Discovery And Evaluation Of Natural Productbased Fungicides For Disease Control Of Small Fruits

1 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, The Thad Cochran National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; and Small Fruit Research Station, 306 S. High St., Poplarville, MS 39470, USA Email : [email protected]

Abstract. The continuing development of fungicide resistance in plant and human pathogens necessitates the discovery and development of new fungicides. Discovery and evaluation of natural product fungicides is largely dependent upon the availability of miniaturized antifungal bioassays. Essentials for natural product bioassays include sensitivity to microgram quantities, selectivity to determine optimum target pathogens, and adaptability to complex mixtures. Experimental accuracy and precision must be stable between assays over time. These assays should be relevant to potential pathogen target sites in the natural infection process of the host and applicable to the agrochemical industry. Bioassays should take advantage of current high-throughput technology available to evaluate dose-response relationships, commercial fungicides standards, modes of action, and structure activity studies. The focus of this chapter is the evaluation of natural product based fungicides for agriculture and we will provide a review of bioautography prescreens and microtiter assays (secondary assays). Also presented is more detailed information on newer techniques such as the detached leaf assays for evaluating fungicides against strawberry anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) and field plot trials for gray mold (Botrytis) and anthracnose control in strawberry.

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