie foods, foods for diabetics, and products to combat obesity. A range of fructose-containing products can be obtained from Jerusalem artichoke, including sugar solutions, pure fructose syrup, and crystalline fructose.

Diet And Lifestyle Changes

Dietary and lifestyle interventions, without question, are the most challenging with regard to compliance for all patients. However, tackling the very patterns of behavior that have contributed to onset of a disease state is essential when reestablishing a health-promoting homeostasis. The maintenance and protection of the 60,000 miles of blood vessels that include 18,000 miles of capillaries are governed by what a person eats and how much that person exercises. Both a healthy diet and a consistent exercise routine are important keys to preventing and controlling hypertension. In a randomized and multicenter study published in 2004 of more than 800 patients, the group that was involved in increased physical activity, weight loss, and decreased sodium and alcohol intake had its baseline rate of hypertension cut by more than half.3 Moreover, a recent epidemiologic study assessing the contribution of Western society's common risk factors in hypertension found that physical inactivity...

Health Benefits Of Fruit Consumption

Current dietary guidelines recommend the inclusion in the daily diet of several servings of fruit due to their relatively low caloric value and negligible sodium, cholesterol, and fat (with the exception of almonds, which provide approximately 80 percent of energy as fat) (USDA, 2000). More important, the variety and combination of nutrients in fruit and vegetables are thought to have potential health Total dietary fiber benefits. Numerous epidemiological and some intervention studies indicate that increased consumption of fruit, nuts, and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of heart disease, cancer, and possibly other chronic diseases (Kris-Etherton et al., 1999 Ness and Powles, 1997 Steinmetz and Potter, 1996). Some of the potentially beneficial nutrients found in temperate tree fruit include dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherol, and phenolic compounds. Dietary fiber (both soluble and insoluble forms) Dietary fiber is important for...

Stem Reserves In Grain Filling

Schynder (1) also discusses the problems associated with designing experiments to accurately measure the stem contributions to accumulation of grain dry weight. Some of these problems can be illustrated by examining field data collected in the 1999 season. Wheat cv. Patterson was collected once or twice weekly from 9 days prior to anthesis through the conclusion of caryopsis weight gain. Ketose sugars (fructose, sucrose and fructan) accumulated and were remobilized from the stem twice during this period (Fig. 1). At first glance this data supports the remobilization of stored reserves (mostly fructan) to the grain. For example in the 3rd internode from the top of the plant at 10 days after anthesis the ketose sugar content reached a maximum of 15.8 then dropped to 3 at 33 days (Fig. 1). It would be tempting to say that the loss of ketose sugars from the three internodes analyzed occurred during the linear phase of dry weight gain of the caxyopsis and so these reserves contributed to...

Microscopic Carnivores

Amoebas, nematodes, small crustaceans, and rotifers are all at work in typical compost or rotting leaf humus. They are the diet of these nearly microscopic carnivores. Nematodes seem to be the preferred food. Nematodes are tiny worms, about I io > ' long. Some are helpful others, like the golden nematode and potato wort nematode, are disaster when they invade farm fields. They stunt and kill the crops. You may have seen cabbage, broccoli, or cauliflower plants that are stunted, or dead. Chances are the root knot nematode has been at work. Fortunately, carnivorous fungi don't seem to discriminate. They eat all the nematodes they can catch.

Efffect Of Abiotic Stress On Mobilization From The Stem

Mass balance, that is calculating the amount of stem loss in weight during grain filling compared to the amount of grain weight gain, appears to vary with cultivars, with stress, and with manipulation of the source supply or sink demand (14, 15, 23, 26). Some cultivars may lose two or three times as much mass as other cultivars (14, 15). In one report (15) the stem loss of TNC (Total Non-structural Carbohydrate) contributed 25 to the weight of the ear in one cultivar and 9.4 in a second cultivar. Heat stress increased the calculated percent contribution to 34.5 in the first cultivar and 16.7 in the second cultivar (15). Leaf chlorophyll loss during heat stress was positively correlated with the capacity to store reserves in the stem, which could later be mobilized for grain filling (23). Reducing leaf area by 25 at anthesis decreases the leaf contribution of carbon to the grain, but had no influence on mass per grain an affect attributed to the ability of the stem to remobilize stored...

Healthy Fats And Oils

The AI of animal fats range from 0.6 to 4. Some believe that consumption of the fatty acids with trans double bonds formed during hydrogenation also predisposes us to artery disease. Our diets should contain adequate amounts of the unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. We should consume less than 30 percent of our total calories as fat. source T. L. V. Ulbricht and D. A. T. Southgate, Coronary Heart Disease Seven Dietary Factors. Lancet 338 (1997) 985-92 and E. G. Hammond, The Raw Materials of the Fats and Oils Industry. In Fats and Oils Processing, edited by P. Wan (Champaign, IL American Oil Chemists' Society, 1991).

