Journal References On Soybean

Akobundu, I.O. (1987) Weed Science in the Tropics Principles and Practices. Wiley, Chichester, UK. Askew, S.D., Shaw, D.R. and Street, J.E. (1998) Red rice (Oryza sativa) control and seedhead reduction with glyphosate. Weed Technology 12, 504-506. Ateh, C.M. and Harvey, R.G. (1999) Annual weed control by glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max L.). Weed Technology 13, 394-398. Balyan, R.S. and Malik, R.K. (2003) Effect of post-emergence herbicides for weed management in soybean...

Food uses

Many types of soybean foods are available throughout the world today. Some are produced through the use of modern processing techniques in a large soybean processing plant, whereas others are produced in more traditional ways, owing their history to oriental processing techniques. These foods are usually referred to as traditional soybean foods. The main food products of soybean are full-fat soybean flour, de-fatted flour, soybean grits, soybean flakes, soybean milk, soybean-fortified bakery...

Nutritional Constraints of Soils Supporting Soybeanbased Cropping Systems

The USA, Brazil, China and Argentina are the major soybean-producing countries. India ranks third after Argentina and Brazil to have registered a phenomenal growth in the production of soybean. In Brazil, soybean is mostly grown on oxisols, alfisols, ultisols and entisols. Out of these soybean-growing areas in Brazil, fertile alfisols constitute only 1.7 of the area (Borkert and Sfredo, 1994). Oxisols and ultisols together constitute 64 of the area. Entisols, mainly quartz sands of low...

Tillage Seedbed Preparation

Tillage is physical manipulation of the soil. It is done to create conditions conducive for good germination and plant growth, control weeds, mix fertilizers and manures into the soil, incorporate the straw of a previous crop or a green manure into the soil and so on. For a good seedbed preparation for soybean, two or three cultivations, harrowings or ploughings are generally sufficient for most soils. Tillage intensity as well as type of tillage, however, may vary with the presence or absence...

Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Soybean

One of the major features of soybean that makes it an attractive crop in many cropping systems is its efficient BNF in association with Bradyrhizo-bium in the root nodules soybean thereby requires low nitrogen supplies in the form of chemical fertilizers for meeting its own nitrogen requirement. The quantum of nitrogen fixed varies with the climatic conditions experienced during growing period, soil conditions, agronomic practices followed, genotype and so on. There is a wide variation in the...

Medicinal uses

There is no denying that soybean has many health benefits. These benefits are mainly derived from the quality of the soybean proteins and from the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Soybean has been shown to be beneficial in conditions of lactose intolerance, high cholesterol, heart disease, cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and diabetes. Soybeans contain a variety of anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals, including lunasin and lectins. Lunasin is a polypeptide that arrests cell division...

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

Soybean is one of the oldest food sources known to humans. On an average, it contains about 40 protein, 23 carbohydrates, 20 oil, 5 mineral, 4 fibre and 8 moisture (Gopalan et al., 1974 SOPA, 2002). Soybean is recognized for its value in enhancing and protecting health. Soy protein contains all of the eight essential amino acids. The recent discovery of the value of soy-isoflavones and their role in disease prevention has created a special interest in soybean. It has boundless food potential....

How to Improve Contributions of Soybean in Agriculture

BNF is beneficial to the environment (Jensen and Hauggaard-Nielsen, 2003) and is an important source of nitrogen in agriculture, which needs to be further enhanced by various means including agronomic, microbiological and plant breeding (Hardarson and Atkins, 2003). However, the breeding approach for enhanced atmospheric nitrogen fixation has not been a success in soybean (Herridge et al., 2001). Soybean has great potential. It has the capability to fix a large quantity of atmospheric nitrogen....

Selection methods

A soybean breeder must consider two major points before performing any selections. These are the level of homozygosity and the management of a population to achieve that level of homozygosity (Fehr, 1987). In principle, the later the generation selected, the better the additive genetic effect, which is already fixed in the population. This means that there is no dominance effect in the performance of lines (Kearsey and Pooni, 1996) and hence no further segregation. There are two forms of...

