These plants have leaves that are either lobed or not. Usually, when in leaf both lobed and unlobed foliage is present at the same time. When unlobed, the leaves generally are heart-shaped. All these spec ies have distinctly fan-veined leaves, with 3-5 main veins meeting near the ends of the leafstalks, he number of bundle scars per leaf scar varies by species.
PAPER MULBERRY p. 320
Broussonetia papyrifera (L,) Vent,
Recognition: A medium-sized Asiatic tree with sandpaper-textured leaves and twigs, i .eaves fine-toothed, varying from heart-shaped to deeply and intricately lobed, "sandpapery" above and velvety below. Twigs rough-hairy; buds have only 2-3 visible scales. Sap milky (not always evident in winter). Bundle scars more than 3 per leaf scar. Pith blocked by a woody partition near each bud. End buds false. Bark a yeltow-brown smooth network of fine ridges. Leaves i"-ll'\ Height to 50'; diameter to 4', Flowers April-May. Fruits red. fleshy, barely edible, Sept-
Similar species: No other plant has such rough leaves and twigs. Remarks: Fibrous inner bark, especially of roots, can be twisted into improvised ropes and lines in this and next several species.
RED MULBERRY Morus rubra L, p. 320
Recognition: A native tree whose fine-toothed leaves are somewhat "sandpapery" above and hairy beneath. Foliage often lobed. Twigs hairless or slightly hairy. Buds have 5-6 visible scales, greenish brown with darker scale borders; end buds false. Sap of twigs and leafstalks milky. Bundle sc ars more than 3 per leaf scar. Pith continuous. Trunk bark red-brown with smooth ridges. Leaves 3"-10'\ Height 30 -60' (80'); diameter l'-3' t4 ). Flowers April-June, Fruits red-black, blackberrylike, tasty, June-July,
Similar species; White Mulberry is quite similar in winter but may be separated by its red-brown buds and yellow-brown hark. Remarks: Delicious fruits eaten by squirrels and numerous song and game birds, as well as by humans.
and buds with many scales separates it from other species. Remarks: Blossoms, not buds, reddish. Flowers sometimes eaten in salads; red roots yield a dye. Wood of commercial value in some areas. Though a member of the pea family, Red-
bud exceptional in not growing nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Only bobwhite and a few songbirds are known to eat the seeds,
AMERICAN HACKBERRY Celtis occidental L. p, 320
Recognition; A small to large tree with long-pointed, coarse-toothed leaves; bases mostly uneven. Typically, foliage is rough-hairy above but is smooth in 2 widespread varieties, pumila (Pursh) Gray and canina Raf.) Sarg. Twigs hairless; pith usually chambered throughout, or only near the leaf scars. Bud scales hairy; end buds false. Bundle scars 3 (rarely more). Bark basically light gray, rather smooth, but becomes covered with dark warty knobs and ridges. Leaves 3"-7". Height 20'-70' (100'); diameter 1'—3' (4'). Flowers greenish, April-May. Fruits spherical, Kseeded, dry, Oct.-Nov.? or longer,
Similar species: Other hackberries have leaves toothed only slightly, if at all; bud scales barely hairy; fruits smaller. All 3 species are highly variable and, furthermore, may hybridize. Whether all are valid species even seems in doubt, (1) Sour-gum and (2) Tupelo (Plate 59) have similar winter twigs but have true end buds and fleshy fruits.
Remarks: Wood similar to ash; of commercial value. Fruits ("sugarberries") eaten by numerous birds, including bobwhite, lesser prairie chicken, sharptail grouse, pheasant, and wild turkey.
UPLAND HACKBERRY Celtis tenuifolia Nutt, Not illus. Recognition: A smaller upland species. Leaves on fruiting tw igs not toothed and ^ to V4 as broad as long. Not usually long-
pointed; may be sand papery or not. Fruits \ Sept.-Oct.
Height to 25'. Dry situations; Pennsylvania, Indiana, Missouri, and e, Kansas to n, Florida, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
LOWLAND HACKBERRY Celtis laevigata Willd, Not illus. Recognition: Like the last but leaves narrower, either toothed or not and often with very long-pointed tips. Leaves /ess than Vi as broad as long, A taller tree of lowlands (to 100'), Fruits
Oct.-Nov, Mostly Coastal Plain bottomlands; se. Virginia to s> Florida, west to Texas, and north in Mississippi Valley to centr. Kentucky, s, Indiana, s. Illinois, s. Kansas, and w. Oklahoma.
NEW JERSEY TEA Ceanothus americanus L, p, 320
Recognition: A low shrub. Leaves egg-shaped to triangular, sharp-tipped, toothed, typically smooth above and somewhat
210 V. FAN-LOBED OR FAN-VEINED PLANTS; POPLARS
velvety beneath» One variety (pitcheri T. & C.) has blunt-tipped leaves, woolly above and velvety beneath. Twigs and slender buds somewhat hairy; bundle sear single (rarely 3), Sometimes twigs are branched. Leaves 2"-4'\ Height to 4\ Flowers white in dense heads, May-Sept, Fruits 3-Iobed dry capsules in clusters, mostly in angles of leaves, Sept.-Nov., saucerlike capsule bases often present longer.
Similar species: The fruit remnants usually will identify the genus in absence of fan-veined leaves, Redroot lias blunt-tipped leaves and flower and fruit heads at ends of branches. Remarks: One of few nonlegumes to grow nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots. Leaves used for tea during American Revolution. A few birds, including bobwhite and wild turkey, eat fruits,
Recognition: Similar to New Jersey Tea but leaves smaller blunt-tipped. Flowers and fruits borne at tips of branches. Leaves l"-2W. Flowers April-July, Dry soils; w. Maine, w. Quebec, and Manitoba to w. Georgia and Texas.
Recognition: A larger western shrub reported from our area only on Keewenaw Peninsula of northern Michigan, Not a true lilac. Leaves more or less egg-shaped, rounded at tips, wavy-toothed, and sometimes hairy beneath. Flowers and fruits occur on older wood, below twigs and foliage of current year, in contrast to preceding 2 CeanothtiS species, which bear flowers on the current season s growth. Height to 14'. Flowers white, May-June. Upper Peninsula of Michigan, sw* S. Dakota, and from Montana and s. British Columbia to n. California.
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