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Differing from all other cone-bearing trees, these related species possess very small, peculiarly flattened leaves that form scaly coverings for at least some twigs. Juniperus fruits, though technically similar to cones, are berrylike.

The white cedars possess only scalelike, flattened needles; the junipers (including the Red Cedar) may bear either scaly or hollowed 3-sided needles, or both. Occasionally, some leaves of the Baldcypress are 3-sided rather than flat but they are more fern like and not whitened (see Plate 3).

1'he 3-sided type of leaf is only approximately triangular in cross section, but is easily recognized by the concave whitish inside surface. These needles may occur in pairs of 3's but are never bound at the base in bundles as are pine and larch needles. It may be necessary to use a magnifying glass to determine arrangements of scaly leaves, but usually more easily determined characteristics are available. Seedlings may be impossible to identify. The fruiting structures are quite diverse (see p. 42).

Although several of these are popularly known as cedars, only members of the Old World genus Cedrus; including the cedars of Lebanon, N, Africa, and the Himalayas, are true cedars. They may be seen in this country only where planted for decorative purposes. True cedars have larch like clusters of needles that remain evergreen.

NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR (ARBOR VITAE) pp, 4, 42 Thuja occidental is L.

Recognition: A medium-sized tree with leaves nearly al1 scalelike and long. They occur in 4 rows around twigs but are flattened froin the sides. Central leaves show tiny glands, lwigs and leaves occur in flattened sprays that typically are aligned vertically. Heart wood light-colored. Cones more or less bell-shaped, about W long. A prostrate, carpet) ike form occurs in Quebec. Bark is fibrous with numerous cross-thatched ridges.

Height 40'-50' (125'); diameter 2'-3' (5% Similar species: (I) Atlantic White Cedar has different range, less flattened leaves and leaf sprays, globular cones. (2) See Tamarisk {p. 28).

Remarks; An earlier, widely used name is Arbor Vitae, a latinized French name meaning "tree-of-life/' It was so named after it cured the men of Jacques Cartier's Canadian expedition of a disease, probably scurvy. The incident resulted in this being the first tree to be imported from America into Europe. Over 50 varieties now in cultivation. Known also as Canoe-wood, it was used by the Indians. Thin slabs of the wood were prepared by pounding the ends of short logs until they separated along the annual rings. Wood is soft, light-colored, durable, and used for shingles and fire-by-friction sets. Outer bark supplies tinder. Cedar swamps provide favorite winter quarters and food for deer. Moose, snowshoe hares, and cottontail rabbits also eat the twigs and foliage; red squirrels and many songbirds consume the seeds.


Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP,

Recognition: Similar to Northern White Cedar but with the scalelike leaves narrower, less distinct, and not so much flattened on the twigs. The foliage sprays not flattened, Cones globular, Wf-W in diameter Height 40'-60'; diameter l'-2' (3').

Similar species; See Tamarisk (p. 28),

Remarks: Both the lumber and crushed foliage are aromatic. Wood is soft, durable, very light. The lumber, used in shipbuilding, construction work, and as shingles, is of such value that large logs buried in prehistoric times have been mined in New Jersey bogs. Formerly, organ pipes were made of this resonant wood. White cedar charcoal was used in making gunpowder during American Revolution. Their beauty and resistance to insects and disease have caused a number of horticultural varieties of this tree and its oriental relatives to be used in landscaping. A native species also known as Arbor Vitae, It is browsed by deer.

DWARF JUNIPER Juniperus communis L. p. 42

Recognition; A tree, or more commonly a shrub, with sharp, hoi owed, 3-sided needles that occur in whorls of 3, whitened above and W—long. Twigs, or at least branchlets, are 3-sided, 1'raits are berries, rather hard, blue-black, with a white powder, and are ball-shaped. In our area, 3 varieties (especially vai\ depressa Pursh) of low, creeping, mat-forming habit are more widespread than the upright form. Height I '-4' (35*); diameter 1-6" (1').

Similar species: Only juniper with needles in 3 s and strongly whitened. (1) Trailing Juniper has paired green needles. (2) Heather (Plate fi) has 4-sided leafy twigs. (3) Tamarisk (p. 28) is taller, with flowers and fruit capsules.

Remarks: Oil from leaves and wood is used in perfumery, and the aromatic foliage is burned as an incense in India. The plant supplies food for ruffed and sharptail grouse, bobwhite, "Hungarian" partridge, pheasant, whitetail deer, moose, and smaller birds and mammals.

RED CEDAR Juniperus virginitina L, pp. 4, 42

Recognition: A medium-sized tree usually with both scalelike and longer, sharply 3-sided, needlelike leaves. Leaves Vi6"-%", entirely green, in pairs in 4 rows along 4-sided twigs and branchlets. Heart wood reddish. Fruits more or less globular, hard, whitish- to blackish-green berries about M" in diameter, 1-2 seeds. Bark dry, shreddy, not ridged. Rarely — in windswept locations — shrubby and creeping. Height 40'-50' (62'); diameter l'-2' (4').

Similar species: (1) Mexican Juniper has no central trunk and barely enters our area, (2) Tamarisk (p. 28) has alternate needles, as well as flowers and fruit capsules.

Remarks; Birds pass the seeds through their digestive tracts


undamaged, dropping them particularly along fences. The Red Cedar acts as alternate host to the apple rust- During half its life cycle this fungus spots apples and their leaves; during the other half, it forms ball-shaped brown galls on cedar twigs- After heavy rains these galls extrude numerous hanging brown gelatinous threads. Do not confuse with cedar fruits, which are hard but berrylike.

Heart wood is aromatic and of rose-brown color. It is light, strong, durable, and widely used for cedar chests, cabinets, lead pencils, fuel, and fence posts. The dry outer bark, when stripped and rubbed between the hands, provides excellent tinder and is used in fiint-and-steel and sunglass fire sets. A volatile oil derived from juniper leaves is used in perfumes and a flavoring may be derived from the berries. The fruits are consumed bv well over 50 species of birds, including bobwhite, sharp-tail grouse, pheasant, and mourning dove, and also by opossum.


Juniperus mexicana Spreng.

Recognition: A round-topped shrub or tree that, unlike other upright junipers, has no mitral trunk. Unlike Red Cedar and

Trailing Juniper, the seeds (not fruits) are over ^ie" long. There is usually 1 seed per fruit, but there may be 2-3. Sw, Missouri and w. Texas westward.


Juniperus horizontatis Moench

Recognition: 1 ,ike the preceding 2 species in needle arrangement nut more northerly and prostrate* mat-forming, and often trailing. Fruits may be up to in diameter, containing 3-5 seeds. Foliage or fruits eaten by sharptail grouse, wliitetail deer, and moose. Dwarf Juniper has whitened needles in whorls of 3, Heather (Plate 6) has 4-sided, rather leafy twigs. Tamarisk

(p. 28) is taller, with flowers and fruit capsules.

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