Sumacs

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal

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Strictly speaking, the sumacs as a genus (Rhus) also include Poison-ivy, Poison-oak, and Fragrant Sumac (Plate 25). The sumacs considered on this plate, however, are distinctive in having more than 3 leaflets per feather-compound leaf, in being upright shrubs, and in having stout, more pithy twigs. Leaflets occur in opposing pairs except tor end one. Side buds are mostly hidden bv bases of the leafstalks and end buds are false. Bundle scars are numerous, Milky sap occurs in all on this plate except Poison Sumac. The flowers are small, greenish, and clustered. The fruits of Poison Sumac are greenish white like those of Poison-ivy, The other species bear dense spikes of small, dry, red, hairy fruits, which usually remain on the plants all winter and provide an apparently I it tie-relished but available food supply for wildlife,

A number of plants of Plates 26-30 arc similar in being upright and nonthorny with alternate once-compound leaves of more than 3 leaflets. Of these, the Tree-oM leaven, Yellowwood, indigo-bushes, and Western Soapberry are the only ones with false end buds. The hairy twigs, toothed leaflets, hidden buds, and milky sap will separate three of these sumacs from those plants. To distinguish the Poison Sumac, see under that species.

WINGED SUMAC Rhus copallina L. p. 156

Recognition: A shrub or, in South, rarely a small tree. Leaves large, divided into 11-23 narrow, smooth-edged shiny leaflets, midrib bordered by thin "wings/ Twigs and leafstalks velvety, round, and marked with obviously raised dots. Buds hairy, surrounded by U-shaped leaf scars. Trunk is dark and smooth, with numerous raised cross streaks (leaticels). Leaves 6"-14", Height 4'-10' <300; diameter 1"~3" (10"). Flowers July-Sept.

Fruits red, short-hairy.

Similar species: Winged midribs and dotted twigs distinctive.

Remarks: Twigs are cropped by deer.

IV, SUMACS

STAGHORN SUMAC Rhus typhina L. pp. 12, 156

Recognition: A shrub or small tree with very hairy twigs and leafstalks. Leaves large, made up of 11-31 toothed leaflets. Twigs round, no obvious dots. Buds hairy, surrounded by U-shaped leaf scars. Bark dark and smooth, with numerous raised cross streaks. Leaves 12"-24", Height 4'-15' (50'); diameter 2"-4" {15"). Flowers June-July. Fruits red, long-hairy.

Similar species: (1) Lack of winged midribs and twig dots separates this from Winged Sumac. (2) Hybridization with Smooth Sumac sometimes occurs, and intermediate characteristics result.

Remarks: Aptly named, this shrub's branches bear a marked resemblance to the antlers of a deer "in velvet," It is cultivated in Europe, Bark and leaves rich in tannin; it is reported that a black ink can be made by boiling leaves and fruit. The long-haired fruits have been found in stomachs of many songbirds, ruffed and sharptail grouse, bobwhite, pheasant, mourning clove, and skunk. Twigs cropped by moose, white tail deer, and cottontail rabbit,

POISON SUMAC Rhus vernix L. p. 156

Recognition: DANGER: DO NOT TOUCH ANY PART OF i IIS PLANT. All parts contain a dangerous skin irritant. Shrub or small tree with large leaves composed of 7-13 pointed leaflets not toothed, Twigs and buds round, hairless; leaf scars crescent-or shield-shaped, do not surround buds. Bark smooth and dark w ith numerous narrow cross streaks often tending to encircle trunk. Leaves 6"-12", Height 6'-20' (30'); diameter 3"-8" {10"), Flowers May-July, Fruits white, Aug.-spring. Similar species: Over most of our area the only shrub with hairless buds and twigs and once-compound leaves that are not toothed. Its swampy habitat is a clue. Most similar are (1) Yellowwood (Plate 30), with blunt-tipped leaflets, and (2) W estern Soapberry (p. 145), with greater height and only 3 bundle scars.