An Evolutionary Proposal

Aged widespread recruitment of iron as a cofactor in biological redox chemistry. By contrast, under oxidizing conditions ferric iron is poorly soluble 9 . Today, all multi-cellular and, essentially, all single -cell organisms require iron for growth, despite the biological availability of iron being extremely limited by the insolubility of iron hydroxide. This is the reason why microbes synthesize low-molecular weight chelating agents, called siderophores, to bind and solubilize iron. Such ferric siderophore complexes are then transported into the bacteria by specific receptor proteins. In fact, competition for iron between a host and a bacterium is an important factor in determining the course of a bacterial infection. Because of that, different organisms utilize structurally varied siderophores to also competitively bind iron and gain selective growth advantages. Such competition even occurs in mammals where dietary iron is absorbed and bound to transferrin, the iron transport...

Flavonoids And Cardiovascular Diseases

Flavonoids compose the largest and the most studied group of plant phenolics. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been identified to date. Flavonoids are grouped into anthocyanins and anthoxanthins. Anthocyanins are glycosides of anthocyanidin, and they are the most important group of water-soluble plant pigments, responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors of flowers and fruits. Anthoxanthins are colorless or colored white-to-yellow, and include flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavans, and isoflavones. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants, and their activity is related to their chemical structure.118,119 Plant flavonoids can act as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation,120,121 or of macrophage oxidation.122 Dietary consumption of flavonoids was shown to be inversely related to morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease.123 Moreover, an inverse association between flavonoid intake and subsequent occurrence of ischemic heart disease, or cerebrovascular disease, was...

Pharmaceutical Scientist

As society's health care needs have changed and expanded, there has been an increased emphasis on the use of herbal remedies as dietary supplements or the search for new prescription drugs from natural sources such as microbes and plants. As a result, an increased number of pharmaceutical scientists hold doctoral degrees in natural products chemistry, pharmacognosy, or medicinal chemistry and are involved in biodiversity prospecting for the discovery of new medicines. At the turn of the twenty-first century there exists a shortage of specialists in this area, and they are in great demand if they are also trained in ethnobotany.

Essential Fatty Acids

Disease, increase the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, and decrease both nitrite production and the Th1-cell secretion of IFN-gamma.41 Quercetin, a dietary fla-vonoid found in many plants and known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, was found to attenuate EAE, and decrease IL-12-induced T-cell proliferation and Th1-cell differentiation.42 A further finding in MS has been that of low levels of the antioxidant nutrients beta-carotene, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid in serum or CSF.43

Natural Supports For Gaining And Maintaining Muscle Mass

Insulin resistance is a state in which the pancreas secretes increasingly higher levels of insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into skeletal, hepatic, and adipose tissue cells. Obesity, the most common cause of insulin resistance, is associated with a decreased number of receptors and with postreceptor failure to activate the tyrosine kinase. The beta subunitofthe insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase, which is activated when insulin binds to the alpha subunit the kinase activity autophosphorylates and mediates multiple actions of insulin. Specific glucose receptors in muscle and adipose tissue are poorly responsive to high levels of insulin in the blood. Moderate weight loss has been shown to reduce insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemia increases intracellular lipid accumulation, which, in turn, may increase insulin resistance. Insulin-resistant skeletal muscle has lower oxidative capacity and has decreased fatty-acid oxidation favoring lipid accumulation.3 In addition, high lipid...

PAs Synthesized By Animals And Their Functions

Males of the moth C. transiens possess huge eversible (abdominal) scent organs (coremata) that disseminate the sex pheromone hydroxydanaidal. The great importance of PAs to the males is illustrated by the fact that the degree of development of the coremata is dependent upon their concentration in the larval diet.24 Small coremata liberate considerably less sex pheromone than large organs. In addition, the concentration of sex pheromone reflects the concentration of PAs in the diet. Reduced PA levels result in males that are at a competitive disadvantage.7

Ferritins And Iron Accumulation In Seeds

Studies on the fate of Fe during the course of vegetative organs growth and development have evidenced the dynamic nature of this process. Iron concentration changes within organs, in a tissue specific manner, during the course of development. The role of ferritin as a transient Fe buffer for important Fe-dependent processes like photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation has been well documented in these developmental processes. Ferritins are also key proteins in long-term Fe storage, as evidenced by seed formation studies. An important amount of Fe is stored in pea seeds, and an increase in Fe uptake by the roots occurs at early stages of seed development (Lobreaux and Briat, 1991). Iron is also remobilized from vegetative organs to the seed. For example, it has been documented that leaf Fe can account for 20-30 of the total seed Fe content (Grusak, 1994 Hocking and Pate, 1978). In legumes such as soybean, it has been suggested that 40 to 60 of the seed Fe could come from nodules (Burton...

