Spinal Product

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Dorn Spinal Therapy has been in uses in the past 40 years. The credit of this method goes to Dieter Dorn, who has made a significant impact in the medical field. DORN- Method has been used on various patients where results could get witnessed instants. Due to the impact, this method has brought in the country. It has been declared the standard practice in treating Pelvical Disorders, Spinal, and Back pain. Dieter Dorn first used this method on his family, which was a sign of confidence in a method, which later gained much attention from different people in the country and also globally. Every day Dorn was able to offer treatment to 15- 20 patients in a day. His services were purely free which attracted attention both in the local and also global. The primary treatment that DORN-Method which could be treated using this method include spine healing therapy, misalignments of the spine, resolving pelvis and joints, and also solving out significant problems which could get attributed to vertebrae. Read more...

Dorn Spinal Therapy Summary


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Color Changes in Old Aposematic Thorns Spines and Prickles

While the adaptive significance and the broad occurrence of color change in flowers (Weiss 1991, 1995) fruits (van der Pijl 1982 Willson and Whelan 1990) and leaves (Matile 2000 Archetti 2000 Hamilton and Brown 2001 Hoch et al. 2001 Lee et al. 2003 Schaefer and Wilkinson 2004 Lev-Yadun and Gould 2007) has been widely discussed, the phenomenon of color change in thorns, spines and prickles has only recently been described as being a widespread phenomenon and discussed as such (Lev-Yadun and Ne'eman 2006). Patterns of color changes of senescent colorful aposematic thorns, spines and prickles were described in Lev-Yadun and Ne'eman (2006) Color changes make them less conspicuous, and they lose most or even all their aposematic character. The scale of this phenomenon on a taxon, flora, continent or global scale is still unknown. Lev-Yadun and Ne'eman (2006) emphasized that color changes in thorns, spines and prickles are not mandatory. Color changes and the aposematic character losses...

Anthemideae Biological And Systematic Review

A number of pollen studies have been conducted in the Anthemideae, using both light and electron microscopy, and many of these studies have been concerned with the characterization and identification of Artemisia pollen (Skvarla et al., 1977). Stix, (1960) recognized two basic pollen types in the Anthemideae, Anthemis and Artemisia, distinguishing them by spine presence in the former and absence or great reduction in the latter. Floral modification characteristic of anemophilous species include inconspicuous often pendulous capitula and florets, loss of nectar production and dry spineless pollen, in contrast with the sticky spiny pollens of the entomophilous genera (Skvarla and Larson 1965).

Robles encinas encinos belloteros [acorntrees Quercus speciesBeech family Fagaceae

Scrub oak, encino achaparrado shrub-size oak Quercus turblneli Range Our whole range w to CA s. to Mex. Dry slopes, 4,500' - 8,000' This oak should be readily identified by its small, somewhat shiny, bluish green, hollylike leaves with spine-tipped teeth arid dull yellow to reddish, hairy undersides.

Mimosa biunciferaPea Family

This shrub urges passersby to wait a minute by sinking its cat-claw spines into clothing or flesh. Even the leaves and pods are prickly with tiny, curved spines. Because the stem spines are curved and paired (two at every node), wait-a-minute bush is easy to distinguish from catclaw (which has one curved spine per node) and white thorn (which has paired, straight spines). Wait-a-minute leaves are divided into tiny leaflets, as many as three hundred per leaf. New leaves appear rather late in the spring and are retained all summer. They turn brown with the first frosts and drop soon afterward. Flowers are borne between May and August. Even without flowers and leaves, the five-foot-tall shrubs are readily recognized by their paired, catclaw spines and tendency to grow in impenetrable thickets. Wait-a-minute thrives on hillslopes and in washes from Arizona to Texas.

Parrot Pitcher Plants

Lacking the spine-lined mouth of the purpureas, the parrot, Sarracenia psittacina Michaux, has evolved a somewhat different, yet equally effective, insect-confusing method of getting fed. The flared hood is up, the mouth toward the center of the plant. As insects are attracted into the tiny mouth by the aroma from the attractant glands, they begin to feed on the nectar of the plant. If they suspect something awry, the insects may attempt to flee. But which way is out Not up, although there's light showing through those translucent spots. It may fly up, but merely hits its head and tumbles back into the pitcher.