Remarks: Though more virulent than Poison-ivy, this species is generally uncommon; largely confined to swamps. Few people are likely to come in contact with it. Medical symptoms and treatment similar to those for Poison-ivy (see p, 130). Poison-ivy (with roison-oak) and Poison Sumac are the only plants in our area that for most people are dangerous to touch. Names in common use, such as Poison-elder or Poison-dogwood, usually refer to Poison Sumac. Fruits eaten bv numerous birds, including bobwhite, pheasant, and ruffed grouse. Twigs browsed by cottontail rabbit. Foliage may turn yellow or red in autumn.

IV. WALNUTS AND SIMILAR TRKES

SMOOTH SUMAC Rhus glabra L. p. 156

Recognition: Similar to Staghorn Sumac, but with twigs and leafstalks hairless, Twigs somewhat flat-sided. A variety with short-hairy twigs is believed to be a hybrid between this and Staghorn Sumac. Fruits red, short-hairy.

Walnuts and Similar Trees

These are trees with alternate feather-compound leaves. The leaflets are numerous and toothed, although the i ree-of-Heaven often has only I pair of gland-bearing teeth at the bases of the leaflets. They are best distinguished from the sumacs and hickories as indicated later.

BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra L. 158

Recognition: A tall tree whose large leaves have 7-1 7 narrow, toothed leaflets slightly hairy beneath. Often end leaflet is tacking> Crushed leaves are spicy-scented. Twigs hairless, stout, pith light brown and chambered by woody partitions (pith of branchlets usually better developed than that of twigs). Buds whitish woolly; leaf sears large, without hairy fringe; bundle scars in 3 groups. True end buds present. Bark dark and deeply grooved; ridges not shiny. Leaves 12"-24". Height 70'-100' (150'); diameter 2'- i (60- Flowers catkins, April-June, Fruits targe spherical nuts with husks of 1 piece, Oct.-Nov. Similar species: Black Walnut and Butternut only plants with compound leaves that have chambered piths. Butternut has hairy ridge above eaf scar, darker pith, end leaflet present, bark shiny-ridged.

Remarks: One of the most valuable and beautiful native trees. Heavy, strong, durable heart wood easily worked, in great demand for veneers, cabinet ma king, interior finishing, and gun-stocks. Bark is used in tanning; yellow-brown dye can be made from nut husks. Nuts eaten by humans, squirrels, and mice; twigs by deer. Large trees have been almost exterminated in some regions. The bruised nut husks once were used to kill fish for food but this is now illegal. Tomatoes, apples, and other species may not survive near large walnut trees,

BUTTERNUT Juglans cinerea L pp. 8, 15H

Recognition: Similar to Black Walnut but with prominent hairy fringe above leaf scar. Pith dark brown; end leaflet normally present. The wider bark ridges are smooth-topped,

IV, WALNUTS AND SIMILAR TREKS

making a shiny, interlaced gray network superimposed upon the black fissures. Number of leaflets varies between 7 and 17. Twigs and leafstalk bases somewhat hairy. Height 40'-80' (100'); diameter 1-2' (3'). Fruits are somewhat oblong and sticky;

nuts with 1-piece husks, Oct.-Nov,

Remarks: Also known as White Walnut, wood lighter in color than that of its more valuable relative. Lumber is light, soft, and weak, but easily worked and polished; darkens upon exposure to air. Though not an important timber species, used for interiors, cabinetwork, furniture, and instrument cases. The early colonists are reported to have prepared a yellow-brown stain by boiling the soft, half-ripe fruits. They also pickled the boiled nuts and made a dark stain from the husks and inner bark to dye uniforms, Indians are said to have boiled the nuts to w obtain oil that came to top for use as butter. The nutmeats then were collected and dried. In spring, sap was boiled down to make syrup. The crushed fruits also were once used to poison fish. Bark yields useful drugs and nuts are eaten by many wild animals.