Naturopathic Approach To Treating Pain

Most importantly, from the perspective of removing the cause, physicians perhaps do their greatest service by altering the course of a person's health away from a protracted period of pain and concomitant disability. The first intervention involves setting a course for healing the tissues that are the source of the pain. Removing dietary perils that prevent the body from being in its optimum state of health includes limiting refined carbohydrates and optimizing protein, micronutrient, and fatty-acid intakes. Excess carbohydrate intake exerts a negative effect on insulin metabolism, provoking weight gain and the inflammatory cascade. Insufficient protein intake, at levels less than 30 of the recommended daily allowance (0.8 g of protein per kg of body weight per day), may limit repair and regeneration. An excess of foods that contain arachidonic acid, a long-chain omega-6 fatty acid, is a known promoter of inflammation,

The Effect Of Pomegranate Juice On Macrophage Atherogenicity

LDL oxidation by macrophages is considered to be the hallmark of early athero-genesis, and it is associated with cellular uptake of oxidatively modified LDL, leading to macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. We thus studied the effect of dietary consumption of PJ by E mice on macrophage athero-genicity, including macrophage lipid peroxidation and subsequently macrophage activities related to foam cell formation, such as cell-mediated oxidation of LDL and cellular uptake of lipoproteins.

Structure and Occurrence

Carotenoids are synthesized in the plastids of a plant cell and typically contain forty carbon atoms derived from eight subunits of the five-carbon compound, isoprene. Larger and smaller carotenoids do occur. Two categories of carotenoids occur in nature. These are the carotenes that contain only carbon and hydrogen, and the xanthophylls (also termed oxycarotenoids) that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Each carotenoid has its own distinctive color. Their chemical structure makes carotenoids very insoluble in water, but they are fat-soluble. Therefore they are usually associated with cell membranes and lipids, the primary water-insoluble component of cells. Some plant carotenoids occur as crystals in a protein matrix, and in some animals carotenoids occur with proteins. These animal carotenoproteins can be a very different color than their component carotenoids. For example, the carotenoprotein responsible for the distinctive blue color of some live lobsters breaks into a...

Commercial Importance

The color of food is an important variable contributing to its selection for consumption. Carotenoids in plant extracts such as red palm oil, saffron, annatto, and paprika have been used as food colors through much of history. More recently, industrially produced (synthetic) carotenoids have also been used as food color. Poultry, fish, and mammalian food animal diets also are frequently supplemented with natural or synthetic carotenoids to not only provide a dietary vitamin A source, but primarily to color meat and animal products and make them more appealing for consumers. Medicines and cosmetic products are often colored with carotenoids to enhance their appeal. see also Pigments Plastids.

Soybean protein is as good as animal protein

Soybean is the second largest source of protein, after lupin, for the vegetarian population of the world. On average, the protein content in commercial cultivars is approximately 40 , ranging from 34 to 48 depending upon the genotype, growing environment and cultural practices of the crop. Most of the soybean produce is processed for extraction of the oil and the resultant meal contains approximately 48 protein. Soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate are two widely used soy products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The former is soy flour devoid of soluble carbohydrates and contains about 70 protein, while the latter is soy flour devoid of both carbohydrates and dietary fibre and contains as high as 90 protein. Until 1990, according to protein quality evaluation methods, the protein efficiency ratio (based upon the requirement of young growing rats) of soy protein was considered inferior to that of animal protein. Subsequently, in 1991 the World Health Organization...

Functional Components

Effect (Cho et al., 2007) Anti-obesity (Rho et al., 2007) Fermented soy products are a rich source Black soybean is rich in anti-obesity peptides As methyl group inhibits the formation of homocysteine Synthesis of VLDL which transport dietary alcohol from liver Soy liposomes

Perspectives And Future Directions

All these antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate polyphenols were demonstrated in vitro, as well as in vivo in humans and in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Dietary supplementation of pomegranate juice rich in polyphenols to patients with severe carotid artery stenosis or with diabetes168 or to atherosclerotic mice resulted in a significant inhibition in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, and this may be attributed to the protection against oxidation of lipids in the arterial wall as well as in serum. Furthermore, administration of pomegranate byproduct, which includes the whole pomegranate fruit left after juice preparation, to the apolipoprotein E-deficient mice reduced the atheroslerotic lesion size by up to 57 . Since a combination of antioxidants can provide a wider range of free-radical scavenging than an individual antioxidant, clinical and nutritional studies in humans should be directed toward the use of combinations of several...

The Immune System and Cancer Prevention

By boosting the immune system, it has been claimed that fructooligosaccharide supplements reduce the risk of colorectal cancer developing (Kowhi et al., 1978, 1982 Pool-Zobel et al., 2002). In mice and rats, for example, fructooligosaccharides reduced colon carcinogens and the occurrence of colon tumors (Pierre et al., 1997), while dietary inulin and fructooligosaccharides suppressed chemically induced tumors (Taper and Roberfroid, 2002) and reduced genotoxic damage to the colonic epithelium in rats (Rowland, 1998). The release of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, from fermenting inulin and fructooligosaccharides, may play a role in suppressing colon cancer. Butyrate has been shown to have a direct antiproliferation effect on tumor cells in vitro (Kruh, 1982), while the release of butyrate has been correlated with a protective effect against colon cancer in experimental studies with rats (Bornet, 2001 McIntyre et al., 1993). Moreover, inulin injections can prolong the survival of...

