Functional categorization was performed according to MapMan software ( The functional groups of "Photosynthesis," "Major CHO metabolism," "Cell wall," "Lipid metabolism," and "Tetrapyrrole synthesis" down-regulated in chs mutants are marked by light shading, while the groups of "Stress," "Protein," and "Signaling" up-regulated in chs mutants are marked by dark shading indicating that the plants were under severe stress conditions (Table 7.2). This observation was further supported by our findings regarding enhanced accumulation of ROS, as observed by DAB staining for detection of H2O2 levels (Fig. 7.5).

(4) Following exposure to chilling, class 1 chs mutants suffered from imbalanced protein metabolism, demonstrated by suppression of transcripts involved in protein synthesis and massive induction of transcripts belonging to the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. These processes obviously lead to progressive destruction of normal cellular activity.

Overall, based on our studies with Arabidopsis chilling-sensitive mutants, we conclude that several biochemical and molecular traits are apparently crucial for plant survival under chilling temperatures; these include maintenance of photosynthetic activity and carbohydrate metabolism, maintenance of normal lipid metabolism, maintenance of stress tolerance and capability to detoxify accumulation of ROS, and maintenance of normal cellular function including normal protein turnover and cellular signaling processes.

Acknowledgements This chapter is a contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, no. 597/10.

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