Quantifying Amenity Benefits in Monetary Terms

The economic value of urban forest can be estimated in different ways. Traditional methods include opportunity costs, estimation of maintenance costs and of the production value of forest. These methods are based on valuing market-priced goods and therefore their use in urban forests is limited (Tyrvainen 1999). The quantification of amenity values of urban forests is complicated, because these are not sold and bought through markets. The urban forest resource can be viewed as a public good,...

Plant Quality and Nursery Production

Producing planting stock of the highest quality for the least cost is the main objective of plant nurseries. Plants must be grown at a price, which is attractive to the buyer, yet will yield the grower a profit. It is the aim of all commercial nursery-owners to make a profit and even state or municipal-owned nurseries strive to keep the costs to comparable levels with private concerns, even if they are not compelled to show profits. However, nurseries must sell their product, and they too often...

Stem and Branch Diseases

Cankers on Broadleaves - Nectria spp. A group of fungi in the genus Nectria Hypocreales are responsible for perennial cankers in different broadleaves. In this kind of canker, typically target-shaped, a series of callus ridges are formed by the host for stopping the fungus, but, during each dormant season, the last ridge is newly invaded. The canker can also serve as an entry point for wood decay fungi. In Europe the main hosts are Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Platanus, Robinia and Tilia. The fungal...