Complexation of Cd may play an important role in the internal detoxification of Cd by lowering the free metal ion concentration in the cytosol and vacuoles (Krämer et al. 1996; Hall 2002). It is presumed that an important aspect of metal storage involves metal chelation with organic ligands (Milner and Kochian 2008) such as organic acids, amino acids, peptides, and proteins (Verbruggen et al. 2009b). However, it is still not clear which specific ligands are involved (Milner and Kochian 2008). Kupper et al. (2004) found that a large fraction of the foliar Cd was bound to sulfur ligands in T. caerulescens by using X-ray absorption spectros-copy, whereas Ueno et al. (2005) deduced that Cd in the shoot was rather bound to organic acids, mainly malate, with measurements of 113Cd-NMR.
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