Practical Control System

Bioprotection from AM fungi-colonized plants is the outcome of complex interactions between plant, pathogen and AM fungi. Various mechanisms are proposed for conferring bioprotection, but generally effective bioprotection is a cumulative result of all mechanisms working either separately or together. The challenges to obtain biocontrol through AM fungi include the obligate nature of AM fungi, poor understanding of the mechanisms involved and the role of environmental factors in these...

Preface

Mycorrhizae are indigenous to soil and plant rhizosphere and potential tools for sustainable agriculture. They enhance the growth of a root system and even of an entire plant and often control certain plant pathogens. It is a fascinating subject, multidisciplinary in nature, and concerns scientists involved in plant heath and plant protection. There have been marked advances in this field during the last few decades. This book stresses the need to document the information, developing a unifying...

Am Fungi And Plant Disease Control

Plant diseases can be controlled by manipulation of indigenous microbes or by introducing antagonists to reduce the disease-producing pro-pagules (Linderman, 1992). AM fungi and their associated interactions with plants reduce the damage caused by plant pathogens (Siddiqui and Mahmood, 1995 Siddiqui et al., 1999 Harrier and Watson, 2004). With the increasing cost of pesticides and the environmental and public health hazards associated with pesticides and pathogens resistant to chemical...

Mohd Sayeed Akhtar And Zaki A Siddiqui

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, INDIA Abstract Arbuscular Mycorhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous and form symbiotic relationships with roots of most terrestrial plants. Their associations benefit plant nutrition, growth and survival due to their enhanced exploitation of soil nutrients. These fungi play a key role in nutrient cycling and also protect plants against environmental and cultural stresses. The establishment of AM fungi in the plant root has been shown...

Introduction

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occur over a wide range of agro climatic conditions and are geographically ubiquitous. They form symbiotic relationships with roots of about 90 land plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems (Brundrett, 2002). The AM association has been observed in 200 families of plants representing 1,000 genera and about 300,000 plant species (Bagyaraj, 1991). It is as normal for the roots of plants to be mycorrhizal as it is for the leaves to photosynthesize (Mosse,...

Ectomycorrhizae And Forest Ecosystems

Forest trees are in general completely dependent upon a symbiotic association of their roots with ectomycorrhizal fungi. These fungi mobilize minerals from soil and transfer them to the plant. In exchange the trees deliver assimilated C to the fungi. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a limited capability to enzymatically degrade the complex carbohydrates of most organic detritus and, instead, rely upon their tree hosts for their energy needs. In return, they take up P, N, sulfur, and zinc from soil...

Am Fungal Communities And Grain Production

With population increase, urban sprawl and the growing interest in the use of biofoels, significant pressures are occurring on some of the highest quality agricultural soils in many nations. Growth of grain and oilseed crops such as barley, corn, soybean and wheat have been an important part of the agricultural economy for years and the continuous increases in demand and prices have led farmers to apply highly intensive agricultural management practices, with the aim of increasing crop...

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agricultural systems employ natural processes to achieve acceptable levels of productivity and food quality while minimizing adverse environmental impacts Harrier and Watson, 2004 . Sustainable agriculture must, by definition, be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Similarly, sustainable forestry refers to an overall commitment to environmental conservation that integrates the production of trees for useful products with reforestation and conservation...

Molecular Basis Of Nutrient Exchange In Am Fungi

The driving force behind AM interactions is an exchange of nutrients between fungus and plant. Glomeromycotan fungi are obligate symbionts and rely on the carbon provided by their plant hosts to complete their life cycle. In return, the fungus provides nutritional benefits to the plant by delivering minerals, including the biologically essential nutrients phosphorus P and nitrogen N . The majority of this nutrient exchange is believed to occur within root cortical cells containing...