Preface vii

1. Discovery and Evaluation of Natural Product-based 1 Fungicides for Disease Control of Small Fruits

David E. Wedge and Barbara J. Smith

2. Allelochemicals as Biopesticides for Management of 15 Plant-parasitic Nematodes

Nancy Kokalis-Burelle and Rodrigo Rodriguez-Kabana

3. Allelopathic Organisms and Molecules: Promising 31 Bioregulators for the Control of Plant Diseases,

Weeds, and Other Pests

Ana Luisa Anaya

4. The Impact of Pathogens on Plant Interference 79 and Allelopathy

Scott W. Mattner

5. Allelopathy for Weed Control in Aquatic and 103 Wetland Systems

Ramanathan Kathiresan, Clifford H. Koger , Krishna N. Reddy

6. Bacterial Root Zone Communities, Beneficial Allelopathies 123 and Plant Disease Control

Antony V. Sturz

7. The Role of Allelopathic Bacteria in Weed Management 1 43

Robert J. Kremer

8. The Allelopathic Potential ofGinsenosides 157 Mark A. Bernards, Lina F. Yousef, Robert W. Nicol

9. Antimicrobial and Nematicidal Substances from the 177 Root of Chicory (Cichorium intybus)

Hiroyuki Nishimura and Atsushi Satoh

10. Disease Resistance in Plants through Mycorrhizal 181 Fungi Induced Allelochemicals

Ren-sen Zeng

11. Allelochemicals from Ageratum conyzoides L. and 193 Oryza sativa L. and their Effects on Related Pathogens

Chuihua Kong

Index 207

List of Contributors 21 3


Biological control of plant diseases and plant pathogens is of great significance in forestry and agriculture. There is great incentive to discover biologically active natural products from higher plants that are better than synthetic agrochemicals and are much safer, from health and environmental considerations. The development of natural products as herbicides, fungicides, and their role in biological control of plant disease promises to reduce environmental and health hazards. Allelopathic techniques offer real promise in solving several problems linked with biological control of plant pests. The allelopathic effect of plants on microorganisms, and microorganisms on microorganisms is of great environmental and economic significance. This book is organized around the premise that allelochemicals can be employed for biological control of plant pathogens and plant diseases. Specifically, this volume focuses on (i) discovery and development of natural product based fungicides for agriculture, (ii) direct use of allelochemicals as well as indirect effects through cover crops and organic amendments for plant parasitic pest control and (iii) application of allelopathy in the pest management.

In an effort to address above points, contributing authors provided up-to-date reviews and discussion on allelochemicals-related biological control of plant diseases and pathogens. Chapters 1 - 3 discuss discovery and development of allelochmicals and their role in the management of plant diseases. Chapter 4 discusses the effects of pathogens on the competitiveness and allelopathic ability of their hosts. Chapter 5 highlights the importance of allelopathy for weed control in aquatic ecosystems. Chapters 6-7 deal with bacterial potential in weed management and plant disease control. Chapter 8 describes the role of organic compound ginsenosides from rhizosphere soil and root exudates of american ginseng plant in control of fungal diseases. Antimicrobial and nematicidal substances from the rhizome of chicory has been discussed in Chapter 9. The role of allelochemicals induced in mycorrhizal plants in imparting disease resistance is given in Chapter 10. The last chapter discusses the biocontrol of plant pathogens and diseases by allelochmicals from Ageratum conyzoides a weed and rice plants has been highlighted in Chapter 11.

We are grateful to all authors for providing their valuable work to this volume. The articles are original and some have been written for the first time in any book. We are indebted to the following referees for their constructive comments and suggestions: Ana L. Anaya, Mark Bernards, Nancy Kokalis Burelle, Chester L. Foy, John M. Halbrendt, Robert Kremer, Azim Mallik, Susan Meyer, Reid J. Smeda, Tony Sturz, David Wedge and Jeff Weidenhamer. The editorial help of Ineke Ravesloot, Publishing Department, Springer is sincerely appreciated. It is our hope that this book will serve scientific community well, and equally hope that the book will stimulate young students to work on biological control of plant pathogens and diseases through natural allelochemicals.

Inderjit and K.G. Mukerji October 2005

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