Seed and pod feeders

Another feeding guild that routinely causes yield loss is the pod and seed feeders. Many of the same orders of insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera) and species (H. armigera, H. zea, C. trifurcata) that feed on foliage also feed on pods and seeds. Some species feed almost entirely within pods during the immature stages (Etiella zinckenella), causing moderate yield loss (Van den Berg et al., 1998a). The most widespread and significant pests of soybean during the later growth stages are hemipterans, specifically the pentato-mid stinkbugs (Kogan and Turnipseed, 1987) such as Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii. The most ubiquitous and possibly damaging is N. virid-ula, which is found in all soybean-producing areas of the world. Knight and Gurr (2007) reviewed the many management strategies targeting N. viridula. Like all hemipterans, N. viridula has a piercing-sucking mouth-part that can result in flower bud abscission, seed deformation and, if sufficiently extensive, abortion of pods. The relationship between yield reduction and stinkbug pod feeding is related to the growth stage of the plant, with later stages suffering greater yield reductions (Sinclair et al., 1997). In addition to directly reducing yield, stinkbugs transmit yeast spot disease (Kimura et al., 2008a,b).

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