Characteristics of wheat embryo development

Up to 15 days after anthesis (DAA), embryos increased in length as a result of cell division, followed by dry weight accumulation, with the main weight gain between 15 and 22 DAA. The rapid decline in moisture content from approximately 3 to 1.5 g H2O g dry weight occurs as a result of this dry matter accumulation (Golovina et al., 2000, 2001). The ability of isolated, fresh embryos to germinate was acquired at 15 DAA, but desiccation tolerance, as the ability of embryos to germinate after fast drying and rehydra-tion, was acquired only at 18 DAA (data not shown).

Food Drugs and Poisons

Fungi play a major role in the diet of humans. Yeasts (Saccaromyces cere-visiae) are used in the process of fermentation, in which they break down carbohydrates to liberate carbon dioxide and to produce alcohol. Gin is made when juniper berries are fermented, wine from grapes, beer from grains, bourbon from corn, and scotch from barley. Yeasts are also used in making Limburger cheese, yogurt, and Kombucha tea. Baker's yeast produces a high proportion of CO2, which causes the dough to rise. Molds, generally species of Penicillium, are used to produce cheese such as blue, Roquefort, and Camembert.

Overall Naturopathic Approach

There is some evidence that, for many patients, a week of fasting followed by a vegetarian diet will reduce the symptoms of RA over the course of a year.38 During the fasting period of the study cited, subjects were allowed to eat garlic, vegetable broth, a decoction of potatoes and parsley, herbal teas, and the juices of carrots, beets, and celery. (Note that, in addition to potentially suppressing the immune system because of hypocaloric intake, this fasting diet also provides an excellent source of phytochemicals that assist in detoxification and is itself rich in antioxidants.) Following the fasting, subjects introduced new foods one at a time, discontinuing them if any increase in pain, stiffness, orjoint swelling was noticed. If, after a week of waiting, reintroduction resulted in a repeat exacerbation, then that item was removed for the rest of the study period. New food items being introduced excluded gluten, meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods, refined sugar, citrus, salt, strong...

Pigment Occurrence and Function

Animals rely on plant carotenoids as their ultimate source of all vitamin A. Some of the carotenoids, including beta-carotene, possess a chemical structure that allows them to be converted to vitamin A by animals that consume them. Some animals also derive their pigmentation from carotenoids. For example, pink flamingoes and yellow goldfish obtain their colors from dietary carotenoids.

Economic Importance of the Cell Wall

The cell wall is unmatched in the diversity and versatility of its economic uses. Lumber, charcoal, and other wood products are obvious examples. Textiles such as cotton and linen are derived from the walls of unusually long and strong fiber cells. Paper is likewise a product of long fiber cell walls that are extracted, beaten, and dried as a uniform sheet. Cellulose can be dissolved and regenerated as a manmade fiber called rayon or in sheets called cellophane. Chemically modified cellulose is used to make plastics, membranes, coatings, adhesives, and thickeners found in a vast array of products, from photographic film to paint, nail polish to explosives. In agriculture, cell walls are important as animal fodder, whereas in the human diet, cell walls are important as dietary fiber or roughage. Pectin is used as a gelling agent in jellies, yogurt, low-fat margarines, and other foods, while powered cellulose is similarly used as a thickener in foods and as an inert filler in medicinal...

Subcellular Partition of Metals

Over the past decades, chemistry-orientated models have been developed to predict the bio-availability and toxicity of metals focusing on identifying which metal forms are present in the aquatic environment, and investigating their interaction with the biological site of action (Paquin et al. 2002). The free ion activity model (FIAM) relied on the free metal ion activity and assumed that uptake from solution was determined by the availability of free metal ions, whereas the biotic ligand model (BLM), which is an extension of the FIAM, assumes that the effect is proportional to the concentration of metal bound to the target site (biotic ligand) and that this site is in direct contact with the external environment. These models perform well in the prediction of metal bioavailability in waterborne exposures of aquatic organisms, but also for plants (Antunes et al. 2006). When considering the contribution of the dietary route of metal exposure the gut instestine can also act as a biotic...

Coffeefunctional Food And Medicinal Herb

Noteworthy is that this discussion focuses on the benefits of coffee from a botanical perspective. The social use of coffee in its modified forms latte or ''mocha,'' where dairy and sugary flavors are added, are clear sources of empty calories. For diabetics and weight management many a clinician will find in discussion with their patients that indeed an enlarging waistline, reactive hypoglycemia, and increased blood sugars do not implicate coffee, but the chosen delivery of this therapeutic food ''a la empty calories.''

