Soybean occupies a very significant place in global oilseed production as well as being the predominant source of protein in the vegetarian diet of people. The productivity of soybean in many countries is around 2 t ha-1, with a gap of 1 t ha-1 between potential and observed yield. Emerging mul-tinutrient deficiencies (e.g. of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, zinc, iron, boron) in soils, coupled with the application of only nitrogen and phosphorus to major crops by farmers (and that at lower rates than recommended), is one of the major reasons for lower productivity. Sulphur deficiency is also widespread in soybean-growing areas because of the farmers' preference for DAP as a source of phosphorus rather than sulphur-containing SSP.
Humans with an entirely vegetarian diet, the deficiency of essential amino acids can lead to irreparable physical and mental damage, especially in children. It can also be a serious problem in pig and poultry fodder. A research goal in plant genetic engineering is to improve the amino acid composition of the storage proteins of harvest products.
The use of complementary and adjunctive therapy has been steadily increasing in the U.S. since the 1960s. This can be attributed to several factors, in particular to over 80 million 'baby boomers' embracing alternative medicine as a way to enhance their medical care. The perceived coldness and remoteness of conventional medicine the entanglement of managed care in red tape continued emphasis on 'natural' which supposedly connotes ' better', as well as the popularity of vegetarian practices have also contributed to the general population's increasing involvement with alternative medicine. In 1999, 40 of Americans sought alternative medical treatment, outpacing visits to conventional primary care physicians.
Soybean is the second largest source of protein, after lupin, for the vegetarian population of the world. On average, the protein content in commercial cultivars is approximately 40 , ranging from 34 to 48 depending upon the genotype, growing environment and cultural practices of the crop. Most of the soybean produce is processed for extraction of the oil and the resultant meal contains approximately 48 protein. Soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate are two widely used soy products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The former is soy flour devoid of soluble carbohydrates and contains about 70 protein, while the latter is soy flour devoid of both carbohydrates and dietary fibre and contains as high as 90 protein. Until 1990, according to protein quality evaluation methods, the protein efficiency ratio (based upon the requirement of young growing rats) of soy protein was considered inferior to that of animal protein. Subsequently, in 1991 the World Health Organization...
There is some evidence that, for many patients, a week of fasting followed by a vegetarian diet will reduce the symptoms of RA over the course of a year.38 During the fasting period of the study cited, subjects were allowed to eat garlic, vegetable broth, a decoction of potatoes and parsley, herbal teas, and the juices of carrots, beets, and celery. (Note that, in addition to potentially suppressing the immune system because of hypocaloric intake, this fasting diet also provides an excellent source of phytochemicals that assist in detoxification and is itself rich in antioxidants.) Following the fasting, subjects introduced new foods one at a time, discontinuing them if any increase in pain, stiffness, orjoint swelling was noticed. If, after a week of waiting, reintroduction resulted in a repeat exacerbation, then that item was removed for the rest of the study period. New food items being introduced excluded gluten, meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods, refined sugar, citrus, salt, strong...
Apart from rapeseed (Brassica species) and canola (Brassica campestris) oil, soybean oil is the important source of a-linolenic acid (n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid, for vegetarians, among various vegetable oils available on the global market. The dietary intake of linoleic and linolenic acid needs to be well balanced and the ratio of n-6 n-3 should be around 5 1 this is near to human cell membranes, as indicated in a clinical study (Chan et al., 1993). An imbalance in the n-6 n-3 ratio has been suggested as a cause of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, CVD and osteoporosis (Simopoulos et al.,
India has a population of 1100 million people. The majority (65-70 ) are vegetarians who derive their proteins from pulses, cereals and milk and to some extent from oilseeds such as groundnut, sesame and soybean. In general, the quality of the protein eaten by the population is poor. Better-quality proteins from egg, meat and aqua products are costly and only a small proportion of the population has access to them. About 30 of the Indian population is below the poverty line and does not have enough purchasing power for good-quality dietary proteins. It is therefore important to provide them with an alternative source of dietary protein that is financially affordable. Soybeans meet this requirement. Hence, for India, one option is to make use of soybean as a protein source to augment the conventional protein supply at a cost price that is affordable by all, especially those with lower incomes. In India, the cost of 1 kg protein from full-fat soy flour is just US 1.5, as compared to US...
Maintaining and restoring intestinal microflora can augment the effects of isoflavone consumption. The DIANA study suggested that the bioavailability of phytoestrogens may have been higher as a result of the enhanced microflora balance produced by a more vegetarian diet that promoted beneficial flora growth. Phytoestrogens are in foods, in the form of glycosides that must be hydrolyzed by gut bacteria to produce aglycones. Studies comparing Western microflora versus the flora of vegetarians or people who consume macrobiotic diets demonstrate that the latter subjects typically have more lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, which hy-drolyzes glycosides to aglycones.41 Thus, diets emphasizing plant foods are recommended. Probiotics, themselves, have not been shown to directly affect phytoestrogen metabolism, although they can decrease beta-glucuronidase activity.
Generally, the prey of Utricularia is quite small, as one would expect considering the size of the trap. Most catches are minute water insects, protozoans, tiny crustaceans, rotifers, etc. The small waterweed Wolffia (duckweed) has been found entrapped in larger bladders of U. macrorhiza vulgaris, apparently ingested when the trap was accidentally sprung and not because the bladderwort had gone vegetarian. The bladder-worts are capable of ingesting large numbers of mosquito larvae, which is of some universal interest to man, since the quantities ingested are apparently limited only by the number of traps available. Some species have even ingested small tadpoles.
In the past decades, major stride was made in women's health by launching SERM, e.g. tamoxifen and raloxifene (Jordan, 1998). Their promising results on the chemopre-vention of breast cancer in clinical studies shed light on the development of new SERM in pharmaceutical industry. Isoflavones have become prominent agents for estrogen-dependent diseases because they can protect women from osteoporosis and exhibit anti-estrogenic properties in the breast, uterus and prostate tissue to prevent cancer formation. They are natural compounds derived from edible plants that have been consumed by Asians, South Americans, and vegetarians for long periods apparently without any undesirable side effects (Olsen and Love, 1997). Clinical and experimental evaluation of those isoflavones could led to the discovery of more efficacious agents with better phar-macokinetic properties. Further, balanced diets containing proper isoflavone contents could be recommended for pre- and post-menopausal women and...
When these developments were going on in the west coast, the north of India was under the rule of the Mogul emperor Akbar. Under the Mogul rule spices cultivation in the north and western India improved considerably. The spread of Mogul dishes also demanded a considerable quantity of various spices. Ginger was an important constituent of most of these dishes, both vegetarian and nonvegetarian. Ain i Akbari, written by Abdul Fazl, Akbar's prime minister, is a truthful account of the period, in which he presents the details of various dishes in vogue among the Moguls (Ain 24). In Ain 27(f) he records the market prices of spices. Ginger was comparatively cheaper than many other spices dried ginger was four dinars per seer, and fresh ginger was 2.5 dinars. He mentioned that pickled green ginger was available at 2.5 dinars per seer. Ginger was thus a common man's spice, unlike black pepper and saffron (Mahindru, 1982).
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