Breeding systems

Plants observed in situ and in cultivation, oral morphology and several experiments con rm the existence of diverse breeding systems among the bromeliads. Speci c mating systems demonstrate expected correlations with certain aspects of natural history and ecology occurrences often follow taxonomic boundaries (Table 6.3). For example, many watch-spring Billbergia species (subgenus Helicodia) regularly set self-seeds, whereas members of putatively more primitive subgenus Billbergia generally do...

Inflorescences

Pitcairnioideae

Most bromeliads ower terminally, either just once if the genet is monocar-pic, or repeatedly in turn from each of a potentially in nite number of ramets produced by sympodial branching (Fig. 2.3A,B). Many fewer taxa produce lateral in orescences, i.e., are monopodial (Figs. 2.2B, 2.3C). Structure usually differentiates the vegetative from the reproductive portion of the shoot in the sense that the owers and oriferous branches of the more complex in orescences arise from the axils of bracts...

Petal scales

Smith and Downs (1974) considered the petal scale, also called a ligule, nectar scale or lateral fold, one of the premier indicators of generic-level relationship in Bromeliaceae (Fig. 3.1B). Appendaged corollas characterize about one-third of the family, including at least some members of 14 of the 27 genera comprising Bromelioideae, six more in Pitcairnioideae, and three in Tillandsioideae. However, recent ndings drawn from studies of ontogeny question its current broad application as a...

Cam

Cambridge Books Online Cambridge University Press, 2009 Bermuda grass in one set of eld tests (Ekern 1965). Except perhaps for a few species of Brocchinia (e.g., B. vestita Fig. 5.3D), Bromelioideae most notably certain members of Ananas and Bromelia constitute Type Two, and soil and rocks rather than bark usually sustain these plants. My Types Three and Four represent taxon-distinct segregates of Pittendrigh s Type Three, or what he called the tank absorbing trichome group. Members of both new...

Nutrition that requires a phytotelma

Plant reliance on phytotelmata fashioned from foliage (the phytotelma), although widely homoplasious among the ferns and angiosperms, nowhere exhibits as many interesting dimensions as in Bromeliaceae. Hundreds of species intercept moisture and nutrient-rich solids in cistern-like shoots, while the roots of these plants serve primarily for anchorage to bark or rock (Figs. 2.4, 5.1). Urine sample bottles set out as crude simulators for nearly a year in live oak (Quercus virginiana) trees in...

Identifying the sources of nitrogen

Processes similar to those that fractionate the stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen during photosynthesis also provide opportunity to track another important element through ecosystems. According to Schulze et al. (1991), fractionation during transfers between trophic levels enriches the 15N content of biomass 3-5 o. Midgiey and Stock (1998) took advantage of this phenomenon to demonstrate carnivory in Roridula gorgonias, and the same approach could help determine inputs from prey and ants...

Bromelioideae

Approximately the same array of fauna pollinate Bromelioideae as pollinate Pitcairnioideae and Tillandsioideae. Likewise, ornithophily probably predominates, according to reports and oral syndromes displayed among the larger genera (e.g., Aechmea, Billbergia, Neoregelia, Quesnelia Table 6.1). Flexibility, like that documented by visits by hummingbirds and butter ies (Eurema diara and Phoebus spp.) to Costa Rican Bromelia pinguin and B. karatas (Hallwachs 1983), may be especially common in this...

Info

Phase four among the CAM species, while the C3 types lost less water overnight (Griffiths et al. 1986 Smith 1989). Specimens sampled in Trinidad also demonstrated the sensitivity of CAM (monitored as aH+) to immediate and previous growing conditions, speci cally, time since the last rainfall and irradiance received the day before. Griffiths et al. (1986) recorded rapid declines in carbon gain after only one to a few rainless days, a nding reminiscent of Adams and Martins (1986a) observations on...

Fruits ovules and seeds

Tillandsia Recurvata Seeds

Fruit type and seed morphology differentiate Bromeliaceae into three subfamilies (sensu Smith and Downs 1974, 1977, 1979 Fig. 3.6), but not as de nitively as some taxonomic descriptions imply. Dry capsules and naked or double-coated seeds with or without appendages characterize Pitcairnioideae. Seeds equipped with an elaborate ight apparatus born in capsules indicate Tillandsioideae (Figs. 3.3H, 3.6J Chapter 12), while the berries produced by most Bromelioideae contain naked seeds equipped with...

Bromeliads as air quality monitors

Instruments provide most of the data on air quality flora constitute a cheaper alternative, but are not without disadvantages. Plants differ in their avidities for certain naturally occurring and anthropogenic substances depending on the species, the physiological status of the specimen, growing conditions and a host of additional variables. For example, assays of contaminated foliage reflect microrelief and electrical attractions between plant surfaces and charged aerosols. Coatings on foliage...

Mineral nutrition

Arid climates and harsh substrates explain why certain Bromeliaceae figure so prominently in studies of drought-tolerance and CAM. Mineral nutrition has drawn sufficient attention to dispel misconceptions about how and from where the most specialized species secure essential ions, but certainly less interest than warranted by the presence of additional, even more exceptional mechanisms. Contrary to appearances, none of the epiphytes invades host vasculature, nor does anchorage on bark or rock...

Flowers

Seeds Dyckia

Bromeliad owers range from relatively small to large and inconspicuous to showy. All of the species feature the differentiated perianth characteristic of related taxa like Commelinaceae and Zingiberaceae rather than the tepals of most Liliales. Zoophily prevails except for the occasional autogamous types that require no pollinators (e.g., neotenic Tillandsia Fig. 2.1). Figure 3.6. Fruits and seeds of Bromeliaceae. (A) Fruit of Ananas bracteatus. (B) Germinating seeds removed from berry of...

Habits general overview

Tillandsia Leaf Sheath

Bromeliads range from small plants even by liliopsid standards to some of the most massive-bodied of the monocots. More comparable among the Figure 2.4. Shapes of phytotelm (tank-producing) Bromeliaceae. (A D) Four arrangements of foliage that produce phytotelmata of different numbers, exposures and depths per shoot. (E) Aechmea veitchii with virtually no impoundment capacity. (F) Carnivorous Brocchinia reducta. (G) Mature shoot of Aechmea bracteata cut open to expose central dry chamber for...

Influences of pollinators

Like most other ora, bromeliads use cues from the environment to coordinate fruit set and seed dispersal with local conditions that affect repro ductive success. Stimuli responsible for inducing speci c phenomena parallel those that trigger the same processes in other tropical plants. Likewise, shoot and in orescence architecture, ower physiology, and additional agencies constitute the inherent factors that determine for how long the individual bromeliad and its population engage in speci c...

Additional aspects of light relations

We need to revisit the subject of how bromeliads respond to high and low light to round out this discussion of ecophysiology. Undiminished PPFDs from sea level to above 4000 m, to the much attenuated ux that penetrates to the oor of dense evergreen forest, sustain numerous Bromeliaceae. Aspects of leaf and shoot structure, pigments and physiology, and leaf life span parallel these contrasting energy supplies. Species with the thickest foliage and most compact rosettes, i.e., those that operate...

Genetic structure of populations

Soluble proteins (allozymes) provide markers to determine the genetic structures of populations and patterns of gene ow. Findings for Bromeliaceae accord with those described for other ora relative to oral biology and certain additional aspects of life history. For example, Soltis et al. (1987) chose two bromeliads to characterize the effects of different breeding systems on the genetics of arboreal vs. terrestrial types. Specimens representing Central American Tillandsia ionantha (subgenus...

Architecture and nutritional economy

Additional aspects of morphology beyond the inflated leaf bases, that when closed favor myrmecotrophy and when open the capture of litter and its processing by symbionts, also promote bromeliad nutrition. Benefit from these other arrangements accrues through increased mineral-use economy. Once again, the most conspicuous examples come from Tillandsioideae. Especially noteworthy are the Type Five species, which collectively constitute an evolutionary grade whose members probably emerged...

Photoperiodism

Trigrammes Fen Shui

An unknown number of Bromeliaceae cue on photoperiod to coordinate important plant activities, like owering and branching. Cultivated materials underscore the pervasiveness of day length as a owering stimulus. Figure 6.4. Flowering phenology of 15 bromeliads native to wet Atlantic Forest at Macae de Cima (900 1400 m), Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil distinguished by pollination syndrome. Stippled blocks represent intervals of maximum owering of night- owering species. Black blocks indicate...

Tillandsia Usneoides Eesential Oil Yield

Tillandsia Usneoides

Lower and middle Cretaceous Magnoliophyta remain too poorly known to warrant definitive statements about many aspects of early angiosperm radiation (Taylor and Hickey 1992). Discovery of a compressed infructescence purportedly from the Late Jurassic of east central Asia has recently expanded its confirmed record (Sun et al. 1998), and raises the specter of more fossils and better resolution ahead. Nevertheless, until this promise is realized, answers to questions as fundamental as the habits...

Stems

Leafy stems, except for those produced by the most reduced, neotenic species, share similar monocot-type anatomy (Fig. 2.15 Chapter 12). Typically, a narrow cortex-like layer is differentiated into two zones, the outer one occupied by thick-walled, ligni ed cells. Thinner-walled, sometimes starch-laden parenchyma constitutes the inner region, which lies against the central cylinder and is separated from it by sclerenchyma of various descriptions. Periderm-like (storied) tissue formed by...

Tillandsia Pollination

Stigma Vriesea

Tillandsia sensu Smith and Downs 1977 contains over 500 described species according to the latest count Luther and Sieff 1996 Chapter 13 . This tally will surely grow, although not the size of Tillandsia per se if the views of several authorities prevail. Smith and Downs 1977 listed just 410 species in seven subgenera and one of these segregates, Pseudocatopsis, has already been elevated to Racinaea by Smith and Spencer 1992 . Additional components e.g., subgenus Pseudalcantarea Beaman and Judd...

Pitcairnioideae

Pitcairnioideae rival Tillandsioideae for oral variety and kinds of pollinators attracted. Also, tendencies to deviate from basic designs characterize some clades more than others. Reproductive structure and pigmentation suggest near to complete dependence on insects for Brocchinia, Cottendor a, Deuterocohnia, Dyckia, Encholirium, Fosterella, Lindmania and Hechtia. Conversely, in orescence shape massive cylindrical to loose paniculate , diverse ower colors, radial to zygomorphic corollas,...

Year

Numbers of owering individuals within a single population of Puya dasylirioides in Costa Rica over eight consecutive years after Augspurger 1985 . during the rst year of life, they differ in important aspects of recruitment and survivorship and the reproductive performances of genets. Unlike the 7 10 years a Tillandsia paucifolia specimen needs to mature, seedling shoots of P. dasylirioides ower on average after 36 years, and do so with near certainty once a plant survives through...

Stomata

Tomlinson 1969 attempted to reconcile stomatal function with puzzling morphology as several prominent morphologists had done before him. He concurred that certain shapes and arrangements of the cells comprising the stomata and subjacent mesophyll defy interpretation without speculation about physiology. How, for example, can what are often exceptionally thick-walled, achlorophyllous guard cells of certain species continue to regulate gas exchange e.g., Fig. 2.13B Moreover, several diminutive...

Mechanisms

Certain fungi and the nitrogen-fixers promote plant nutrition in different ways depending on the types of participants and certain other variables. Diazotrophs convert dinitrogen to forms available to themselves and eventually other biota. Leaky exchanges characterize paired, free-living organisms compared with the traffic between partners in the most intimate, coevolved mutualisms e.g., the legume-Rhizobium association . Mycorrhizal fungi assist hosting flora by promoting the sorption of P and...