Desert Sage California Chia

Seeds of the California chia once formed an important item In the diet of desert Indians and were used to remove particles of foreign material from their eyes. The seeds are still used by Mexican natives as food for making mucillginous poultices. The flowers of several species are very ornamental and the plants are quite common, usually In sandy soil.

Pregnancy indications

There appears to be a common misconception among patients and some practitioners alike that the terms safe and natural are interchangeable (Boon et al., 1999). Consequently, many women are inclined to believe that natural remedies are safer than pharmaceutical drugs (O'Hara et al., 1998). This perceived safety of natural products over manufactured drugs could increase the potential for adverse effects in both the mother and her developing fetus. This is due to the fact that many women initiate treatment with supplements such as Echinacea without obtaining medical advice they either self-prescribe or take the advice of others. An added potential for concern is posed by the fact that many consumers may be unaware that unlike conventional medications, herbal products such as Echinacea are not under enforced regulations by the Food and Drug Administration. To further complicate matters, every country differs in their regulatory laws regarding these products. For example, minimal...

Bioaccumulation And Trophic Transfer Of Trace Elements

Bioaccumulation of trace elements in receptor biota and humans through food is essentially related to trophic transfer of trace elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Increasingly, sophisticated analytical methods such as stable isotope analysis are being used to resolve food chain structure and define trophic position of biota in the food web 13,14 . Trophic transfer of trace elements within the food web has been demonstrated by relating the metal levels in the dietary components with those assimilated by animals 15 indices such as bioaccumulation, bioconcentration, and biomagnification factors have been routinely used to estimate trophic transfer in the food chains 16 .

Bioaccumulation in Planktonic Organisms and Aquatic Invertebrates

Planktonic organisms and aquatic invertebrates form the base of many aquatic food chains and thus have a crucial role in transfer of trace elements in the aquatic food web. It has been increasingly recognized that trophic transfer of trace elements in aquatic food chains is an important source for trace element accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms 101-103 . Trace element concentration in aquatic biota at any trophic level results from a combined effect of uptake from water and the diet the uptake process is peculiar to each metal and taxa 104 . 118 . Differences in trace metal contents in tissues of different prawn species have been attributed to habitat differences (estuarine, marine, etc.) and also to contaminant levels and dietary shifts due to change in habitat types 118-121 . Changes in the trace element content in body tissues of aquatic biota have also been attributed to seasonal differences. Rapid growth of aquatic invertebrates at relatively high temperature leads...

Bioaccumulation in Fish and Trophic Transfer

Burger et al. 135 estimated trace element levels (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, and Sr) in 11 species of fish occupying different trophic levels with varied dietary habits. They found that species-specific differences existed in all the species studied with respect to all the trace elements. Bowfin and channel fish (both piscivores) had the highest level of all the elements except Mn and Sr. They also found that trophic relationships alone were not able to account for the elemental concentration in different fish species and suggested that metal levels in fish may also reflect age older and larger fish have higher levels of trace elements. Such a correlation has been seen for mercury 146 .

Human Exposure To Trace Elements

Exposure of the human population to trace elements occurs from multiple media (water, air, soil) and food. Estimation of exposure to trace elements from food is extremely complex due to varied dietary habits of human populations. Factors that influence dietary intake include age, sex, race, residential region, ethnicity, and personal preferences 154 . Moreover, in metropolitan cities, the problem is further compounded by the fact that many food items comprising the diet of an average human are sourced from different places and not from a specific locality. The most important elements in terms of trophic transfer via the food chains to humans are As, Cd, Hg, and Pb 8 .

Increased demand for livestock feed protein from soybean

The increased sourcing of livestock feed protein from soybean has been associated with an increased commercialization of pork and poultry production that demands a higher minimum quality of feedstuffs in terms of energy and protein content (USDA, 2005). As the livestock industry grows to meet the increasing demand for livestock products, the use of soybean meal in feed (especially for pig, chicken and rabbit production) is also becoming more important in response to changes in dietary habits and shifts in tastes and consumer preferences (Nakamura, 1961 USDA, 2005). Protein for animal feed manufacturing is increasingly sourced from soybean meal instead of fish meal, as has been the case in the past (Nakamura, 1961 Mwasha, 2006 Zulu, 2006). The problems with sourcing livestock feed proteins from fishmeal include high levels of bacterial (e.g. Salmonella) contamination, which causes serious production problems in poultry (diseases can lead to 100 mortality in poultry farms, about 50...

Applications of modified levels of plant PDglucans

Officinarum), while numerous forage and fodder grass species support the production of sheep, cattle and other domesticated livestock. Maize (Zea mays) is also used widely for animal feed, while switchgrass (Panicum virga-tum) and other perennial grasses are showing considerable promise as future biomass energy crops in North America (McLaren 2005 Burton et al. 2006 ). In the areas of human health, the (1,3 1,4)-P -d- glucans are components of dietary fibre that are highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of serious human health conditions, including colorectal cancer, high serum cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes (Brennan & Cleary 2005). In contrast, (1,3 1,4)-P-d-glucans have antinutritive effects in monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry (Brennan & Cleary 2005), and are important in many cereal processing applications, including malting and brewing.

