References

Anderson, R.C., Fralish, J.S., Armstrong, J.E., Benjamin, P.K. The ecology and biology of Panax quinquefolium L. (Araliaceae) in Illinois. Am Midl Nat 1993; 129:357-372.

Armah, C.N., Mackie, A.R., Roy, C., Price, K., Osbourn, A.E., Bowyer, P., Ladha, S. The membrane-permeabilizing effect of avenacin A-1 involves the reorganization of bilayer cholesterol. Biophys J 1999; 76:281-290.

Arneson, P.A., Durbin, R.D. The sensitivity of fungi to a-tomatine. Phytopathology 1968; 58:536-537

Assa, Y., Gestetner, B., Chet, I., Henis, Y. Fungistatic activity of lucerne saponins and digitonin as related to sterols. Life Sci 1972; 11:637-647.

Azad, H.R., Davis, J.R., Schnathorst, W.C., Kado, C.I. Influence of Verticillium wilt resistant and susceptible potato genotypes on populations of antagonistic rhizosphere and rhizoplane bacteria and free nitrogen fixers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1987; 26:99-104.

Becard, G., Douds, D.D., Pfeffer, P.E. Extensive in vitro hyphal growth of VAM fungi in the presence of CO and flavonols. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992; 58:821-825. 2

Black, R.L.B., Dix, N.J. Utilization of ferulic acid by microfungi from litter and soil. Trans Br Mycol Soc 1976; 66:313-317.

Bouarab, K., Melton, R., Peart, J., Baulcombe, D., Osbourn, A. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences. Nature 2002; 418:889-892.

Bowen, G.D., Rovira, A.D. The rhizosphere. In, Plant Roots, the Hidden Half. Waisel, Y., Eshel, A., Kafkafi, U., eds. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. 1991; pp. 641-670.

Bowyer, P., Clarke, B.R., Lunness, P., Daniels, M.J., Osbourn, A.E. Host range of a plant pathogenic fungus determined by a saponin detoxifying enzyme. Science 1995; 267:371-374.

Brammall, R.A. Alternaria blight. In Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. Howard, R.J, Garland, J.A., Seaman, W.L. ed., The Canadian Phytopathological Society and the Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa, ON. 1994a; pp. 294-295.

Brammall, R.A. Disappearing root rot. In, Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. Howard, R.J., Garland, J.A., Seaman, W.L., ed., The Canadian Phytopathological Society and the Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa, ON. 1994b; pp. 296-297.

Braun, P.G. The combination of Cylindrocarpon lucidum and Pythium irregulare as a possible cause of apple replant disease in Nova Scotia. Can J Plant Pathol 1991; 13:291-297.

Braun, P.G. Effects of Cylindrocarpon and Pythium species on apple seedlings and potential role in apple replant disease. Can J Plant Pathol 1995; 17:336-341.

Brunner, F., Wirtz, W., Rose, J.K.C., Darvill, A.G., Govers, F., Scheel, D., Nuernberger, T. A beta-glucosidase/ xylosidase from the phytopathogenic oomycete, Phytophthora infestans. Phytochemistry 2002; 59:689696.

Burkhardt, H.J., Maizel, J.V., Mitchell, H.K. Avenacin, an antimicrobial substance isolated from Avena sativa. II. Structure. Biochemistry 1964; 3:426-431.

Campbell, C.D., Grayston, S.J., Hirst, D.J. Use of rhizosphere carbon sources in sole carbon utilisation tests to discriminate soil microbial communities. J Microbiol Methods 1997; 30:33-41

Capasso, R., Cristinzio, G., Di Maro, A., Ferranti, P., Parente, A. Syringicin, a new alpha-elicitin from an isolate of Phytophthora syringae, pathogenic to citrus fruit. Phytochemistry 2001; 58:257-262.

Catling, P.M., Spicer, K.W. Pollen vectors in an American ginseng crop. Econ Bot, 1995; 49:99-102.

Chao, W.L., Nelson, E.B., Harman, G.E., Hoch, H.C. Colonization of the rhizosphere by biological control agents applied to seeds. Phytopathology 1986; 76:60-65.

Chen, S.E., Staba, E.J. American ginseng I. Large scale isolation of ginsenosides from leaves and stems. Lloydia 1978; 41:361-366.

Court, W.A., Reynolds, L.B., Hendel, J.G. Influence of root age on the concentration of ginsenosides of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Can J Plant Sci 1996; 76:853-855.

