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Carbohydrate Reserves in Plants - Synthesis and Regulation A.K. Gupta and N. Kaur (Editors) © 2000 Elsevier Science B. V. All rights reserved.

Starch synthesis and grain filling in rice*

Jong-Ching Su

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road Section 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan

The genetic resource of rice plant is so rich that many high yield and disease resistant cultivars adaptable to diversified agroenvironments have been bred, and currently it is the major staple food source for one half of world population. As in other cereals, the main constituent of rice grain is starch, thus the grain filling capacity is determined mainly by the starch-synthesizing capability of endosperm. Among the three loci of starch synthesis, starch granules formed in leaf and stem are transitory in nature. The stem starch serves as a temporary storage of photosynthate from source leaf to sink seed, and sucrose is the main form of photosynthate trafficking. ADPG is the glucose carrier between sucrose and starch, and besides ADPG pyrophosphorylase, an endosperm-specific sucrose synthase isoenzyme is another agent of ADPG synthesis. A futile cycling of sucrose synthesis-degradation is probably the mean of fine-tuning sucrose concentration to regulate metabolic activities. In the growing rice seed, the concerted functioning of multiple forms of granule bound and soluble starch synthases, branching and debranching enzymes, together with the ADPG supplying strength, determine the overall grain-filling capacity. The biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and molecular genetics relevant to the functioning of enzymes needed for transforming sucrose into various forms of starch were discussed.

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