TREE-OF-HEAVEN (AILANTHUS) pp. 12, 158

Ailanthus attissima (Mill.) Swingle

Recognition: A fast-growing small to large tree with very large leaves having 11-41 leaflets. Leaflets not toothed except for pair of gland-tipped teeth near bases. Twigs hairless, yellow-brown, stout, with continuous yellowish pith. Buds small, brown-woolly; end buds false. Leaf scars very large, somewhat triangular, with numerous bundle scars. Bark gray-brown, smooth, or with narrow light-colored grooves. Leaves 12"-24" or more. Height 80'-100; diameter l'-2\ Flowers small, yellowish, clustered, male blossoms with foul odor, June-July. Fruits dry, narrow, 1-seeded, winged, Sept.-winter.

Similar species: No other tree has such gland-tipped leaflet lobes. In winter, stout twigs, false end buds, large leaf scars, and numerous bundle scars are distinctive. The Coffee-tree (Plate 31) has large leaf scars but fewer bundle scars. It has twice-compound leaves and salmon-colored pith. Remarks: An oriental species; has become a weed here. Imported by way of England, where first planted in 1751. Most rapid growing woody plant in our area. Will thrive under extremely adverse conditions, growing as much as 8' in a year. Annual sprouts 12' long not uncommon where a tree lias been cut down. Since it is adapted to disturbed sites, even a crack between bricks in an alleyway may provide a seedbed for this plant. Immune to dust and smoke and may grow to a large size. Though soft, wood has some lumber and fuel values. The common name is supposed to be of Asiatic or Australian origin, alluding to its height.

IV. WALNUTS AND SIMILAR TREES 137

AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH p, 158

Pyrus americana (Marsh,) DC.

Recognition: A shrub or small tree. Compound leaves have 11-17 long, narrow, toothed, long-pointed leaflets; leaflets over 3 times ;is long as broad. Leaves and twigs hairless. Buds reddish, sticky, and hairless; leaf scars narrow, with 5 bundle scars. End buds t rue. Spur branches may be present; hark rather smooth and gray-brown. Leaves Height to 40'; diameter to 12", Flowers small, about clustered, May-June. Fniits small, reddish, clustered, about Va\ Aug,-March. Similar species: (1) Northern Mountain-ash has wider leaflets, flowers, and fruits, (2; European Mountain-ash has woolly buds. Remarks: This member of the rose family is one of most ornamental northern trees. Fleshy red fruits often remain on tree late in winter and are eaten by many birds and mammals, including ruffed and sharptail grouse, ptarmigan, fisher, and marten. Deer and moose browse twigs,

NORTHERN MOUNTAIN-ASH Leaflet illus., p. 158

Pyrus decora (Sarg,) Hyland

Recognition; Like American Mountain-ash but leaflets less than 3 times as long as broad and somewhat whitened beneath. Flowers about across and fruits over Var. groenlandica (Schneid.) Kern, has long-pointed leaflets not whitened beneath; their wider portions are relatively wider than in American Mountain-ash. See also next species. Var. groenlandica is limited to area from s. Greenland and Labrador to mountains of Newfoundland, e, Quebec, and n* New England. Flowers June-July. Fruits Sept-winter. Woods and rocky places; Greenland, Labrador, n, Ontario, and Minnesota to Maine, nw, Massachusetts, n. Ohio, n, Indiana, and Iowa,

EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN-ASH Not illus.

Pyrus aucuparia (Lj Gaertn.

Recognition; Widely cultivated and occasionally escapes. Resembles previous 2 species except that leaflets are smaller and somewhat hairy beneath; buds white-woolly and not sticky. Leaflets short-pointed as in American Mountain-ash: flowers and fruits more closely resemble Northern Mountain-ash. Local; Newfoundland, s. * lanada, and se. Alaska to Maine, Pennsylvania, Iowa, and Washington.

IV. HICKORIES (i)

The hickories are trees with feather-compound leaves whose leaflets are toothed and mostly long-pointed. Twigs are stout, tough, and flexible, pith solid. Buds and leaf scars are large and conspicuous. True end buds are present; bundle sears numerous. The male flowers are in prominent catkins, occurring in spring* Husks of hickory nuts characteristically break into 1 rather separate parts upon ripening; those of walnuts and other similar nut-bearing species remain entire.