D'Arcy Lameta, A., Jay, M. Study of soybean and lentil root exudates: 3. Influence of soybean isoflavonoids on the growth of rhizobia and some rhizosphere microorganisms. Plant Soil 1987; 101:269-272.

Dewick, P.M. Medicinal natural products: A biosynthetic approach. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.

Escalante, A.M., Santecchia, C.B., Lopez, S.N., Gattuso, M.A., Ravelo, A.G., Monache, F.D., Sierra, M.G., Zacchino, S.A. Isolation of antifungal saponins from Phytolacca tetramera, an Argentinean species in critic risk. J Ethnopharm 2002; 82:29-34.

Evans, J.L., Gealt, M.A. The sterols of growth and stationary phases of Aspergillus nidulans cultures. J Gen Microbiol 1985; 131:279-284.

Favel, A., Steinmetz, M.D., Regli, P., Vidal-Olivier, E., Elias, R., Balansard, G. In vitro antifungal activity of triterpenoid saponins. Planta Med 1994; 60:50-53.

Ford, J.E., McChance, D.J., Drysdale, R.B. The detoxification of a-tomatine by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phytochemistry 1977; 16:544-546.

Fountain, M.S. Vegetation associated with natural populations of ginseng Panax quinquefolium in Arkansas USA. Castanea 1986; 51:42-48.

Fuzzati, N., Gabetta, B., Jayakar, K., Pace, R. Peterlongo, F. Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric identification of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng roots. J Chromatography A, 1999; 854:6979.

Grayer, R.J., Harborne, J.B. A survey of antifungal compounds from higher plants, 1982-1993. Phytochemistry 1994; 37:19-42.

Grayston, S.J., Griffith, G.S., Mawdsley, J.L., Campbell, C.D., Bardgett, R.D. Accounting for variability in soil microbial communities of temperate upland grassland ecosystems. Soil Biol Biochem 2001; 33:533-551.

Green, H. Heiberg, N., Lejbolle, K., Jensen, D.F. The use of a GUS transformant of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T3a, to study metabolic activity in the spermosphere and rhizosphere related to biocontrol of Pythium damping-off and root rot. Eur J Plant Pathol 2001; 107:349-359.

Griffiths, K.M., Bacic, A., Howlett, B.J. Sterol composition of mycelia of the plant pathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytochemistry 2003; 62:147-153.

Haralampidis, K., Trojanowska, M., Osbourn, A.E. Biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in plants. In Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. Scheper Th. ed., Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002; pp.31-49.

Hartung, A.C., Stephens, C.T. Effects of allelopathic substances produced by asparagus on incidence and severity of asparagus decline due to Fusarium crown rot. J Chem Ecol 1983; 9:1163-1174.

Helal, H.M., Sauerbeck, D.R. Influence of plant roots on C and P metabolism in soil. Plant Soil 1984; 76: 175-182.

Henderson, M.E.K., Farmer, V.C. Utilization by soil fungi of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ferulic acid, syringaldehyde and vanillin. J Gen Microbiol 1955; 12:37-46.

Hong, S.C., Gray, A.B., Asiedu, S.K., Ju, H.Y. The evaluation of Trichoderma isolates, benomyl, and propiconazole against Cylindrocarpon destructans. Can J Plant Sci 2000; 80:231.

Isutsa, D.K., Merwin, I.A. Malus germplasm varies in resistance or tolerance to apple replant disease in a mixture of New York orchard soils. Hortscience 2000; 35:262-268.

Johnson, N.C., Tillman, D., Wedin, D. Plant and soil controls on mycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology 1992; 73:2034-2042.

Jung, J.D., Park, H.W., Hahn, Y., Hur, C.G, In, D.S., Chung, H.J., Liu, J.R., Choi, D.W. Discovery of genes for ginsenoside biosynthesis by analysis of ginseng expressed sequence tags. Plant Cell Reports 2003; 22:224230.

Keukens, E.A.J., De Vrije, T., Fabrie, C.H.J.P., Demel, R.A., Jongen, W.M.F., De Kruijff, B. Dual specificity of sterol-mediated glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1110:127136.

Keukens, E.A.J., De Vrije, T., Van Den Boom, C., De Waard, P., Plasman, H.H., Thiel, F., Chupin, V., Jongen, W.M.F., De Kruijff, B. Molecular basis of glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995; 1240:216-228.

Kushiro, T., Shibuya, M. Ebizuka, Y. beta-Amyrin synthase: Cloning of oxidosqualene cyclase that catalyzes the formation of the most popular triterpene among higher plants. Eur J Biochem 1998; 256:238-244.