Upright Thorny Plants

Recognition I'hough the cherries, also in the genus Prunus9 are never spiny, the plums are variously thorny or not, Alleghany Plum (p. 240), for example, sometimes has spine-lipped twigs. For upright cherries and such usually thornless plums see Plate 53, Some spines of plums may be simple spikes, but most are short, stiff, bud-bearing branches with sharpened tips. Thorns are generally absent from young twigs- Like other species of Primus, leafstalks of most plums (but see American Plum) bear paired small glands. Sap clear and spur brandies often present. Bark often marked with horizontal line-like lenticels. Unlike cherries, the end buds are false in plums. Wild plum fruits are small, ball-shaped, with single large seeds.

Water Use Efficiency Of Fossil And Herbarium Plants

A large amount of time exists between the origin of land plants and the evolution of leaves with a flat blade (Kenrick 2001). For at least the first 40 million years of their existence, land plants were leafless or had only small spine-like appendages. The widespread appearance of megaphyll leaves, with their branched veins and planate form, did not occur until the close of the Devonian period about 360 million years ago (Beerling et al. 2001). (See Figure 9.10 for a figure of the geological time scale, which shows the Devonian period.) Beerling et al. (2001) proposed an explanation for this long delay. Drawing on anatomical and environmental data from the fossil record, they concluded that leaves with a broad lamina evolved in response to a massive drop in atmospheric CO2 during the Late Devonian period. The evolution of the megaphylls coincides with a drop of around 90 in atmospheric CO2 concentration (Beerling et al. 2001 Kenrick 2001). The fall was driven by plants. The evolution...

Eric Mellink andMnica E Riojas Lpez

Consumption of Vegetative Structures Cladode Preferences Seasonal Effects for Herbivory Nutritional Qualitites of Cladodes Spine Effects on Herbivory Consumption of Reproductive Structures Flower Consumption Fruit Consumption Evolutionary and Ecological Context Past and Present Herbivory Pressures Gal pagos Islands Alienized Relations Concluding Remarks Literature Cited

Microtubules as Sensors Molecular Mechanisms

These pharmacological findings from plant cells are supported by the results from genetic screens for touch-sensitive ion channels in Caenorhab-ditis elegans. Using a system, where the phobic response to a specific touch stimulus was screened, so-called mechanosensation defective (mec) mutants could be recovered (Chalfie and Au 1989 for review see Chalfie 1993). Some of the mutated genes encoded a novel class of transmembrane proteins, the so-called degerins, that might represent components of a touch-sensitive ion channel. However, two of these mutants, mec7 and mec12 were affected in a unique set of microtubules consisting of 15 protofilaments that were confined to the axons of the touch-sensitive neurons responsible for the phobic response (Chalfie and Thomson 1982). MEC12 and MEC7 were later shown to encode specific isotypes of a-tubulin (Savage et al. 1989) and -tubulin (Fukushige et al. 1999), respectively. In both mutants, the loss of mechanosensation was correlated by specific...

Central depressive effects of Magnolia extracts 4421 Muscle relaxant effect

The ether extract of Magnolia and the alkali-soluble fractions inhibited the spinal reflexes, the crossed extensor reflex responding to the stimulation of the central end of the cut sciatic nerve, in young chicks (ED50 48.8 mg kg and 21.2 mg kg, respectively) (Watanabe et al., 1973). This effect was antagonized by strychnine (0.5 mg kg i.p.). The tonic extensor convulsion produced by intracerebroventricular injection of penicillin G potassium (50 ig) in mice was also inhibited by Magnolia ether extract (ED50 530 mg kg) and its alkali-soluble fraction (ED50 251 mg kg).

Central depressive effects of magnolol and honokiol

Watanabe et al. (1975, 1983a,b) evaluated in detail the central depressive effects of magnolol and honokiol. Both intraperitoneally administered magnolol and honokiol disrupted the grip strength in mice for up to 180 min (ED50 131 mg kg and 217 mg kg, respectively) (Watanabe et al., 1975), and inhibited the spinal reflexes in chicks for up to 60 min (ED50 10.3 mg kg and 11.1 mg kg, respectively) (Watanabe et al., 1983a). Magnolol also inhibited penicillin G potassium-induced convulsions in mice (ED50 31.3 mg kg) (Watanabe et al, 1983b).