Most other nonthorny plants with alternate compound leaves have false end buds. Among those that resemble the hickories in having true end buds, Poison-ivy (Plate 25) has slender twigs and nonscaly buds, Black Walnut and Butternut ¡ Plate 27) have chambered piths, and the mountain-ashes (Plate 27) and Yellowroot (Plate 31) have narrow leaf scars. In winter the hickories may be distinguished by the occurrence of true end buds, large leaf scars, and solid pith.

Fruits of several hickories, especially Pecan and Shagbark, are edible and have commercial value. They usually fall in September

Brief Cuide to Identification Hickories

Will Poison Oak Scar

Pecan

9-17

yes

no

no

no

no

buds vellow, hairy

Bitternut

5-11

ves

no

no

110

no

buds yellow, hairless

Water

9-17

yes

no

no

yes

¥

buds brown with

yellow glands

Shagbark

1 5-7

no

ves

var*

ves f

no

twigs red-brown

Shellbark

7-9

no

■w

no?

ves

no

twigs tight tan

Mockervmt

7-9

no

ves m

ves m

no

ves

Pignut

5-7

no

no

no

no

ves

nut husks split partly

Sweet Pignut

5-7

no

no

no

var.

ves jr

nut husks split in base

Black

5-7

no

no

var.

no

ves

twigs, buds rusty-hairy

Pale

—'

7-9

L__

- i

-1— —--- -.—i—

° End hi ids mostly over V loni;. and nut husks over W thick, t Such buds l*M)k quite smooth.

Associated characteristics: twigs stout

IV. HICKORIES (i)

and October, Nuts of most species are eaten by domestic swine, squirrels, opossums, wild turkey, and occasionally by ducks. Twigs are browsed by rabbits and deer. Crushed green nut husks formerly were used to poison fish for food, but fortunately this is now illegal.

Hickory wood is strong, heavy, tough, and elastic but decays on contact with moisture and is subject to insect attacks. It is of value in the manufacture of skis, tool handles, agricultural implements, wagons, gunstocks, axletrees, chair backs, and baskets, and once was important as best American wood for barrel hoops. As fuel it is excellent, producing great heat and high-grade charcoal.

The hickories may be divided into 3 groups: pecans, with paired and usually yellow bud scales; shagjharks, with mature trunk bark that peels in strips, large end buds {over W long), stout twigs (over V' diameter), and thick nut husks (over W)\ and pignuts, with tight bark, small end buds, slender twigs, and thin nut husks,

PECAN Carya iUinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch p. 160

Recognition: A tall tree with IT leaflets per leaf. Buds have 2-3 pairs of nonoverlapping yellow-hairy bud scales, wigs hairless; bark closely ridged, not peeling, Nuts edible; considerably longer than wide. Husks thin> ridged along 4 joint lines. Bark medium dark, with numerous vertical ridges. Leaves

12"-20". Height 100-120' (160'); diameter 3'-4' (6').

Similar species: Two other hickories have bud scales paired with edges meeting: (I) Water Hickory has brownish buds with yellowish glands that soon fall off; (2) Bitternut has permanently yellow hairless bud scales and 7-9 leaflets. Remarks: About 100 varieties of this tallest hickory are cultivated in Southeast for their delicious nuts. Fruits of orchard trees have thinner husks than those of wild specimens. Although principally a southern species of river bottoms, it will grow 011 uplands as far north as Massachusetts (in sheltered places). Fruits rarely mature in North, where pecans are mostly planted for ornament. In South, opossum, wild turkey, and squirrels feed on nuts*

WATER HICKORY (BITTER PECAN) p, 160

Carya aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt,

Recognition: Similar to Vcan but more southern and smaller. Buds red-brown with yellowish gland spots, which soon disappear; bark shaggy. Nuts bitter, egg- or ball-shaped. Husks wrinkled, not splitting to base. Leaves 8"-18". Height 50-70' (100'); diameter 12"-24" (30").

