PINES: Needles 2-5 in bunches, evergreen
(2-leaved pines on this plate, and 5-leaved pines on preceding plate)
LARCHES: Needles numerous at the ends of warty spur branches; drop in autumn
♦ SHORTLEAF PINE, Pinns echinata p. 18
Dry .soils; se. New York, New iersev, Pennsylvania, s. Ohio, s, Illinois, s. Missouri, and e. Oklahoma to n, Florida and ne. Texas.
4 RED FINE, Pinus resinosa p. IS
Dry soils; Newfoundland, Ontario, and se. Manitoba to n> New Jersey, n. Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Minnesota; locally in e. W. Virginia.
4 JACK PINE, Pinns banksiana p. 19
Poor dry soils; Nova Scotia, n. Quebec, Northwest Territories and n. British Columbia to n. New England, n« New York, nw. Indiana, n, Illinois, Minnesota, s. Manitoba, and centr* Alberta.
Poor soils; se. New York, Pennsylvania, and s. Indiana to n. Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
♦ SCOTCH PINE, Pinus sylvestris p. 19
Spreading from plantings; New England, Ontario, and Michigan to Delaware and Iowa.
4 MOUNTAIN PINE, Pinus putigens p. 19
Appalachians and foothills; local, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to S. Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee.
♦ AMERICAN LARCH (TAMARACK), Larix lamina p. 20
Wooded swamps and hogs; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to n. New ¡ersey, n, Maryland, n, \Y\ Virginia, ne. Illinois, Minnesota, and nw. British Columbia.
♦ EUROPEAN LARCH, Larix decidua p. 20
European; mostly uplands; sometimes spreads from plantings.
2-LEAVED PINES Needles 3"-8", slender
SHORTLEAF PINE* Southern distribution, twigs whitish. Cones l'/2"-3", usually weakly thorny. RED PINE Northern distribution, twigs brown. Cones 1 Vi"-1>h", thornless.
Needles Vi"-3", usually stout JACK PINE Needles usually very short, Cones 1 Va"-H', lopsided, thornless.
Needles longer, Twigs whitish.
Cones 1W-2W, thorny. SCOTCH PINE Needles 1 Twigs yellow to brown,
Cones 1 Va"-W, thornless.
Needles tVi"-3". Twigs yellow to brown. Cones 2"-3Wt very thorny.
*Some specimens may bear both 2- and 3-needle clusters (most bundles, however, have 2 needles).
Needles mainly numerous on spurs, dropping in autumn
AMERICAN LARCH (Tamarack)
Needles long; cones less than lateral branchlets notdrooping; bark shedding in small pieces; mostly swamps.
Needles mostly more than 1"; cones more than lateral branchlets drooping; bark shedding in large plates; mostly uplands.
I. PLATE 3
CONIFERS WITH FLAT NEEDLES
Needles attached singly; needles and twigs arranged in Hat sprays.
Bottomland and moist woods; Newfoundland, Labrador, and ne. Alberta to New England, w. Virginia, e, W. V irginia, ne. Ohio, ne, Iowa, and Minnesota. ♦ FRÄSER FIR, A. fraseri (not illus.) p. 21
Mostly above 4000 ft in mtssw( Virginia, w. V Carolina, and e, Tennessee, f EASTERN HEMLOCK, Tsuga canadensis p. 21
Well-drained or moist woods; Nova Scotia, s, Ontario, n. Michigan, e. Minnesota to Maryland, Kentucky, and Indiana, and in mts, to n. (Georgia and n. Alabama. 4 CAROLINA HEMLOCK, T. caroliniana (not illus.) p. 22 Mountains; from W. Virginia to w. S. Carolina, n. Georgia, and e, Tennessee,
V AMERICAN YEW, Taxus canadensis p. 22
Moist woods; Newfoundland and Manitoba to New England, w\ Virginia, ne. Kentucky, and ne. Iowa,
4 BALDCYPRESS, Taxodium distich um p. 22
Flooded swamps and along streambanks; Coastal Plain from s. New Jersey to Florida, west to Texas, and north in Mississippi Valley to sw. Indiana, s. Illinois, w. Kentucky, and se. Missouri.
Tree; evergreen, moist uplands
Tree: everyreen, uplands
BALSAM FIR EASTERN HEMLOCK
Need/es with 2 white stripes beneath
Needles not stalked; bases circular
Needles attached by slender stalks
Branch lets rouah rvfl?
Stalks following twigs
Low shrub: evergreen, moist uplands
Tree: nor evergreen, swamps
Needles green beneath
I. PLATE 4
CONIFERS WITH MOSTLY 4-SIDED NEEDLES:
Needles square in cross section, stiff, sharp, attached singly. Branchlets rough when needles removed. Cones hang pendently; brown, woody,
4 RED SPRUCE, Picea rubens p. 23
Well-drained soils; Nova Scotia and s, Quebec to n. New lersey, ne. Pennsylvania, and e. New York; also in nits, from w, Maryland and W. Virginia to w. N. Carolina and e. Tennessee.
4 BLACK SPRUCE, Picea mariana p. 24
/ir s at id net soils; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to n. New Jersey, n. Pennsylvania, Michigan, n. Minnesota, s,
Manitoba, and British Columbia.
4 NORWAY SPRUCE, Picea abies p. 2^
European; occasionally spreading from plantings, on uplands,
4 WHITE SPRUCE, Picea glauca p. 24
Upland soils; Newfoundland, .abrador, and Alaska to Maine, iiw, Massachusetts, n. New York, Michigan, Minnesota, w. S, Dakota, and Wyoming.
scales stiff; old cones remarn on tree for yeors.
Over 1 Vi " long; scales stiff; mostly faffing upon ripening,
1 -2" long; scales flexible; mostly falling upon ripening.
CONES OF SPRUCES
4' ~6 ïong; scales stiff; mostly falling upon ripening.
Branch lets mostly (vc horizontal
Branch lets mostly horizontal
Needles dark or yellowish
Needles shorter, blue-green, often with whitish powder
Needles dark green
Need les blue-green
(use magnifying tens)
Branchlets mostly horizontal
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