Mechanisms of the central depressive effects of magnolol and honokiol

Neurochemical evaluation revealed that honokiol (1-10 iM), but not magnolol (1-10 iM), elicited a concentration-dependent enhancement of 25 mM K+-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampus slices (Tsai et al., 1995b). Addition of tetrodotoxin (1 iM), pilocarpine (1 iM) or methoctamine (1 iM) had no effect on the enhanced ACh release by honokiol. These results indicate that part of the central depressive effect of honokiol is produced through an enhancement of K+-evoked ACh release directly on hippocampal cholinergic terminals via receptors other than M2 cholinergic subtypes. Taken together, the results from the behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evaluations strongly suggest that magnolol and honokiol show an inhibitory effect on several areas of the brain such as the hypothalamic and reticular formation ascending activating systems as well as the spinal cord.

Echinocactus horizonthalonius

Well known among the desert figures are the heavy-bodied barrelcac-tuses which are sometimes pointed out as sources of water for travelers suffering from thirst. Under extreme conditions, it is possible to hack off the tops of these tough, spine-protected plants and obtain, by squeezing the macerated tissues, enough juice to sustain life.

Larval Fish In Estuarine And Coastal Waters

24-25 myomeres body depth moderate lightly pigmented gut coiled and compact conspicuous gas bladder small preopercular spines. (Figure 8.12P) Typically 30-40 myomeres body elongate lightly to moderately pigmented gut short and coiled moderate to large teeth none to large preopercular spines. (Figure 8.12I) 24-25 myomeres body depth moderate lightly pigmented gut moderate coiled and compact prominent ascending premaxillary process small preopercular spines. (Figure 8.12O) 24-25 myomeres body depth moderate lightly pigmented gut moderate, coiled and compact small to large preopercular spines. (Figure 8.12L) 26-27 myomeres body depth moderate lightly to moderately pigmented gut moderate, coiled and compact small preopercular spines. (Figure 8.12S) 19-20 myomeres body deep and laterally compressed moderately to heavily pigmented gut moderate, coiled and compact prominent dorsal and pelvic spine with barbs. (Figure 8.12E) 24 myomeres body deep and laterally compressed moderately to heavily...

Partial Descriptions ofColor Patterns in Floras

One major obstacle to studies of defensive plant coloration in general and apose-matic coloration in particular is provided by the fragmentary and inconsistent descriptions of plant coloration, especially of vegetative organs. Taxonomists have usually referred only to flower colors, and even this character has not always been fully described. Thorn, spine and prickle color, unripe and ripe fruit color, leaf colors, bark color and color changes in all of these organs have usually not been systematically described. In his seminal book on plant demography, Harper (1977) commented as follows on the possibility that defensive plant coloration operates botanists were reluctant to accept things that are commonplace for zoologists. The surprisingly small number of papers in botany related to defensive coloration

Immunocytochemical localization of capsaicin VR1TRPV1 receptors

VRl-immunoreactivity and mRNA for VR1 positive neurons in rat and human brain were scattered in different regions, including the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The strongest VR1 mRNA signals were detected in the following areas all cortical areas, septum, hippocampus dentate gyrus, substantia nigra (zona compacta), cerebellum, locus coeruleus and inferior olive. In rat hypothalamus VR1 mRNA-expressing neurons and capsaicin-induced glutamate release have been reported (Sasamura et al., 1998). It was striking that in rats treated with capsaicin in the neonatal age, although VR1 mRNA in DRG and nucleus of the spinal trigeminal nerve was diminished, its expression in other areas of the brain did not differ from that of the controls (Mezey et al., 2000).

Echinocereus fendleri a

Growing in open clumps with stems resembling spine-covered cucumbers standing on end, the hedgehog is the first cactus to blossom in the spring. Flowers vary considerably in color ranging from lavender through purple to a rich red. A closely related cactus, the rainbow (Echinocereus rigidissimus) (b) is restricted in its distribution to elevations between 4,000 to 6,000 feet. It is called rainbow cactus because of alternating bands of red and white spines encircling the stem and marking growth of different seasons and years. Its blossoms are pinkish (yellow in western Texas) and are large and showy in comparison with the small size of the single-stemmed plant.

