4L Pith not chambered:

42. Leaves toothed, tips sharply pointed; leaf bases uneven; southern swamps WATER ELM 50 42. Leaves toothed, tips blunt; leaf bases even; northern hogs and barrens BIRCHES 52

42. Leaves toothed or wavv-edged, tips pointed or not; leaf bases even or uneven


A 73

Subdivision F

Erect Plants with Thornless Twigs and Leaves Not Lobed. Leaves Not Fan-veined and Leaf Scars Containing only 1 Bundle Scar

Name Plate

43. Shrubs with numerous tiny raised dots on the twigs (use lens):

44, Twig dots merely raised; twigs greenish or reddish; leaves and buds small; fruits many-seeded blue berries BLUEBERRIES 62

44, Twig dots brown or silver scales; twigs brownish; leaves and buds small to medium-sized; fruits brownish, 1-seeded, fleshy


43, Trees and shrubs with twigs not dotted:

45, Leaf undersides with tiny bright yellow resin-

dots (use lens) HUCKLEBERRIES 63

45. Resin-dots absent:

46, End buds clustered at twig tips, often large; leaves not toothed, edges with a hairy fringe {use lens):

47. Branchlets with tight bark AZALEAS 64

47. Branchlets with shreddy bark


46. End buds not clustered at twig tips (though sometimes crowded toward the tip and sometimes large), or if so then leaves toothed; leaves toothed or not, edges not hairy4ringed:

48. Leaves evergreen, mostly leathery; 49. Spur branches usually present;

tiny black thornlike stipules Hanking each leaf sear (use lens); end buds true HOLLIES 61

49. Spur branches and stipules of the above type absent: 50, Fruits fleshy berries; end buds false BILBERRIES, etc, 63 50. Fruits dry capsules; end buds true or false


48. Leaves thin, not evergreen:

51, Leal scars conspicuously raised, often with descending lines at the sides; twigs very long and slender; clustered small dry fniits commonly at twig tips; leaves toothed except occasionally in 1 species SPIREAS 60

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