Environmental researchers have claimed that people are very sensitive to drastic changes as well as details revealing our relationship with landscapes. People notice if the landscape in question is managed with care or in a way that it reveals 'greediness' in terms of (over)exploitation of the land. In many cases modern forestry and agriculture can cause, without any doubt, problems related to a sense of greediness while the reaction might become the opposite in landscapes, where details are carefully considered. Below the aesthetics of scenery, care, and wilderness are introduced as complementary and overlapping concepts for management (Gustavsson 2003).
The scenic cult has over several hundreds years identified principles, views and working methods, which have resulted in many successful cases. When considering all the park landscapes that are part of recreational landscapes today, many European examples can be found in which the aesthetics of scenery have played a major role. Park styles such as the English landscape and picturesque style have contributed with specific design. During the last five or six decades, additional design contributions have been made by the dominance of modernism in landscape design and architecture across Europe. The aesthetics of scenery should also be considered as of crucial importance. Besides, new combinations and approaches are there to be discovered.
Influential authors like Pollan (2000) and Nassauer (1997) prefer to focus on an aesthetic of care rather than of scenery or wilderness. They stress the importance of active relationships between local people and different types of green areas, including people's involvement in decision-making and the active management of local areas. Nassauer (1997) mentions 'the aesthetics of care' as opposite to greediness. She sees this as the most important relationship between man and nature. To plan for an aesthetic of care, the landscape should be an important part of strategic management planning. To have wilderness in distant areas, some say, might be very good but not nearly as beneficial as having these areas in or near cities. The American philosopher Cronon (1995) discusses the concept of wilderness and argues that having wilderness concentrated in remote national parks is fine, but this does not benefit our daily relationship with nature, which has to be based upon a close and dialectic linkage between cities, people and nature.
Today, wilderness plays an increasing role in urban and park landscapes. Special wilderness zones become part of city contexts, as 'free-growing, non-managed zones'. Working with wilderness concepts thus has shown to be much more complex than the 'the further away, the wilder' approach. Moreover, the wilderness concept has been said to be for larger areas. Many examples exist, however, of smaller areas, e.g., in the heart of cities. Abandoned industrial areas are an example of this sort of urban wilderness which is such a useful concept for modern time. Important questions have been raised about the choice of size, providing possibilities to experience a certain character during a sufficiently long period of time, necessary high quality, as well as about advantages of introducing wilderness spots into areas, which basically represent the opposite. However, how to go further within this matter is an ethical question, and a question which also relates to design issues. To leave areas according to the laissez-faire idea may sometimes be too simplistic and has been criticized with the argument that ecology has paralyzed people to do nothing in situations where this could be strongly questioned. In the case of the equally-sized urban forests of Vestskoven (Denmark) and the Amsterdamse Bos (The Netherlands), for example, the former hosts only four managing staff, compared to forty people in the case of the latter. It could be discussed whether the lower number should be seen as the better, or rather the opposite (Box 13.2).
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How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.