Pines And Larches

PINES: Needles 2-5 in bunches, evergreen

(2-leaved pines on this plate, and 5-leaved pines on preceding plate)

LARCHES: Needles numerous at the ends of warty spur branches; drop in autumn

♦ SHORTLEAF PINE, Pinns echinata p. 18

Dry .soils; se. New York, New iersev, Pennsylvania, s. Ohio, s, Illinois, s. Missouri, and e. Oklahoma to n, Florida and ne. Texas.

4 RED FINE, Pinus resinosa p. IS

Dry soils; Newfoundland, Ontario, and se. Manitoba to n> New Jersey, n. Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Minnesota; locally in e. W. Virginia.

4 JACK PINE, Pinns banksiana p. 19

Poor dry soils; Nova Scotia, n. Quebec, Northwest Territories and n. British Columbia to n. New England, n« New York, nw. Indiana, n, Illinois, Minnesota, s. Manitoba, and centr* Alberta.

Poor soils; se. New York, Pennsylvania, and s. Indiana to n. Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

♦ SCOTCH PINE, Pinus sylvestris p. 19

Spreading from plantings; New England, Ontario, and Michigan to Delaware and Iowa.

4 MOUNTAIN PINE, Pinus putigens p. 19

Appalachians and foothills; local, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to S. Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee.

♦ AMERICAN LARCH (TAMARACK), Larix lamina p. 20

Wooded swamps and hogs; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to n. New ¡ersey, n, Maryland, n, \Y\ Virginia, ne. Illinois, Minnesota, and nw. British Columbia.

♦ EUROPEAN LARCH, Larix decidua p. 20

European; mostly uplands; sometimes spreads from plantings.

2-LEAVED PINES Needles 3"-8", slender

SHORTLEAF PINE* Southern distribution, twigs whitish. Cones l'/2"-3", usually weakly thorny. RED PINE Northern distribution, twigs brown. Cones 1 Vi"-1>h", thornless.

Needles Vi"-3", usually stout JACK PINE Needles usually very short, Cones 1 Va"-H', lopsided, thornless.

SCRUB PINE

Needles longer, Twigs whitish.

Cones 1W-2W, thorny. SCOTCH PINE Needles 1 Twigs yellow to brown,

Cones 1 Va"-W, thornless.

MOUNTAIN PINE"

Needles tVi"-3". Twigs yellow to brown. Cones 2"-3Wt very thorny.

*Some specimens may bear both 2- and 3-needle clusters (most bundles, however, have 2 needles).

SHORTLEAF

JACK

SCRUB

SCOTCH

MOUNTAIN

LARCHES

Needles mainly numerous on spurs, dropping in autumn

AMERICAN LARCH (Tamarack)

Needles long; cones less than lateral branchlets notdrooping; bark shedding in small pieces; mostly swamps.

EUROPEAN LARCH

Needles mostly more than 1"; cones more than lateral branchlets drooping; bark shedding in large plates; mostly uplands.

Larch Tamarack

I. PLATE 3

CONIFERS WITH FLAT NEEDLES

Needles attached singly; needles and twigs arranged in Hat sprays.

Bottomland and moist woods; Newfoundland, Labrador, and ne. Alberta to New England, w. Virginia, e, W. V irginia, ne. Ohio, ne, Iowa, and Minnesota. ♦ FRÄSER FIR, A. fraseri (not illus.) p. 21

Mostly above 4000 ft in mtssw( Virginia, w. V Carolina, and e, Tennessee, f EASTERN HEMLOCK, Tsuga canadensis p. 21

Well-drained or moist woods; Nova Scotia, s, Ontario, n. Michigan, e. Minnesota to Maryland, Kentucky, and Indiana, and in mts, to n. (Georgia and n. Alabama. 4 CAROLINA HEMLOCK, T. caroliniana (not illus.) p. 22 Mountains; from W. Virginia to w. S. Carolina, n. Georgia, and e, Tennessee,

V AMERICAN YEW, Taxus canadensis p. 22

Moist woods; Newfoundland and Manitoba to New England, w\ Virginia, ne. Kentucky, and ne. Iowa,

4 BALDCYPRESS, Taxodium distich um p. 22

Flooded swamps and along streambanks; Coastal Plain from s. New Jersey to Florida, west to Texas, and north in Mississippi Valley to sw. Indiana, s. Illinois, w. Kentucky, and se. Missouri.

Yew Wood West Virginia

BALDCYPRESS

BALSAM FIR

Kentucky Hemlock Trees
HEMLOCK YEW
Yew Wood West VirginiaEvergreen Tree

Tree; evergreen, moist uplands

Tree: everyreen, uplands

BALSAM FIR EASTERN HEMLOCK

Need/es with 2 white stripes beneath

Needles not stalked; bases circular

Needles attached by slender stalks

Bad Tree Pruning

Branch lets rouah rvfl?

Needles stalked

Stalks following twigs

Foliage fernfike

Low shrub: evergreen, moist uplands

Twigs smooth

Tree: nor evergreen, swamps

Needles green beneath

AMERICAN YEW

BALDCYPRESS

I. PLATE 4

CONIFERS WITH MOSTLY 4-SIDED NEEDLES:

SPRUCES

Needles square in cross section, stiff, sharp, attached singly. Branchlets rough when needles removed. Cones hang pendently; brown, woody,

4 RED SPRUCE, Picea rubens p. 23

Well-drained soils; Nova Scotia and s, Quebec to n. New lersey, ne. Pennsylvania, and e. New York; also in nits, from w, Maryland and W. Virginia to w. N. Carolina and e. Tennessee.

4 BLACK SPRUCE, Picea mariana p. 24

/ir s at id net soils; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to n. New Jersey, n. Pennsylvania, Michigan, n. Minnesota, s,

Manitoba, and British Columbia.

4 NORWAY SPRUCE, Picea abies p. 2^

European; occasionally spreading from plantings, on uplands,

4 WHITE SPRUCE, Picea glauca p. 24

Upland soils; Newfoundland, .abrador, and Alaska to Maine, iiw, Massachusetts, n. New York, Michigan, Minnesota, w. S, Dakota, and Wyoming.

BLACK

scales stiff; old cones remarn on tree for yeors.

Over 1 Vi " long; scales stiff; mostly faffing upon ripening,

1 -2" long; scales flexible; mostly falling upon ripening.

CONES OF SPRUCES

WHÎTE

NORWAY

4' ~6 ïong; scales stiff; mostly falling upon ripening.

NORWAY

Scabies Norway

Branch lets mostly (vc horizontal

Branch lets mostly horizontal

Needles dark or yellowish

Needles shorter, blue-green, often with whitish powder

BLACK

Scabies Norway

Needles dark green

Need les blue-green

(use magnifying tens)

Branchlets drooping

Branchlets mostly horizontal

NORWAY

WHITE

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