OfAposematic Coloration in Thorny Spiny and Prickly Plants

There is very strong indirect evidence for the operation of aposematic coloration in thorny and spiny plants and its convergent evolution in the fact that conspicuous thorn and spine coloration is found in angiosperm taxa that have mutually exclusive biochemical pathways of pigmentation. For instance, taxa belonging to the Caryophyllales (e.g., Cactaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae) produce yellow and red pigments via the betalain pathway (Stafford 1994) . Most other angiosperm families use anthocyanins for similar patterns of coloration. The fact that spines of cacti are usually conspicuous because of their coloration (Lev-Yadun 2001), commonly including yellow, orange and red coloration resulting from betalain derivatives, indicates that this group of pigments may, among their various functions, be involved in aposematic coloration. By contrast, in Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae as well as in many other angiosperm families that use anthocyanins for yellow, orange, pink, red,...

Aposematic Coloration in Thorny Spiny and Prickly Plants

There are three terms for sharp defensive plant appendages thorns, when they are made of branches spines, when they are made of leaves and prickles, when they are made of cortical tissues (e.g., in roses). Thorns, spines and prickles provide mechanical protection against herbivory (Janzen and Martin 1982 Janzen 1986 Tomlinson 1990 Myers and Bazely 1991 Grubb 1992 Rebollo et al. 2002) because they can wound mouths, digestive systems (Janzen and Martin 1982 Cooper and Owen-Smith 1986 Janzen 1986), and other body parts of herbivores. Thus, theoretically, once herbivores learn to identify thorns, spines and prickles (and their bright colors or associated markings should help in their recognition), they can avoid the harmful plants advertising them. The fact that thousands of Since what is toxic to one animal might be harmless to another (Laycock 1978 Janzen 1979 Gleadow and Woodrow 2002), chemical-based aposematism may not operate for all herbivores. For sharp defensive organs, the...

Glycine And Dimethylglycine

Glycine, because of its effects on this one area of the brain, can be used as an adjunctive treatment in several conditions. In people suffering from drug and alcohol dependency, it is thought that this area of the brain is periodically up-regulated, leading to excessive norepinephrine release. People who become dependent on substances may use drugs or alcohol to satisfy the cravings created by an up-regulated locus ceruleus. Other conditions in which glycine can be useful for down-regulation of the locus ceruleus are panic disorders, nervous tension, anxiety, substance withdrawal, and insomnia (which is marked by awakening with anxiety). Glycine also interacts in an inhibitory action with motor neurons in the spinal cord and can have a calming effect on muscle spasms, muscle twitching, guarding, and rigidity that results from excessive spinal reflex activity. Glycine can inhibit spasms associated with the urinary and reproductive systems as well.19

Sperm cell male gamete

Plant Sperm Cell Sentence

alveolate angulaperturate annulate annulus aper- arcuate arcus areola areolate atectate atrium cate boat-shaped brevi- brevicolpate brevicolporate > pa cappula caput cavea caveate circular clava is colpus colpus membrane columella columellate costate croton pattern cryopalynology cup-shaped diporate dispersal unit distal disulcate dyad echinate ure elliptic endexine endintine endo- endoaperture il view eu- eurypalynous eutectate exine fenestrate i foveola foveolate free-standing columellae frustrate granular granulate granulum haploxylon-pollentype ropolar hexa- homo- homobrochate iatropalynology um intectate inter- interapertural area intercolpium iso- isodiametric isopolar lacuna laesura lalongate lophae lophate lumen margo massula melissopa- ocolpium micro- microspore microspore mother cell > noporate monosaccate monosulcate muri nexine Derculate operculum orbicule ornamentation outline sopalynology palynogram palynology palynomorph pedium penta- perforate peri-...

Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi and Thorns

Three recent publications showed that spines harbor an array of pathogenic bacteria and fungi (Halpern et al. 2007a, b Lev-Yadun and Halpern 2008). Spines from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) trees, thorns from common hawthorn (Crataegus aronia) trees and two thorny shrub species, thorny burnet (Sarcopoterium spinosum) and manna tree (Alhagi graecorum), were sampled in Israel. Every typical mature individual of these trees and shrubs carries hundreds or even thousands of conspicuous and therefore potentially aposematic spines or thorns. The severity and frequency of infections among orchard workers in Israel following date-palm spine wounding has necessitated the costly practice of removing all of the millions of spines from many of the orchards using mechanical saws. Even the small number of spines and thorns studied resulted in a list of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria species including Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus anthracis and Pantoea agglomerans (Halpern et al. 2007a, b). C....


A particularly striking example of the hexagonal arrangement of baculae is provided by the immature pollen of Ipomea purpurea (Fig. 4D). In this species, the reticulate pattern of the tetrad stage microspore is remarkably consistent of the 54 complete elements that make up the spore face depicted in Fig. 4D, 48 are regular hexagons. However, it is noteworthy that the pattern is not quite perfect since six of the constituent elements are pentagonal. Another interesting feature of Ipomea is that almost every three-way intersection (triple junction) between the polygonal elements carries a spine. These examples demonstrate that pattern specification involves the precise positioning of wall elements, principally baculae, and that the unit of pattern is very often a regular hexagon. Fig. 4. Reticulation in pollen walls, bubbles and basalt. A. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Lilium pollen wall showing reticulate pattern formed by the baculae. The nexine I is visible through the...


Endometriomas are commonly found on the ovaries fallopian tubes peritoneal lining cervix colon appendix vagina and uterosacral, broad, and round ligaments. In severe cases, adhesions are also found on the bladder, kidney, vulva, arms, legs, lungs, nasal mucosa, spinal column, and sites of previous surgical incisions.2 Two-thirds of women with endometriosis have their ovaries affected in 30 of women, local lymph nodes are involved and in 10 -15 of women, the sigmoid colon is affected.2


These are known to be analeptic and convulsant and are medullary stimulants. As analeptics they were used to overcome depressions due to overdoses of barbiturates or morphine, but this is now mostly abandoned because of their high toxicity. They act on the spinal cord by antagonizing or blocking postsynaptic inhibitions. Brucine has a similar action to strychnine but is fifty times less toxic. Picrotoxin, obtained from the Indian Anamirta paniculata, is a medullary stimulant in small doses and is used in preference to strychnine to counteract barbiturate and bromide poisoning. The West African Dioscorea dumetorum (Dio-scoreaceae) has a picrotoxin-like convulsive action on the medulla.


Adult Dark brown with pointed tails at the end of the vein 2,4 of the hind wing. Both wings are crossed by yellow bands, which in the forewing is made up of separate discal spots. Wings span 7.5-8.0 cm. (Plate 9.2). Egg Spherical and white,with brown streaks. Larva The caterpillar is characterized by long, paired filaments, a branching spine or a horned head. There are two pairs of filaments on its head the center pair is longer than the adjacent ones. Between the center pair there is another short pair showing as horns. The tips of these filaments are reddish brown. The posterior end has one pair of appendages which are brown at the tip (Plate 9.3). These appendages disappear in the last larval stage. The body is dark green with a yellow line that runs laterally across the body. A fully grown larva is 5.5-6 cm, and has 3 pairs of legs and 5 pairs of prolegs. Pupa Green color, 2-2.5 cm, oval shape pointed at one end.


There was no apparent vitamin B12 deficiency, although there were changes in the patients' electroencephalograms along with mental changes.31 Citing the causal link between vitamin B12 deficiency and brain dysfunction, the authors of this study suggest that the manifestation of psychiatric symptoms may occur prior to other standard signs such as macrocytic anemia and spinal-cord disease, and that all patients with psychiatric disease should be evaluated for vitamin B12 deficiency.


Its dark gray bark makes this intricately branched shrub appear black from a distance, creating a rather somber landscape. When it blooms in April and May, however, blackbrush is quite pretty. There are no petals the four sepals, all bright yellow on the inside, take over the function of petals, attracting pollinators to the cluster of stamens and pistil in the flower's center. The tiny leaves are gray and arise in pairs on the spine-tipped branches.


