Plate 49 p 332

I he magnolias are distinctively marked plants of tropical appearance and southern relationships. The ranges of a number extend into the northern states, especially in the Appalachians. The leaves are smooth-edged and often large; the twigs are ringed by stipule scars; the buds are covered by a single scale; the true end buds usually are especially large; and the bundle scars are many. All magnolias are frequently cultivated for their large leaves and showy white flowers. ! heir large brownish conelike fruit clusters are frequently ornamental when ripe. They release bright red seeds on silklike threads from many slit like openings.

Only the magnolias, Tulip-tree, and Sycamore have more than 3 bundle scars per leaf scar and ringed twigs. Sycamore (Plate 42) has peculiar mottled bark and buds surrounded by leaf scar; Tulip-tree (Plate 42) has notched leaves, buds spicy when crushed, and chambered pith; it is a member of the magnolia family. Beech (Plate 57) has ringed twigs but the leaves are toothed and the bundle scars only 3. all Pawpaw (Plate 59) has similar foliage but lacks stipular rings and has only 3 bundle scars.

SWEETBAY MAGNOLIA Magnolia virginiana L. p. 332 Recognition: A large shrub or small tree with thick, rather leathery, elliptic leaves that are evergreen, especially in South. Foliage spicy when crushed; white beneath. Leaves hairless except in var. australis Sarg. (north only to Arkansas and se. Virginia). Buds hairy and green but twigs generally hairless. Pith chambered. Leaves 4"-7". Height to 50' (rarely 70'); diameter to 2' (rarely 3"). Flowers white, large, fragrant, May-

July. Fruits l"-2"f Sept.-Oct.

Similar species: No other wild magnolia in our area has both thick leathery leaves and chambered pith,

CUCUMBER MAGNOLIA Magnolia acuminata L. p. 332 Recognition: A hardy magnolia of tree size with large, thin, egg-shaped leaves green and slightly hairy beneath. Twigs

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V. ELMS

AMERICAN ELM Ulmus americana L, pp. 6; .9, 334

Recognition: When growing in the open as a large tree, trunk divides near the ground into large limbs, giving a unique vase-shaped form. Leaves variable, smooth or sandpapery above, hairless or hairy beneath. Twigs hairless or barely hairy; branch-lets without corky "wings," Buds over V\\ with light brown but dark-edged scales. Leaves 2"-6". Height 80'-100' (1250; diameter 2'-5' (10'). Flowers March-May. Fruits about broad, hairless except for hairy margin, long-stemmed, April-May. Similar species: Other elms have distinctive buds, but Rock Elm without corky wings may be confusing {see preceding species). Remarks: Seeds eaten by bobwhite, 4 Hungarian" partridge, ruffed grouse, prairie chicken, gray and fox squirrels, and opossum. Cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, and whitetail deer browse twigs. Like the Chestnut (p. 264) in an earlier generation, this beloved species is rapidly being decimated by disease.

Stands of dead trees occupy lowland sites in many places. Full-sized trees are becoming scarce, "Dutch" elm disease is a fungus spread by a beetle.

ENGLISH ELM Ulmus procera Salisb. p. 334

Recognition: An introduced tree, usually with several large branches mostly at right angles to upright trunk. Leaves moderate-sized, slightly sandpapery above, nearly hairless beneath. Branch lets often corky-winged; buds a uniform dark color. Leaves 1W-3". Height 80'-100' (125'); diameter 2'-3' (5'). Flowers April. Fruits broad, base narrow, entirely hairless, short-stemmed, April-May.

Similar species: Dark buds rather distinctive, but see Witch Elm.

WITCH ELM Ulmus glabra Huds. Not illus.

Recognition; Similar to the English Elm but twigs hairy and leaves sandpapery above and hairy beneath. Sometimes spreads from plantings.

SLIPPERY ELM Ulmus rubra Muhl. p, 334

Recognition: A medium-sized tree with single or divided trunk. Leaves very rough and sandpapery above and hairy beneath. Twigs rough-hairy; buds prominently red-hairy and over W\ Leaves 5'-9". Height 40'-60' (70'); diameter 1-2' (3'). Flowers March-May. Fruits broad, hairless except for centers of each side, short-stemmed, May-June.

Similar species: No other elm has rough-hairy twigs and red-hairy buds.

Remarks: Common name of this rough-textured tree comes from the slimy inner bark, once well known as a scurvy preventive. It was ground into flour or chewed piecemeal. Cottontail rabbits and deer eat twigs. Porcupines may eat the growing layer beneath bark.

V. SIBERIAN ELM, WATER-ELM, IRONWOOD 227

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