Soap Making Recipes
Vetiver oil is used both in fine perfumery and in a whole range of soaps, skin lotions, deodorants and other cosmetic applications. Occasionally it is the dominant contributor to a fragrance more often it is used as a solid foundation upon which other fragrance notes are superimposed (Sreenath et al., 1994). Commercially vetiver essential oil has two main applications, firstly as the pure oil and secondly as the acetate (totally esterified) derivative. The term vetiverols refers to the alcohol-rich portion of sesquiterpenoids present in the oil. The major economically important oils are those originating from Reunion, Haiti, Angola, Guatemala, China, Java and Brazil. Vetiver oil is steam distilled from the roots which possess a most agreeable odor (see Chapter 3 for more details on oil distillation). Lemberg and co-workers were the first to study the chemical composition of some vetiver oils of different geographical origin (Lemberg and Hale, 1978). Their investigation raised some of...
Nowadays, lavender is used mainly as the essential oil in manufactured products like cosmetics, perfumes, soaps etc, but there has been a general reversion to the use of the dried lavender plant itself in the homespun industry of making products like herbal pillows and lavender bags (see Chapter 18).
Lavender absolute and concrete (L. angustifolia P. Miller or L. officinalis) is produced from direct extraction of the herb with solvents (concrete) and thence extraction with absolute alcohol from the concrete or from the distillation water. The concrete is reasonably priced and can be used in soaps, fougeres, chypres, ambres, tabac perfumes etc. It blends well with bergamot, citrus oils, musks, eugenol etc.
The oil is also reputed to have insect-repellent properties it is a sedative and relaxant and is useful in treating worms, particularly roundworm, and infections of the genitourinary system. It is also used as a flavouring in cooking and as a fragrance and freshening agent in soaps, cosmetics, detergents and perfumes (Sellar 1992 Lawless 1995).
Ground jojoba seeds have long been used by Indians for shampoo and medicine. These days, the seed oil (actually a liquid wax) is considered a valuable substitute for oil from the endangered sperm whale. A variety of shampoos, cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, and pharmaceuticals contain jojoba oil. The demand is great enough that jojoba plantations have sprung up in western Arizona and southeastern California, typically in broad, silty valleys where planting and harvesting can be readily mechanized. In the wild, jojoba grows on rocky canyon slopes and along gravelly washes in southern California and Arizona.
Tea tree products available on the market include neat oil, 15 solutions, shampoos, liquid and bar soaps, bath oil, handcreams, antiseptic creams, mouthwashes, toothpastes acne products, tinea creams and powders, vaginitis creams and douches, burn creams and various other health and veterinary care products.
Some other uses are also based on the chemical content. An insect repellent can be made by drying and burning aloe leaves and similar preparations are used to protect animals against ticks and stored food against weevils (Reynolds, 1950 Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962 Newton and Vaughan, 1996). Aloe maculata Medik. was known as A. saponaria (Ait.) Haw. for many years, the specific epithet alluding to the use of the roots to make soap. In South Africa, leaf sap of A. maculata was used in the tanning of garments made from skins (Reynolds, 1950). The leaf exudate of aloes is
Adelgid-infested hemlocks on public lands can be treated with foliar applications of insecticidal soaps or by systemic insecticides near visitor centers and campgrounds, but such treatments are generally not practical or economically viable in large forest stands. A potential remedy for infested forests is the use of biocontrol methods whereby natural enemies of the hemlock woolly adelgid are introduced into infested hemlock stands. Entomologists are currently releasing predatory beetles from Asia that feed exclusively on hemlock woolly adelgids. So far, these biocontrol agents have had little success reducing hemlock mortality.
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