Not only open woodland types but also more closed forest types should be considered when providing a wide variety of forest types for future urban contexts. The references in the countryside of today mainly concern high forest types, developed for timber production or as growing 'wild' for decades through natural processes (Peterken 1996). The urban context, however, calls for a wider range of possibilities. History again can assist by pointing at interesting directions. Examples include landscape terms such as 'wood pasture', 'coppice woodland', 'lund/lound', 'holt' (a wood, perhaps single species), 'grove' and 'launde' (woodland, lawn) which can all be found in old British landscape texts (Muir 2000), while corresponding terms have been found in the Germany and the Scandinavian countries (Schama 1995; Wittrock 2001). These probably only provide some insight into the richness of woodland types and aspects that has existed through time. Many of these concepts will be more interesting for inspiration and as knowledge base for future development than what can be seen today and experts feel obliged to use in the design and strategic management of woodlands, parks and gardens.
Was this article helpful?