SHAGBARK HICKORY pp.S, 160

Carya ovata (Mill.) K- Koch

Recognition: A tall tree with leaves with 5-7 (usually 5)

IV. HICKORIES (1)

hairless leaflets. When present, dense tufts of hair on leaflet teeth {use lens) are field marks. Buds covered by many overlapping scales; end buds over wigs stout, red-brown*

slightly hairy to shiny. Bark light-colored, very shaggy, in long, loose strips. Nuts egg-shaped* l%"-3", edible, 4-angled, not ridged. Nut husk yellowish, thick, splitting to base. Var. pubes-cens Sarg. (sw. New Hampshire to Georgia and Mississippi) has hairy twigs and leaf undersides, Var, nut tall it Sarg> (Massachusetts and Pennsylvania to Missouri) has nuts less than V long. Var. fraxinifolia Sarg. (w, New York, w. Ontario, and Iowa to Ohio and Oklahoma) has narrow, ashlike leaflets. Leaves 8"-14";

Similar species: This is the only one of the shagbark group with so few leaflets; the 3 other hickories with 5-7 leaflets all have small end buds, (1) Shell bark Hickory has, and (2) Sweet Pignut may have, shaggy trunk bark; Shell bark has 7-9 leaflets, soft-hairy beneath, plus light tan or orange twigs; Sweet Pignut has small end buds and slender twigs, (3) Mockernut Hickory also has large end buds, but its 7-9 leaflets, titfht trunk bark, early-falling outer bud scales, and its woolly twigs and foliage distinguish it,

PIGNUT HICKORY Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet pp. 8, 160 Recognition: A tall tree with leaves of 5 (less commonly 7) hairless leaflets. Buds have overlapping scales; end bud silky-hairy after outer scales drop in autumn. Twigs slender, red-brown, and hairless. Bark dark, tight and smooth-ridged. Nuts egg-shaped, V - I hard-shelled, sometimes sweet- Nut husks thin, brown, usually not splitting to the base. Var, megacarpa Sarg. has longer leaves and fruits, thicker nut husks. Leaves 6"-12". Height 80^90' (120'); diameter 2'-3' (4% Similar species: 1) Also with 3-7 leaflets, Shagbark has loose bark, large end buds and end leaflets; (2) Pale Hickory has end buds less than (3) Sweet Pignut has leaflets somewhat yellowish beneath. Two others may have tight bark and oxer-lapping bud scales: (4) Mockernut has large end buds, hairy twigs and leaflets; (5) Black Hickory has rusty-hairy twigs and leaves; both have 7-9 leaflets.

SWEET PIGNUT HICKORY Fruit illus., p. 160

Carya oralis (Wang,) Sarg.

Recognition: Similar to Pignut Hickory and considered by some botanists as a variation of that species* Leaflets usually 7, less commonly 5; yellow-powdery beneath when young. Bark v ariously ridged, scaly or shaggy. Thin-husked fruits regularly split to the base, nuts always sweet. Twigs mostly hairless- Varieties with different characteristics of leaf undersides are known: hairv,

* r hirst ita (Ashe) Sarg,; sticky, odorata (Marsh.) Sarg. Leaves

IV. HICKORIES (2) 141

^-rl" ^^- ---- ■ -----M M ---l^^Ml | | ---- i_ j — M ^g^^fc^^aiiiM. ■ _

6"-12'\ Height 50 -80' (I00/); diameter 2'-3'. Moist or dry woods; sw. New Hampshire, s, Ontario, Wisconsin, and Iowa to Georgia, Mississippi, and Arkansas.

Similar species: Looser bark, more readily splitting nut husks, and consistently sweet nuts distinguish this species in winter from Pignut Hickory.

BLACK HICKORY Carya texana Buckl. Not illus.

Recognition: Like Pignut Hickory, a large close-barked, small -budded tree with 5-7 leaflets. Unlike all other hickories, however, twigs, buds, and leaf undersides are rusty-hairy* Nut edible, ball- to egg-shaped, husk yellow-scaly and up to ha" thick. Dry woods; s. Indiana, s. Illinois, Missouri and e. Kansas, to Louisiana, and s, Texas.

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