Cation Proton Antiporters

This superfamily of antiporters is composed of three families: the monovalent cation:proton anti-porter-1 (CPA1) family (eight members), the monovalent cation:proton antiporter-2 (CPA2) family also referred to as the CHX family (28 members), and the NhaD family (two members) (Maser et al. 2001; Saier et al. 1999). In plants, Na+/H+ and K+/H+ antiporters belonging to the first family (CPA1) are likely critical determinants of salt tolerance and K+ homeostasis either by compartmentalization in cellular organelles, for instance NHX transporters, or by extrusion from the cell, for example SOS1 transporters (Apse et al. 1999; Leidi et al. 2010; Pardo et al. 2006; Rodriguez-Rosales et al. 2008; Shi et al. 2003). On the other hand, some members of the CPA2 family have been related to K+ acquisition. KEA5, AtCHX17, and AtCHX13 are upregu-lated in K+-starved roots (Cellier et al. 2004; Shin and Schachtman 2004; Zhao et al. 2008). AtCHX13 was indeed shown to complement a K+ uptake deficient yeast mutant showing a Km K+(Rb+) of 136 mM (Zhao et al. 2008), although its expression in the root tip suggested a role in sensing external K+ rather than mediating K+ uptake.

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