With the exception of 1 or 2 honeysuckles (Plate 14) that may bear a few leaves of this type, only these woody plants in our range have opposite or whorled heart-shaped leaves that are not toothed. The twigs of these plants lack central end buds but the tree species are even more easily differentiated in winter from all others with opposite leaf scars by the elliptical series of tiny bundle scars within each circular leaf scar. The lilac is a shrub. The other species here discussed are the only plants with opposite simple leaves of any type which grow to tall tree size. Flowering Dogwood (Plate 15) and blackhaw viburnums (Plate 20» are smaller in size. Two shrubby viburnums (Plate 20) bear leaves regularly triangular or heart-shaped and a 3rd species is somewhat heart-
shaped (Plate 21), but they are toothed. The leaves of the toothed hydrangeas are rarely heart-shaped.
COMMON LILAC Syringa tulgaris L. p. 112
Recognition: A hairless European shrub with leaves heart-
III. OPPOSITE LEAVES HEART-SHAPED
shaped ami long-pointed. Buds stout, green or reddish with 2-3 thick scales. Twigs rather slender, rarely moderately stout. Leaf scars have single bundle scars, Leaves Height to 10\
Flowers small, densely clustered, purple or white, May-June, Fruits small capsules.
Similar species: No other shrub has heart-shaped leaves and single bundle scars. In winter see Fringe-tree (Plate 16).
PERSIAN LILAC St/ring« persica L. Not illus.
Recognition: Similar to Common Lilac but with slender, long-pointed leaves tapering at the base. Escapes rarely from cultivation.
PRINCESS-TREE Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb,) Steud p. 112 Recognition: A medium-sized oriental tree with large paired heart-shaped leaves, chambered or hollow pith, and c/twters of large nut like fruits or husks, Leaves velvety-hairy beneath, usually short-pointed, sometimes only with shallowly heart-shaped bases, not whorled, Twigs stout, leaf scars circular, bundle scars numerous. Trunk bark rough with interlaced, smooth, often shiny, areas. Leaves 6"-13". Height 30'-60'; diameter V-2\ Flowers about 2", purplish with yellow stripes inside, in large clusters, bufFy spikes of next years' flowers present after autumn, April-May, Fruits W-1%", somewhat pecan-shaped woody capsules containing many small winged seeds; husks present all winter.
Similar species: Catalpas have solid white pith, sometimes whorled leaves, and long slender fruit capsules,
COMMON CATALPA Catalpa htgnonioides Walt. pp; 6, 112 Recognition: Similar to Princess-tree but with solid whitish pith and cigar-shaped fruits. Leaves paired or in whorls of 3, hairy beneath; have somewhat foul odor when crushed. Trunk bark scaly. Leaves 6"-13", Height 50'-60'; diameter l'-4\ Flowers white with yellow and purple spots, clustered, lower petal not notched, May-July. Fruits long slender pods containing many small seeds, Sept,-winter.
Similar species: (1) Princess-tree has chambered pith. (2) Catawba-tree has more long-pointed leaves and flowers with lower petal notched. (3) Chinese Catalpa has hairless short-pointed leaves, yellow blossoms.
Remarks: Once widely planted for fence posts, its rapid growth unfortunately is often counteracted by insect, storm, and frost damage. Often highly productive of "catawba worms" for fish bait,
Recognition: Resembles Common Catalpa but larger, with long-pointed leaves that are not foul-odored when crushed. Trunk bark deeply ridged. Height 50'-70' (120'); diameter 2'-4' (5').
III. OPPOSITE LEAVES TOOTHED
Flowers l%"-2"t lower petal notched* May-June, Wet woods; e. Virginia, Ohio, s. Illinois, and Kansas to Louisiana and e. Texas.
Recognition; A shrub or small tree generally like preceding 2 species but with leaves hairless, or quickly becoming so, and short-pointed. Twigs and fruits more slender. Flowers yellow, marked with orange and purple, June-Aug. Escaped from cultivation; Connecticut and s. Ontario to Maryland and Ohio,
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