Contributors

Mr Navneet Aggarwal, Assistant Agronomist (Pulses), Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India. E-mail navneetpulsespau yahoo.com Dr Nawab Ali, Ex-Deputy Director General (Engineering), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, KAB-II, Pusa, New Delhi 110012, India. Present address House Number SDX-40, Minal Residency, JK Road, Bhopal 462 023, India. E-mail alinawab11 gmail.com Dr Kavita Bisht, Lecturer, SAP Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kichha,...

References

Abernathy, R.H., Palmer, R.G., Shibles, R. and Anderson, J.C. (1977) Histological observations on abscising and retained soybean flowers. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 57, 713-716. Ackerson, R.C., Havelka, V.D. and Boyle, M.G. (1984) CO2-enrichment effects on soybean physiology. II. Effects of stage-specific CO2 exposure. Crop Science 24, 1150-1154. Acock, B., Reddy, V.R., Hodges, H.F., Baker, D.N. and McKinion, J.M. (1985) Photosynthetic response of soybean canopies to full-season carbon...

Chemical properties

The important chemical properties influenced by soybean are related to the status of different essential nutrients. As the crop is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in association with Bradyrhizobium, it is often observed to influence the nitrogen balance in the soil. In addition, as soybean is usually grown with a large dose of phosphorus and potassium, the status of these elements in the soil also tends to be affected by the cultivation of soybean. The addition of a sizeable quantity of...

Impact Of Irrigation Management And Land Configuration On Yield Of Chickpea

Al-Assily, K.A. and Mohamed, K.A. (2002) Soil moisture deficit effect on some soybean genotypes production in Upper Egypt. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10, 153-163. Autkar, K.S., Gawande, R.L., Vyas, J.S. and Ghodpage, R.M. (2006) Effect of land configuration on yield and water use efficiency of soybean in vertisols of Vidarbha (M.S.). Annals of Plant Physiology 20, 158-159. Bahmaniar, M.A. and Sepanlou, M.G. (2008) Influence of saline irrigation water and gypsum on leaf...

Journal References On Soybean Production

Aiton, W.T. (1814) Epitome of Hortus kewensis, 2nd edn. Richard and Arthur Taylor, London, UK. Arunkumar, N.P., Swamy, M., Chandrappa, M. and Manja, N.C. (2009) Identification of drought tolerant genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L.). In Qiu, L., Guan, R., Jin, J., Song, Q., Guo, S., Li, W., Wang, Y., Han, T., Liu, X., Yu, D., Jiang, L. and Peng, D. (eds) Developing a Global Soy Blueprint for a Safe Secure and Sustainable Supply. Abstracts for oral presentations and posters of the World Soybean...

Genetic Improvement

It is likely that the selection of soybean landraces for good vegetable qualities has occurred gradually over centuries. In the middle of Edo period (1603-1868), farmers' wives began marketing boiled vegetable soybean pods attached to the stem in the streets of Edo (early Tokyo) (Lumpkin and Konovsky, 1991). Fresh vegetable soybeans with pods attached to the stem are sold even today they are very popular and preferred over frozen pods. The increasing demand for vegetable soybean catalysed...

References On Soybean Production

Acharya, C.L., Subba Rao, A., Biswas, A.K., Sammi Reddy, K., Yadav, R.L., Dwivedi, B.S., Shukla, A.K., Singh, V.K. and Sharma, S.K. (2003) Methodologies and Package of Practices on Improved Fertilizer Use Efficiency under Various Agro-climatic Regions for Different Crops Cropping Systems and Soil Conditions. Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India. Bell, P.F., Hallmark,W.B., Sabbe, W.E. and Dombeck, D.G. (1995) Diagnosing nutrient deficiencies in soybean, using M-DRIS and critical...

Oil extraction

Soya Lecithin Plant

Various products, co-products and by-products that can be obtained in soybean solvent extraction processing (Cherry, 2004) are shown in Fig. 16.2. The main commercial products of soybean are oil and meal (protein). Soy meal contains 45-50 good-quality protein and can be processed into a variety of high-protein co-products such as livestock feeds, de-fatted soy flours, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolates and TSP (Table 16.8). Much soybean oil is used for edible applications such as for...

Soy in Weight Management and Cosmetics

Obesity has become an important issue in some parts of the world as it leads to development of chronic diseases such as diabetes and CVD, with care costing a large part of the national health-care budget of the countries such as the UK and the USA. Studies have shown that a soy diet results in weight loss in women (Cope et al., 2007 Maskarinec et al., 2008). The weight-reducing property of soybean has been attributed to the low glycemic index (Blair et al., 2006) and high calcium concentration...