Lagrange, H., Jay-Allemand, C., Lapeyrie, F. Rutin, the phenolglycoside from Eucalyptus root exudates, stimulates Pisolithus hyphal growth at picomolar concentrations. New Phytol 2001; 150:349-355.

Larkin, R.P., Hopkins, D.L., Martin, F.N. Effect of successive watermelon plantings on Fusarium oxysporum and other microorganisms in soils suppressive and conducive to Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Phytopathology 1993; 83:1097-1105.

Latijnhouwers, M., de Wit, P.J.G.M., Govers, F. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants. Trends Microbiol, 2003; 11:462-469.

Lawrence, G.H.M. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan Press, New York, 1951.

Levy, M., Zehavi, U., Naim, M., Itzhack, P. An improved procedure for the isolation of medicagenic acid 3-O-B-D-glucopyranoside from alfalfa roots and its antifungal activity on plant pathogens. J Agric Food Chem 1986; 34:960-963.

Levy, M., Zehavi, U., Naim, M., Polacheck, I. Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and anti-fungal activity of a new native alfalfa-root saponin. Carbohydr Res 1989; 193:115-123.

Lewis, W.H., Zenger, V.E. Population dynamics of the American ginseng Panax quinquefolium (Araliaceae). Am J Bot 1982; 69:1483-1490.

Li, T.S.C., Mazza, G., Cottrell, A.C., Gao, L. Ginsenosides in roots and leaves of American ginseng. J Agric Food Chem 1996; 44:717-720.

Maizel, J.V., Burkhardt, H.J., Mitchell, H.K. Avenacin, an antimicrobial substance isolated from Avena sativa. I. Isolation and antimicrobial activity. Biochemistry 1964; 3:424-426.

Marston, A., Gafner, F., Dossaji, S.F., Hostettmann, K. Fungicidal and molluscicidal saponins from Dolichos kilimandscharicus. Phytochemistry 1988; 27:1325-1326.

Mazzola, M. Elucidation of the microbial complex having a causal role in the development of apple replant disease in Washington. Phytopathology 1998; 88:930-938.

Mazzola, M. Transformation of soil microbial community structure and Rhizoctonia-suppressive potential in response to apple roots. Phytopathology 1999 89:920-927.

Miethling, R., Wieland, G, Backhaus, H., Tebbe, C.C. Variation of microbial rhizosphere communities in response to crop species, soil origin, and inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti L33. Microbial Ecology 2000; 40:43-56.

Mikes, V., Milat, M.L., Ponchet, M., Ricci, P., Blein, J.P. The fungal elicitor cryptogein is a sterol carrier protein. FEBS Lett 1997; 416:190-192.

Miller, H.J., Henken, G, van Veen, J.A. Variation and composition of bacterial populations in the rhizosphere of maize, wheat and grass cultivars. Can J Microbiol 1989; 35:656-660.

Morrissey, J.P., Osbourn, A.E. Fungal resistance to plant antibiotics as a mechanism of pathogenesis. Microbiol. Mol Biol Rev 1999; 63:708-724.

Narasimhan, K., Basheer, C., Bajic, V.B., Swarup, S. Enhancement of plant-microbe interactions using a rhizosphere metabolomics-driven approach and its application in the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls. Plant Physiol 2003; 132:146-153.

Nes, D.W. Biosynthesis and requirement for sterols in the growth and reproduction of Oomycetes. In Ecology and Metabolism of Plant Lipids. Fuller, G., Nes, W.D. ed., American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 1987; pp. 304-328.

Nicol, R.W., Yousef, L., Traquair, J.A., Bernards, M.A. Ginsenosides stimulate the growth of soilborne pathogens of American ginseng. Phytochemistry 2003; 64:257-264.

Nicol, R.W., Traquair, J.A., Bernards, M.A. Ginsenosides as host resistance factors in American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Can J Bot 2002; 80:557-562.

Ohtani, K., Mavi, S., Hostettmann, K. Molluscicidal and antifungal triterpenoid saponins from Rapanea melanophloeos leaves. Phytochemistry 1993; 33:83-86.

Olsen, R.A. Triterpene glycosides as inhibitors of fungal growth and metabolism. 1. effect on growth, endogenous respiration and leakage of UV-absorbing material from various fungi. Physiol Plant 1971; 24:534-543.

Olsen, R.A. Triterpene glycosides as inhibitors of fungal growth and metabolism. 5. Role of sterol contents of some fungi. Physiol Plant 1973a ; 28:507-515.

