Stringent exclusion and quarantine strategy

Phytosanitary regulations guide the transfer of plant materials. These regulations are becoming more stringent, now that there is worldwide awareness concerning the transfer of pests from one particular endemic location to a relatively safe location (Biosecurity, 2003). Plant parasitic nematodes are commonly known as the farmer's hidden enemy. They are some of the pests looked for in phytosanitary investigations. Grains contaminated with seed-borne nematodes can be a threat to high soybean-producing countries, if such infected materials are conveyed across borders. In addition, plant materials contaminated with Heterodera species or root-knot nematodes can be devastating to soybean-producing areas that do not already have such nematode problems. Thus, a phytosanitary certificate showing a clean bill of no nematode infection is required when plant materials are imported or exported. Likewise, care should be taken to confine (quarantine) infected or suspected plant materials to avoid the spread of such pests. According to Sikora et al. (2005b), exclusion is the most effective and economical means of preventing the introduction of important pests. In addition, the prevention of local spread within a country or region has been effective in the past and should be strengthened in the future. An example of the transfer of an economically important nematode is that of SCN H. glycine to Brazil. Nema-tologists and other plant protection experts should be involved in phytos-anitary and quarantine services at both national and international levels.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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