Soy Food Industry and Market in India

The primary interest in soybean in India has been the oil. However, increasing attention is now being paid to the protein potential that soybean offers. Today, about 15 of the total soybean production in India goes to direct food and feed uses, 10 is used for seed and 75 is processed for oil and protein. Crop residues such as leaves and fine straw are used as feed and the hard and woody stem for fuel in rural areas. The major food uses of soybean in India are of oil, protein and lecithin. The...

Effects of Moisture on Soybean

Effects of drought on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, growth and yield Drought may affect various physiological and morphological aspects of the soybean plant, which in turn affect nodulation, nitrogen fixation, growth and yield. The effect of drought stress on a plant may depend on various factors including the stage, severity and duration of stress. Although significant levels of osmotic adjustment have been reported in soybean (Likoswe and Lawn, 2008), osmotic adjustment is of little benefit...

Soiltestbased Fertilizer Recommendations in Soybean

Liebig's law of minimum states that the growth of plants is limited by the plant nutrient element present in the smallest amount, all others being in adequate quantities. From this, it follows that a given amount of a soil nutrient is sufficient for any one yield of a given percentage nutrient composition. Ramamoorthy et al. (1967) established the theoretical basis and experimental proof for the fact that Liebig's law of minimum operates equally well for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This...

Balanced and Integrated Nutrient Management in Soybeanbased Cropping Systems

In an era of multiple nutrient deficiencies, a single nutrient approach can lower fertilizer-use efficiency. Balanced nutrition implies that there are no deficiencies, excesses, antagonisms or negative interactions. All deficient nutrients must be at an optimum rate by themselves and in relation to each other, enabling positive interactions to enhance yields. Field trials conducted in different villages of central India on black soils deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc have...

Factors Affecting Water Use and Wateruse Efficiency in Soybean

Flood irrigation is a common practice in flat-bed-sown crops, whereas in raised bed or ridge-sown crops irrigation is applied in furrows. Furrow irrigation has a higher WUE than flood irrigation in soybean. Furrow opening after two rows of soybean provide a significantly higher seed yield and WUE compared with flat sowing without furrow opening (Autkar et al., 2006). Soybean has a higher WUE in a broad-bed and furrow system with irrigation at 0.6 IW CPE ratio than in a flat-bed system (Bharambe...

The bean with an ideal ratio of n6 to n3

Apart from possessing 40 protein, soybean seed also contains 20 oil. Globally, soybean is second only to palm Elaeis guineensis oil in production and use. Furthermore, it is a good source of essential fatty acids - linoleic acid 53 and a-linolenic acid 8 . Linoleic and linolenic acids are also termed as omega-6 n-6 and omega-3 n-3 fatty acids because of the presence of a double-bond 6 carbon and 3 carbon away from the last carbon omega , respectively. Collectively, they are referred as...

Sulphur

Several factors lead to a decline in the sulphur status of soil over time. Plant-available sulphur is derived primarily from the decomposition of plant residues and soil organic matter. Sulphur deficiency is most common in soils that are inherently low in sulphur, have a sandy texture and are low in organic matter and soils that are prone to high leaching. Historically, when ordinary superphosphate - which contains 12 sulphur - was in common usage, sulphur was inadvertently applied to many...

Economics of Fertilizer

The farmers are generally not applying the recommended doses of fertilizers to soybean because of high prices, inadequate supply and risks involved in soybean's cultivation under rainfed situations. However, the efficient use and management of fertilizer is of great value. The common method of determining the profitability potential is a VCR that represents the value of extra crop produced per unit of money invested in fertilizer. A VCR gt 1 mean a net profit while lt 1 means a net loss. The...

Determination of fruit number

Linking fruit and seed number to canopy photosynthesis during phase II provides a simple, straightforward mechanism that is supported by experimental Fig. 6.2. Fruit production on the soybean cultivar Pennyrile maturity group IV, indeterminate growth habit growing in the field. Fruits that were gt 10 mm in length were counted and marked at 3-day intervals, as described by Egli and Bruening 2002a . Growth stage R5 occurred approximately 26 days after growth stage R1 Egli and Rucker, 2006,...