Olsen, R.A. Triterpene glycosides as inhibitors of fungal growth and metabolism. 6. The effect of aescin on fungi with reduced sterol contents. Physiol Plant 1973b ; 29:145-149.

OMAF. Ontario ginseng exports, 1996-2002. Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2003.

Osbourn, A.E., Wubben, J.P., Daniels, M.J. Saponin detoxification by phytopathogenic fungi. In Plant-Microbe Interactions Volume 2. Stacey, G, Keen, N.T. ed., New York: Chapman and Hall, 1995a, pp. 99-124.

Osbourn, A. Bowyer, P., Lunness, P., Clarke, B., Daniels, M. Fungal pathogens of oat roots and tomato leaves employ closely related enzymes to detoxify different host plant saponins. Mol Plant Microb Interact 1995b ; 8:971-978.

Osbourn, A.E. Preformed antimicrobial compounds and plant defense against fungal attack. Plant Cell 1996; 8:1821-1831.

Osbourn, A.E. Saponins in cereals. Phytochemistry 2003; 62:1-4.

Ouf, S.A., Hady, F.K., Abdel, E.M.H., Shaker, K.H. Isolation of antifungal compounds from some Zygophyllum species and their bioassay against two soil-borne plant pathogens. Folia Microbiol 1994; 39:215-221.

Panabieres, F., Ponchet, M., Allasia, V., Cardin, L., Ricci, P. Characterization of border species among Pythiaceae: several Pythium isolates produce elicitins, typical proteins from Phytophthora spp. Mycol Res 1997; 101:1459-1468.

Papadopoulou, K., Melton, R.E., Leggett, M. Daniels, M.J., Osbourn, A.E. Compromised disease resistance in saponin-deficient plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96:12923-12928.

Papavizas, G.C. Survival of Trichoderma harzianum in soil and in pea and bean rhizosphere. Phytopathology 1982; 71:121-125.

Pedersen, C.T., Safir, G.R., Siqueira, J.O., Parent, S. Effect of phenolic compounds on asparagus mycorrhizae. Soil Biol Biochem 1991; 23:491-494.

Pedras, M.S.C., Khan, A.Q. Biotransformation of the phytoalexin camalexin by the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Phytochemistry 2000a ; 53:59-69.

Pedras, M.S.C., Okanga, F.I., Zaharia, I.L., Khan, A.Q. Phytoalexins from crucifers: synthesis, biosynthesis, and biotransformation. Phytochemistry 2000b; 53:161-176.

Pegg, G.F., Woodward, S. Synthesis and metabolism of alpha tomatine in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum isolines in relation to resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 1986; 28:187-202.

Peirce, L.C., Colby, L.W. Interaction of asparagus root filtrate with Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. asparagi. J Am Soc Hort Sci 1987; 112:35-40.

Peters, N.K., Long, S.R. Alfalfa root exudates and compounds which promote or inhibit induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. Plant Physiol 1988; 88:396-400.

Proctor J.T.A., Bailey, W.G. Ginseng, industry botany and culture. Hort Rev 1987; 9:187-236.

Punja, Z.K. Fungal pathogens of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) in British Columbia. Can J Plant Pathol 1997; 19:301-306.

Quidde, T., Osbourn, A.E., Tudzynski, P. Detoxification of alpha-tomatine by Botrytis cinerea. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 1998; 52:151-165.

Rahouti, M. Seigle-Murandi, F., Steiman, R., Eriksson, K.E. Metabolism of ferulic acid by Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotiapalmarum. Appl Env Microbiol 1989; 55:2391-2398.

Reeleder, R.D., Brammall, R.A. Pathogenicity of Pythium species, Cylindrocarpon destructans, and Rhizoctonia solani to ginseng seedlings in Ontario. Can J Plant Pathol 1995; 16:311-316.

Reeleder, R.D., Roy, R., Capell, B. Seed and root rots of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans and Fusarium spp. Phytopathology 1999; 89:S65.

Rice, E.L. Allelopathy. Academic Press Inc., New York, 1984.

Roddick, J.G. Complex formation between solanaceous steroidal glycoalkaloids and free sterols in vitro. Phytochemistry 1979; 18:1467-1470.

Roldán-Arjona, T., Pérez-Espinosa, A., Ruiz-Rubio, M. Tomatinase from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici defines a new class of saponinases. Mol Plant Microb Interact 1999; 12:852-861.

Sandrock, R.W., Van Etten, H.D. Fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic degradation of the phytoanticipin a-tomatine. Phytopathology 1998; 88:137-143.