Plant glutathione supports pesticide resistance of parasites

Some authors could not find diet specific differences (e.g. Egaas et al. 1992), but this does not prove the null hypothesis, because the diet compared may be inadequate, for instance, when only diets of supposed same sulphur content are compared like in Egaas et al. (1992).

Sources And Distributions Of Trace Metals In Manure

Animals ingest trace metals through consuming plant materials however, dietary metal requirements may not be met because of low metal concentrations in the feed sources. In many cases, the absorption and bioavailability of the trace metals by livestock are low consequently, trace minerals have traditionally been supplemented to animal diets to ensure an adequate supply. Unfortunately, trace metals are frequently supplemented in amounts that exceed the daily recommended intake amount 41 . For example, daily dietary concentrations of 150 to 250 mg kg Cu2SO4 and 2500 to 3000 mg kg ZnSO4 (more than 25 times the minimum requirement) have been reported to stimulate swine growth 42,43 . On an international scale, the U.S. National Research Council recommends between 3.5 and 6.0 mg Cu kg in the daily diet of swine (piglets to finishing pigs). However, Europe's current recommendation through Directive 70 534 EEC allows maximum Cu levels between 35 and 175 mg kg 41 . Current European...

Reasons for increases in the price of soybean products

Meal have increased dramatically over the last decade (i.e. between 2000 and 2010). Prices of soybean oil and soybean-based foods have also increased, due mainly to increasing dietary health in high-income countries. The increasing soybean prices have also been driven by rising incomes and the consequent higher demand for livestock products and dietary health concerns that increase demand for vegetable-based diets and fibre-rich foods. declined slightly in response to increasing dietary health and livestock-related food safety concerns. Soybean is perceived as having health benefits that address these concerns. In the USA, the Federal Food and Drug Administration allows foods containing 5 g of soybean protein per serving to be labelled as reducing heart disease (Ash et al., 2006). The use of high amounts of soy protein (soy isoflavones) in fortified foods and supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis is growing rapidly.

Strategies for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome

Obesity prevention, and exercise.10 Mild to moderate alcohol intake, particularly red wine, has been shown to be protective.11 However, one does not need to look far for the basic causes of metabolic syndrome. All four conditions (obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperinsulinemia) can be linked to one related cause poor dietary choices, namely, imbalanced consumption of simple carbohydrates. Thus, the main treatment for metabolic syndrome is dietary therapy. One study in women with a family history of cardiovascular disease, following a low-GI diet for four weeks, resulted in increased insulin sensitivity after a glucose challenge and increased glucose uptake in isolated fat cells. Even in lean young adults, a low-GI diet reduced muscle triglycerides, a marker of insulin resistance.12 In addition, consuming high levels of high-glycemic carbohydrates causes enhanced appetite and a tendency to overeat.13,14 However, a complete reversal of consuming refined carbohydrates...

Natural Therapies To Preserve And Enhance Cognition And Memory

For many patients, one of the most disturbing prospects of aging is the possibility of a decreasing ability to recall desired memories and comprehend new information and stimuli. This is understandably a very real concern considering the reports that in 2007, there are now more than 5 million people in the United States living with Alzheimer's disease, and it is estimated that the prevalence could reach 7.7 million people with this disease by 2030. Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death for individuals over the age of 65. Additionally, the direct and indirect costs of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias amount to more than 148 billion annually.1 It is safe to estimate that less-severe mental deterioration is substantially more prevalent. This chapter explores some of the simplest interventions, such as modest dietary changes and botanical and supplemental interventions. Essential to maintaining cognitive...

Carotene synthesis delivers pigments to plants and provides an important vitamin for humans

P-Carotene is the precursor for the synthesis of the visual pigment rhodopsin. Since P-carotene cannot be synthesized by humans, it is as provitaminA an essential part of the human diet. Hundreds of millions of people, especially in Asia, where rice dominates the diet and there is a lack of P-carotene in the food supply, suffer from severe provitaminA deficiency. Because of this, many children become blind. A recent success was the introduction of all the enzymes of the synthesis pathway from geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate to P-carotene into the endosperm of rice grains by genetic engineering. These transgenic rice lines produce P-carotene containing grains, with a yellowish color, and have therefore been called golden

Bryophytes as food and as shelter

While bryophytes thus offer appropriate habitat conditions for a variety of invertebrates, direct consumption appears to be remarkably low. Although some invertebrates tolerate or circumvent the chemical defences of bryophytes and feed on them (Longton 1992, Parker et al. 2000), they most often display a strong dietary preference for angiosperms when confronted with a feeding choice (Smith et al. 2001). Snails forced to feed on moss suffer a significant weight loss (Oyesiku & Ogunkolade 2006). Similarly, although accidental ingestion may occur, thereby enhancing dispersal by endozoo-chory (Section 6.2.2.2), vertebrate herbivores have never been shown to graze heavily on mosses, except in Arctic regions. This can result locally in a dominance of bryophytes over grasses in heavily grazed habitats, as shown, for example, in Welsh oakwoods (Rieley et al. 1979). Calliergon, Dicranum and Polytrichum form 30-40 of the diet of the latter (Longton 1992). Why then, if Arctic and alpine...

