Only these few plants and 2 thorny ones (Honey Locust and Hercules-club, Plate 24) have leaves in which leaflets, as well as leaves, are divided into smaller leaflets. Of those considered here, Yellowroot frequently bears leaves only once compound.
YELLOWROOT Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh p. 166 Recognition: A low shrub with once* or, less commonly, twice-compound leaves. Leaflets pointed and deeply toothed. Wood of both roots and upper parts bright yellow. Leaf scars narrow, more than half encircling twig; bundle scars numerous. Side buds small, blunt, and few-scaled; end bud much larger, with about 5 scales. Leaves 4"-10". Height to 3', Flowers purplish, in drooping clusters, April-May, Fruits small, dry. Similar species: Yellow wood and nearly encircling leaf scars are certain identification marks. Yellowwood (Plate 30) is taller, has leaflets not toothed, and leaf scars U-shaped.
PEPPER VINE Ampelopsis arhorea (L.) Koehne p. 166
Recognition: Either bushy and somewhat upright or a climbing vine with twice- or even thrice-compound leaves. Climbs by means of slender branched tendrils that are mostly present opposite upper leaves. Leaflets large-toothed* Twigs hairless or nearly so; buds small. Pith white and continuous. Leaves 2"-8". Flowers small, greenish, clustered, June-July. Fruits black berries, bitter, inedible, Aug,-Nov. Similar species: Grapes (Plates 34 and 35) have simple leaves and brown, mostly partitioned pith. (1) American and (2) Asiatic Ampelopsis (Plate 35) have simple leaves and unbranched tendrils.
IV. LEAVES T\VICE-COMPOUND
CHINABERRY Melia azedarach L. Not illus-
Recognition: An oriental tree widely planted in dooryards in South and often escaped to the wild. Leaves twice-compound (roughly resembling those of Pepper Vine), with toothed leaflets. Twigs stout and hairless. Buds small, nearly spherical, fuzzy. Leaf scars large, somewhat 3-lobed, with 3 groups of scattered bundle scars. End buds false. Pith white. Leaves 4'-12", Height to 40'. Flowers purplish with unpleasant odor, clustered, May-June. Fruits yellowish, ball-like, usually present. E. Virginia and se. Oklahoma to Florida and centr. Texas.
COFFEE-TREE Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch p, 166 Recognition: A tall tree with very large twice-compound leaves, Leaflets eery nutnerous, pointed, not toothed* Iwigs very stout, somewhat whitened; leaf scars large, 3-5 bundle scars. Buds silky, sunk in bark, often one above the other. End buds false; pith pinkish. Bark dark and scaly. Leaves I7"-36", Height 40'-60' (100'); diameter l'-2' (3'). Flowers whitish, clustered, May-June, Fruits 2"-10" brown pods, Sept.-winter. Similar species: Only other thornless trees with twice-compound leaves are ( 1) Albizzia and (2) Prairie Acacia, with fernlike leaves, and (3) Chinaberry, with toothed leaflets. In winter the combination of false end buds and sunken lateral buds is distinctive among species with double characteristic of many bundle scars and large leaf scars.
Remarks: As a shade tree, often planted in city parks along eastern seaboard; sometimes escapes. Native mostly west of Appalachians. One of few members of pea family which do not grow bacterial root nodules capable of fixing nitrogen. Seeds were roasted and used as coffee in some areas during Civil War. Indians are supposed to have roasted seeds, but they ate them as nuts. Pulp between seeds, however, reported to be poisonous and cattle have been made sick by leaves or fruits dropping into their drinking water. Reddish wood is strong and coarse but takes a good polish. Useful in cabinetwork ami for fence posts and railroad ties.
Recognition: A small tree with feathery, fernlike twice-compound leaves. On being handled, leaflets close like pages of a book, Twigs hairless, slender, leaf scars small, with 3 bundle scars. Buds few-scaled, small, blunt, not sunk in bark, sometimes occur one above the other; end buds false. Pith whitish. Bark smooth, light brownish. Leaves 5"-8". Height 20-40'; diameter 6"-12'\ Flowers powder-puff-like, pink, une-Aug. Fruits beanlike pods 2"-3".
Similar species: Prairie Acacia has hairy twigs.
IV. LEAVES TWICE-COMPOUND
PRAIRIE ACACIA Not illus.
Acada artgustissima var. hirta (Nutt,) Robins.
Recognition: A tfwrnless member of the large group of tropical and subtropical acacias. Foliage somewhat resembles that ot Albizzia but twigs quite iiairy. Leaf scars have single bundle scars; end buds false. Height to fi'. Flowers yellow or pink, in heads, June-Oct. Fruits pods. 2"-4" long, flat. Dry soils; sw. Missouri and s, Kansas to Arkansas and Texas.
PLATES FOR SECTION IV
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