Evolutionary Genomics Of Weedy Rice

Olsen Wild relatives of crops have been implicated in the evolution of agricultural weeds in seven of the world's top thirteen crop species (Ellstrand et al. 1999). These conspecific weeds present a special problem for agricultural productivity. Conspecific weeds often share close phenotypic similarity with crops, making them difficult to detect and eradicate by conventional cultivation practices. In addition, infestation of crop fields by conspecific weeds can...

Als

A. A. h. A. A. h. A. A. h. A. A. h. A. t. A. h. A. t. A. h. A. A. h. A. Figure 5.6. Genetic similarities among Amaranthus species as illustrated by protein similarities of two herbicide target sites. Inferred amino acid sequences from protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPX2) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes from the monoecious, cultivated species A. hypochondriacus (A. h.) and the dioecious, weedy species A. tuberculatus (A. t.) are aligned. Identical amino...

Leveraging From Other Models

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a member of the dicot family Solanaceae, which contains valuable vegetable species such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum), and important weeds such as nightshades (Solanum ssp.), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Despite differences in genome sizes among Solanaceae members, most species...

Stcentury Weed Science A Call For Amaranthus Genomics

Amaranthus Tuberculatus

Tranel and Federico Trucco Over the last decade, weed science research has shifted from a focus on herbicide discovery and physiology to the study of weed biology and ecology. An overriding research question is, what makes a species a successful agricultural weed This central question has been tackled from a variety of angles, identifying and characterizing attributes contributing to weed success. Molecular biology and genomic research tools are being used increasingly in these...

Introduction Arabidopsis And Weediness

The widely used model species for plants, the fully sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia (hereafter called Arabidopsis, unless another strain or species is stated) , is widely known as the weed by the plant biology community, and has often been called a weed by those who study it. The electronic newsletter of Arabidoptologists was called Weeds World, the Weed Science Society of America lists it as a weed (common name mouse-eared cress, ARBTH), and many renowned scientists have referred to...

Genomics Tools For Weeds That Are Under Development

Canada thistle is a competitive broadleaf perennial in the Asteraceae family. It is a noxious weed or prohibited weed in forty-three states noxlist.asp), the highest number of states for any weed on the list. It is also a noxious weed in Canada and many other areas of the world (Holm et al. 1977). Canada thistle reproduces from vegetative buds and from seed. Root fragments as small as 8 mm long by 3 mm in diameter are able to develop new plants (Moore 1975). Seed production is prolific and they...

Tools And Approaches For Understanding Weediness At The Molecular Level

Map-based Cloning And Molecular Markers In map -based cloning also known as positional cloning short sequences or markers are identified near the gene of interest in the chromosome. There are many types of molecular markers that have been used in weed science and these have been reviewed by Slotta 2008 . These markers sometimes flank or lie near the gene of interest and can be isolated. Map-based Cloning. If necessary, a technique known as chromosome walking can be performed to isolate the gene...

Genetic Studies In Weedy Species Of Amaranthus

In addition to their collective weediness stature, Amaranthus species possess several characteristics that make them desirable as a model system. Most of the species are functional diploids with n 16 or 17 paleo-allotetraploids , although at least one species, A. dubious, is polyploid with 2n 64 Greizerstein and Poggio 1995 http data.kew.org cvalues . As shown in Table 5.3 major weedy Amaranthus species have genomes of tractable sizes about three to four times the genome size of the model...