The bean with an ideal ratio of n6 to n3

Apart from rapeseed (Brassica species) and canola (Brassica campestris) oil, soybean oil is the important source of a-linolenic acid (n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid, for vegetarians, among various vegetable oils available on the global market. The dietary intake of linoleic and linolenic acid needs to be well balanced and the ratio of n-6 n-3 should be around 5 1 this is near to human cell membranes, as indicated in a clinical study (Chan et al., 1993). An imbalance in the n-6 n-3 ratio has been suggested as a cause of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, CVD and osteoporosis (Simopoulos et al., 1999). Therefore, the hype that arose around the total dietary intake of PUFA during 1980s has subsided and the type of PUFA, rather than total PUFA, is currently being emphasized. The Paleolithic diet of Homo sapiens (i.e. green plants, fruits, vegetables and grains) had equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (Eaton and Konner, 1985). With the opening of oilseed processing units at the turn...

Salacia reticulata Wight

A study reported that lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects of hot water-soluble extract from the roots of S. reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents in rats. A randomized single center double blind crossover trial, studied the efficacy of an herbal tea containing S. reticulata (Kothala Himbutu tea) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for longer than 6 mon and with evidence of stable glycemic control over the preceding 6 mon (as assessed by HbA1C) participated in the study. They were randomized to receive a standard preparation of Kothala Himbutu tea for 3 mon followed by placebo in similar tea bags for a further 3 mon (n 28) or in reverse order (n 23). All patients received detailed advice on diet, exercise and lifestyle modification. HbA1C was measured at recruitment, at 3 mon and on completion of the study at 6 mon. Liver and renal functions were assessed biochemically at baseline, at 3...

L temulentum in History and Literature

Biollante King Caesar

Darnel was not only all too familiar to people in the early modern period as a dietary threat and a potential (although highly problematic) medicine or 'simple', it was also, as a malign mimic of cereals, a frequent literary trope for subversion and treasonous behaviour. This tradition in part derives from the long-standing use of darnel in religious writings and scriptural exegesis, where the wheat in the Biblical parable (Matthew 13 24-30, 36-43 King James Version) represents the godly and faithful (those who read the Bible 'correctly'), even as tares (darnel - Table 3) stands for the heretic and schismatic (who read the Bible 'incorrectly'). The herbal of Levinus Lemnius (1587) is an example of the way in which early modern discourses of religion and politics come together in the shape of darnel. The coupling of religious and political sedition is reflected in the following example from William Gamage (1613)

Huntsmans Horns Sweet Trumpets and Cobra Lilies

I've put all the taller carnivorous plants in this particular chapter for a reason. For one thing, because they are tall they require extra space for growing to their destined dimensions for another, because their cultural life shies are similar. And finally, because they have similar insect attracting, catching, and eating habits. After all, when you've studied several hundred thousand over the years, and observed so many more from coast to coast and overseas, you just naturally develop patterns with these carnivorous plant friends.

Natural Approaches To The Prevention And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Elevated blood sugar has been shown to cause several physiological reactions in the body leading to disease states. One of these reactions involves adding sugars to molecules, a process known as glycosylation. Advanced glycosylation end products'' (AGEs) are formed by the attachment of reducing sugars onto biological proteins. This reaction is irreversible causing these proteins with sugars attached to accumulate over time. One well-known example of AGEs is hemoglobin A1C, which is frequently measured to evaluate long-term blood sugar control in diabetics. It is proposed that AGE formation is a normal physiological process that functions as a signal for recognition of old molecules to be broken down and excreted by the kidneys. With increasing age, the excretion of these molecules decreases. AGE formation and accumulation is greatly accelerated with high levels of circulating sugars and oxidative stress seen in conditions such as diabetes.2 A study was performed with individuals...

Trophic Ecotoxicology of Cd Accumulation

)n another study, Notten et al. (2005) examined an area with elevated soil metal concentrations, where the most dominant plant species was the stinging nettle Urtica dioica. This species contained very low metal concentrations, far below the maximum values found in plants from non-polluted sites. Nevertheless, the herbivore snail feeding on these plants, Cepaea nemoralis, contained high metal concentrations (Notten et al. 2005). Cadmium in particular was accumulated to very high levels, with consequent negative effects on reproduction (Notten et al. 2005, 2006). Dietary accumulation of Cd has also been demonstrated in aphids. In an examination of the trophic movement of Cd and zinc (Zn) between wheat grown on Cd-contaminated soils and aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion ave-nae), aphids were demonstrated to bioaccumulate both Cd and Zn up to ten times the concentrations in wheat (Merrington et al. 1997a, b).

Health Benefits of Carotenoid Derived Vitamins and Nutrients

Processes which control an individual plant's production of these health-promoting micronutrients. They are generally classified into fat and water soluble vitamins, depending on their biochemical properties. The group of fat soluble vitamins consists of provitamin A (typically a- or p-carotene), vitamins D (calciol), E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and K1 (phylloquinone). The water soluble class of vitamins include vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin, nicotinamide, folate and pantothenate), B6 (pyridoxal), B12 (cobalamine), C (ascorbate) and H (biotin). A dietary sufficiency of these essential micronutrients is not typically a major hurdle for residents of wealthy nations. They can be obtained from a balanced diet or via vitamin and mineral supplements. However, people from developing nations rely upon only a few staple crops, such as rice, maize, wheat and cassava, all of which are poor sources of essential nutrients. Even if people consume large quantities of these foods, they...

Applications Of Nodule Proteomics

Legumes are unique in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic relationships with rhizobia, resulting in accumulation of high protein content in the host plants and the portioning of nitrogen in the soil (Lei et al., 2007). In the current global environmental scenario, these are only legumes that can supply dietary protein needed by millions of mouth. Unfortunately, commercial legumes, such as soybean and alfalfa, have large

Applications Of Raw Honey

It is a living, organic, instant energy building food, an antioxidant containing all the essential minerals necessary for life seven vitamins of the B complex group, amino acids and enzymes. Honey goes into the blood stream in 15 minutes. Honey produces more energy than its weight and in doing so it uses part of the accumulated fat and cholesterol. It therefore is excellent in any weight reduction plan.

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood sugar is not properly taken up into cells. Thus, the level of glucose in the blood remains high. The uptake of glucose into the body's cells is controlled by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is due to the pancreas failing to produce sufficient insulin. It is often caused by genetic factors. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, occurs when the body's cells are unable to respond very efficiently to the insulin produced. It is associated with obesity, overnutrition, excess dietary fat and sugar, and other factors. Type 2 diabetes accounts for around 90 of all diabetes. Both types of diabetes are treated by the injection of insulin, which acts to reduce the blood glucose concentration by facilitating the uptake of glucose by the cells in type 1 diabetes, and by supplementing the body's insulin in type 2 diabetes. Over 18 million adults in the U.S. have diabetes (CDC, 2006), and over 170...

Pomegranate Phytochemicals

The major source of dietary pomegranate phytochemicals is the fruit. Pomegranates are popularly consumed as fresh fruit, as beverages (e.g., juices and wines), as food products (e.g., jams and jellies), and as extracts wherein they are used as botanical ingredients in herbal medicines and dietary supplements. Commercial pomegranate juice (PJ) is obtained by a hydrostatic pressing process of whole fruits whereby two predominant types of polyphenolic compounds are extracted into PJ flavonoids and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs).32 The flavonoids include flavonols such as luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol found in the peel extract17 and anthocyanins found in the arils.14,15 Anthocyanins are the water-soluble pigments responsible for the bright red color of PJ. Pomegranate anthocyanins include pelargonidin-3-gluco-side, cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside14,15 (Table 1.1). Recently, there has...

Sexhormone Binding Globulin

Chronic hyperinsulinemia is intimately linked to diet, lifestyle, and the development of a hormonal profile that correlates with increased breast cancer and hormone-related disease risk. What is noteworthy is the ability of insulin to inhibit hepatic synthesis of SBHG and enhance ovarian production of androgens.12-14 Addressing the cause of hyperinsulinemia is a significant clinical intervention, thus lowering the adverse risk associated with this hormonal disturbance. Overweight women with high intra-abdominal fat stores have a particular risk for developing breast cancer as a result of hormone-modifying factors, including insulin resistance, increased insulin levels and insulin-like growth factor-I, low serum levels of SBHG, and high sexhormone levels.15-18 DIETARY INTERVENTIONS FOR HORMONE MODULATION Isoflavone- and Indole-Rich Foods Dietary interventions, particularly phytoestrogen-rich foods,19,20 can help to control and modulate the availability of sex hormones. These...

Soy Food Industry and Market in India

The major food uses of soybean in India are currently edible oils, TSP, flours, bakery products, milk paneer (tofu), soy protein concentrate iso-lates hydrolysates, lecithin and others. There is a need is to create an awareness about soy products and their benefits and make such products available on the market through small-scale decentralized soy food processing enterprises. Domestic-level processing and utilization of soybean for food and feed needs to be given priority, especially in the rural sector. Central and state developmental agencies may come forward to form an implementation plan. The hardware and technology are available to create a number of soy foods that match with Indian food recipes and food habits. Despite possessing a number of good features, soybean is associated with a few constraints for food uses. These are the beany flavour of soy food products and the oxidative instability of soybean oil. So far, two major approaches have been used to overcome these...

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