The Opuntia group has approximately three hundred species of cacti or more, and typical members of subfamily Opuntioideae have well-defined stem segments, an unusual kind of specialized seed structure, and a unique type of reverse-hooked small spines (glochids), which penetrate the skin and are easily dislodged from their attachment points in the areoles. These cacti include the prickly pears and chollas (pronounced CHOY-yas), which produce showy flowers that are often pollinated by bees, and develop fleshy (occasionally dry) edible berries called tunas. This group is the most widespread of any in the Cactaceae, ranging from southern Canada southwards almost continuously to the cold habitats of Patagonia in southernmost Argentina. They are found from sea level to high elevation (4,000 meters and higher) and have adapted to a wide variety of habitat types. Species of Opuntia introduced into suitable habitats in Africa and Australia have become noxious invasive pests, and removing these...

Free Radicals

Free radicals are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MS. Persons with MS have elevated concentrations of markers of nitric oxide (NO) production, including nitrate and nitrite, in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, and urine. Research suggests that NO has a role in the axonal degeneration and impairment of axonal conduction, disruption of the blood-brain

S Wats Irwin Barnb

In the spring, the bare stems put out flowering shoots adorned with pretty yellow flowers and sparse leaves. Each leaf is composed of four to six paired leaflets that drop within a month or two. Afterwards, the leaf axis remains as a feeble spine. Spininess is common among desert plants no one is quite sure why. Defense against herbivores is one suggestion. Anothei is that spininess is a consequence of the arid environment. What is certain is that desert plants arrive at spininess by several different routes. Some, like catclaw and white thorn, develop spines by modification of tiny leaf bracts called stipules. Others, like spiny senna, press the leaf stalk or the leaf axis into service.


Lecithin , phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol) extracted as a by-product during the degumming of crude soybean oil. It constitutes about 0.5-1.5 of the soybean seed or 1-3 of crude soybean oil. Commercially, lecithin is available from a dark-tan to reddish-brown colour and in a fluid state to powdered form it constitutes about 75 phospholipids, while the rest is unrefined oil, moisture and so on. Lecithin is an important nutraceutical component of soybean. It improves liver function, cardiovascular health, fetal brain development, memory function and the reproductive system. Lecithin is an indispensable component of cell membranes, constituting about 10 of the human spinal cord and 5 of the brain hence, its deficiency restricts the free passage of nutrients from and into the cells. Therefore, it is of great therapeutic value for patients with Alzheimer's disease who are deficient in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Lecithin is also recommended for relieving depression....

CII3CI Icilj

These seeds contain 1.5-5 of alkaloids, chiefly strychnine (about 1.2 ) and brucine (about 1.6 ). Strychnine (Fig. 2.6) is very toxic, affecting the CNS and causing convulsions. This is a result of binding to receptor sites in the spinal cord that normally accommodate glycine. Its only medicinal use is in very small doses as an appetite stimulant and general tonic, sometimes with iron salts if the patient is anaemic. Brucine (Fig. 5.14) is considerably less toxic. Distribution of strychnine and brucine in various species of Strychnos is tabulated below.

Prostrate Spurge

The bad-boy member of the family is leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), an invasive weed of cattle rangeland that is so unpalatable that cattle won't even graze near it. Leafy spurge, then, shrinks the effective acreage available for feeding. The most useful member of the family is petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus), which is interesting for its oddly personified name, but useful because its milky sap can be used as an out-of-the-ground treatment for skin cancer lesions. The sap is applied to the lesion like liquid nitrogen, and like liquid nitrogen it causes skin blistering and cell death where it is applied. The cancer generally flakes off a week or so later. The milky sap is common to most members of the Euphorbia family. Break a leaf off your poinsettia and watch the sap run. Cactus-like members of the family can be distinguished from real cacti, whose family is conveniently called the Cactaceae. Euphorbia cacti are like cows they have two horns and give milk. (Translation The spines...



Bracts may be elaborate and persistent (e.g., Aechmea fasciata Fig. 3.2G), or much reduced and more ephemeral (e.g., Aechmea fulgens Fig. 3.2B). Ancillary functions characterize the exceptional species, for example the red bracts that also secrete nectar to attract ant guards to Tillandsia bal-bisiana (see below). Floral bracts produced by Aechmea setigera bear a sharp terminal spine that seems not to impede either pollination or seed dispersal, but may deter large grazers (Fig. 3.2D).

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