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Pinaceae Abies Link Picea D.Don Pinus L. p.p.

110' 90"

Map of North America e fir; larch (ob), she balsam (USA); silver fir;

single spruce (ob) (Canada) f sapin s abete, bansu, cipreso, guayame, huallame (Mexico); jolacote (Guatemala, Mexico); oyamel, pinabete, pino (Mexico) o abete (italian); acxoyotl (Mexico); akruptunark (tchiglit, Canada and USA); anenadek, chinkop (algonquin, Canada); Edeltanne (german); enenadek (algonquin, Canada); ilnashk (montagnais, Canada); nappartork (tchiglit, Canada and USA); Tanne (german); xalocotl (Mexico)

Taxon number 25, genus Abies, described by Philip Miller (1691-1771). Family Pina-ceae. Synonyms: Abies described by Johann Heinrich Frieddrich Link (1765-1851), Picea by David Don (1799-1841) and partly Pinus described by Carl von Linnaeus (1707-1778). English names: fir is the standard name, larch (obsolete name) and she balsam are common names used in the United States of America, for silver fir the country is unknown and single spruce (obsolete name) is used in Canada. French name: sapin is the standard name. Spanish names: there is no standard name, abete, bansu, cipreso, guayame and huallame are all used in Mexico, jolacote is used in Guatemala and Mexico, oyamel, pinabete and pino are all used in Mexico. Other names: there is no standard name, abete is an Italian name, acxoyotl is a name of unknown language used in Mexico, akruptunark is a Tchiglit name used in Canada and in the United States of America, anenadek and chinkop are Algonquin names used in Canada, Edeltanne is a German name, enenadek is an Algonquin name used in Canada, ilnashk is a Montagnais name used in Canada, nappartork is a Tchiglit name used in Canada and in the United States of America, Tanne is a German name and xalocotl is a name of unknown language used in Mexico. No trade name is known from this genus.

44 Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. Pinaceae NW MW North America (USA: Alaska, Washington to California, Canada: Yukon Territory, British Columbia) int NW MW Eurasia (Iceland, Sweden, UK) L E sci [hel] hyg->[xer] calc acid dr(ob) (needles: air sweetener, baby powder, ointment and perfume) fd(ob) (resin: chewing gum) fr (bark: deer) fw (fuel) ma(ob) (resin: to repair canoes) pl pp sa (watersheds and landscape protection and rehabilitation) ti (boxes, construction, crates, doors, food containers, framing, mill products, planing, shingles) Abies balsamea subsp. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Boivin Abies balsamea var. fallax (Engelm.) Boivin Abies lasiocarpa Lindl. & Gordon Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. var. lasiocarpa Pinus lasiocarpa Hook. e subalpine fir; alpine fir (Canada); balsam, balsam fir p.p., caribou fir, corkbark fir, mountain fir; Rocky Mountain fir (Canada); sweet-pine, western balsam; western balsam fir (Canada); white balsam, white balsam fir, white fir p.p. f sapin subalpin; sapin blanc d'Amérique; sapin concolore p.p. (Canada); sapin des Alpes, sapin des montagnes, sapin des Montagnes Rocheuses (Canada) s pino real blanco, pino real blanco de las sierras o abete delle rocce, abete subalpino (italian); Felsengebirgstanne, Felsentanne (german)

Taxon number 44, Abies lasiocarpa, species described by Thomas Nuttal (1786-1859) in its present form; however epithet lasiocarpa was used before by William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865) with the genus Pinus for Pinus lasiocarpa Hook. Family: Pinaceae. Naturally distributed as native species in Northwest and Middlewest North America, more specifically in United States of America (Alaska, Washington to California) and Canada (Yukon Territory, British Columbia) and introduced in Northwest and Mid-dlewest Eurasia more specifically in Iceland, Sweden and United Kingdom. Large tree (from 20.1 m to 60 m), with evergreen foliage, sciaphilous (shade tolerant) or, less frequently, heliophilous (shade intolerant) species. Growing well from wet (hygrophilous) to, less frequently, dry (xerophilous) sites. Well adapted to calcareous soils (calciphilous) and acidic (pH lower than 6.5) soils (acidiphilous). Amerindians used it in the past as a drug, needles were used to make baby powder, also for perfumes, ointments and to sweeten the air, and resin was used as chewing gum. The bark serves as fodder for deers. The firewood serves as fuel. Resin was used in the past as a material to repair canoes. The tree is used in plantation and for pulp and paper purposes. It is also used in soil improvement, for landscape and watershed protection and land rehabilitation. Its timber serves for boxes, construction, crates, doors, food containers, frames, mill products, planing and shingles. Synonyms: Abies balsamea subsp. lasiocarpa described by Louis Hyacinthe Boivin (1808-1852), Abies balsamea var. fallax described by Boivin too, Abies lasiocarpa, species described by John Lindley (1799-1865) and Georges Gordon (1806-1879), Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa described by Thomas Nuttall (1786-1859) and Pinus lasiocarpa, described by William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865). English names: subalpine fir is the standard name; the remaining are the other common names of which western balsam fir is used in Canada and balsam fir and white fir are in part (pro parte) used for this species and in part for other species. French names: sapin subalpin is the standard name; the remaining are the other common names mostly known from Canada of which sapin concolore is in part (pro parte) used for this species and in part for other species. Spanish names: there is no proposed standard name; there are just common names. Other names: there are no proposed standard names; abete delle rocce and abete subalpino are Italian names, Felsengebirgstanne and Felsentanne are German names. No trade name is known for this species.

acid

acidiphilous, adapted to life in acid soils (pH lower than 6.5)

basi

basiphilous, adapted to life in alkaline soils (pH greater than 7.5)

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