Schlessman, M.A. Floral biology of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Bull Torrey Bot Club 1985; 112:129-133.

Schmidt, S.K., Ley, R.E. Microbial competition and soil structure limit the expression of allelochemicals in nature. In Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interactions, Inderjit, K.M.M., Dakshini, Foy, C.L. ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, pp. 339-351.

Scow, K.M. Soil microbial communities and carbon flow in agroecosystems. In Ecology in Agriculture. Jackson, L.E. ed. Academic Press, N.Y. 1997, pp. 367-413.

Shepherd, T. The microchemistry of plant/microorganism interactions. In Ecology of Plant Pathogens. Blakeman, J.P., Williamson, B. ed.,Wallingford: CAB International, 1994, pp. 39-62.

Shin, H.S., Lee, M.W. Environmental factors and the distribution of soil microorganisms in ginseng field. Kor J Microbiol 1986; 24:184-193.

Singh, H.P., Batish, D.R., Kohli, R.K. Autotoxicity: concepts, organisms, and ecological significance. Crit Rev Plant Sci 1999; 18:757-772.

Small, E., Catling, P.M. Canadian medicinal crops. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, ON, 1999.

Sparling, G.P., Ord, B.G., Vaughan, D. Microbial biomass and activity in soils amended with glucose. Soil Biol Biochem 1981; 13:99-104.

Steel, C.C., Drysdale, R.B. Electrolyte leakage from plant and fungal tissues and disruption of liposome membranes by a-tomatine. Phytochemistry 1988; 27:1025-1030.

Straney, D.C., Van Etten, H.D. Characterization of the PDA1 promoter of Nectria haematococca and identification of a region that binds a pisatin-responsive DNA binding factor. Mol Plant Microb Interact 1994; 7:256-266.

Suleman, P., Tohamy, A.M., Saleh, A.A., Madkour, M.A., Straney, D.C. Variation in sensitivity to tomatine and rishitin among isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and strains not pathogenic on tomato. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 1996; 48:131-144.

Szabo, K., Wittenmayer, L. Plant specific root exudations as possible cause for specific replant diseases in Rosaceen. J Appl Bot 2000; 74:191-197.

Takechi, M., Tanaka, Y. Structure-activity relationships of the saponin a-hederin. Phytochemistry 1990; 29:451452.

Tang, C.S., Young, C.S. Collection and identification of allelopathic compounds from the undisturbed root system of bigalta limpograss (Hemarthria altissima). Plant Physiol 1982; 69:155-160.

Tani, T., Kubo, M., Katsuki, T., Higashino, M., Hayashi, T., Arichi, S. Histochemistry II. Ginsenosides in ginseng (Panax ginseng root). J Nat Prod 1981; 44:401-407.

Turner, E.M.C. The nature of the resistance of oats to the take-all fungus. II. Inhibition of growth and respiration of Ophiobolus graminis Sacc. and other fungi by a constituent of oat sap. J Exp Bot 1956; 7:80-92.

Utkhede, R.S., Sholberg, P.L., Smirle, M.J. Effects of chemical and biological treatments on growth and yield of apple trees planted in Phytophthora cactorum infested soil. Can J Plant Pathol 2001; 23:163-167.

Van Etten, H.D., Mansfield, J.W., Bailey, J.A., Farmer, E.E. Two classes of plant antibiotics: phytoalexins versus "phytoanticipins". Plant Cell 1994; 6:1191-1192.

Van Etten, H.D., Sandrock, R.W., Wasmann, C.C., Soby, S.D., McCluskey, K., Wang, P. Detoxification of phytoanticipins and phytoalexins by phytopathogenic fungi. Can J Bot 1995; 73:518-525.

Wardle, D.A. A comparative assessment of factors which influence microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen levels in soil. Biol Rev 1992; 67:321-358.

Weete, J.D. Structure and function of sterols in fungi. Adv Lipid Res 1989; 23:115-167.

Weltring, K.M., Wessels, J., Geyer, R. Metabolism of the potato saponins a-chaconine and a-solanine by Gibberella pulicaris. Phytochemistry 1997; 46:1005-1009.

Zimmer, D.E., Pedersen, M.W., McGuire, D.F. A bioassay for alfalfa saponins using the fungus Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Fr. Crop Sci 1967; 7:223-224.

Detoxify the Body

Detoxify the Body

Need to Detoxify? Discover The Secrets to Detox Your Body The Quick & Easy Way at Home! Too much partying got you feeling bad about yourself? Or perhaps you want to lose weight and have tried everything under the sun?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment