P

Azcón (1987, 1989)

P Positive, N negative, n neutral

"Refers to the impact of the bacterial species toward the AM fungus (e.g., promotion of spore germination and hyphal growth)

P Positive, N negative, n neutral

"Refers to the impact of the bacterial species toward the AM fungus (e.g., promotion of spore germination and hyphal growth)

plants and bolstering the resilience of soil in relation to a number of abiotic environmental stressors due especially to the dynamic function of the mycorrhizosphere. When taking into account the significant allocation of plant carbohydrates required for the development and maintenance of an expansive and prolific mycor-rhizospheric infrastructure, it has been suggested that the AM symbiosis should represent an extrinsic plant stress tolerance strategy which could inherently complement other intrinsic plant stress tolerance strategies. To further depict the roles of the mycorrhizosphere in ecosystem function, the present description of the AM symbiosis has distinguished between the direct vs. indirect dynamics of interaction. Accordingly, this distinction refers to AM-induced activities which either directly benefit host plant due to intimately co-modulated pathways or, alternatively, activities which indirectly benefit the symbionts (potentially including non-associated species) due to their effects in buffering the proximal growth environment. This perspective is intriguing since it presumes that a number of essential mycor-rhizospheric processes could occur simultaneously and (or) independently, and thereby have fundamental ecological functions across different trophic levels. This could account, in part, for the widespread abundance and distribution of mycor-rhizal associations within the majority of terrestrial ecosystems, especially those subjected to highly stressful and (or) extreme environments. Still, there are so far very few modeling strategies depicting these combined, multilateral effects especially across a broad or continuous spectrum of stress (e.g., from trace to toxicity conditions or from droughted to amply water conditions). For instance, the case for AM-plant metal uptake is

Table 11.4 Interactions between AM fungi and other fungi (from St. Arnaud and Elsen 2005)

Interaction outcome3. Interaction

Table 11.4 Interactions between AM fungi and other fungi (from St. Arnaud and Elsen 2005)

Interaction outcome3. Interaction

Fungus

AM fungi

P. n. N

Reference

Fungus

AM fungi

outcome

Reference

Altemaria alternate

G. mosseae

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