Miscellaneous Shrubs with Opposite Toothed Leaves

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal

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Surprisingly few plants have opposite simple leaves that are toothed. Several n on erect species are on Plate 12, The maples {Plate 22) have toothed leaves but these are also deeply lobed, Only some viburnums (Plates 20 and 21) and plants of this plate have leaves of this type. Many species have only limited northern ranges. Oakleaf Hydrangea {not illustrated) is discussed here with its relatives even though its leaves are lobed.

NORTHERN BUSH-HONEYSUCKLE p. 114

Diervilla tonicera Mill-

Recognition: A low shrub with slender ridged twigs and scales present at the twig bases. Leaves more or ess egg-shaped, long-pointed fine-toothed. Typically nearly hairless but a northwestern variety (hyponuilaca Fern.) has leaves densely hairy beneath. Leaves distinctly stalked. Twigs have slender ridges running downward from lines connecting leaf scars. Buds have 4 or more pairs of scales; bundle scars 3. Leaves 2"-5'\ Height to 4\ Flowers yellow to crimson, tubular with spreading petal tips, W-W\ June-Aug, Fruits long-pointed dry capsules. Similar species: Though honeysuckles (Plate 14), Coralberry and relatives (Plate 17), and hydrangeas (below) also have scales present at twig bases, the ridged twigs of this species are distinctive. Southern Bush-honeysuckle has short leafstalks. True honevsuckles have leaves not toothed, fleshv fruits.

Certain of the unrelated and dissimilar azaleas (Plate ft4) sometimes are called bush-honeysuckles.

SOUTHERN BUSH HONEYSUCKLE Not illus.

Diervilla sessilifolia Buck).

Recognition: Like the preceding but leafstalks extmnely short

III. OPPOSITE LEAVES TOOTHED

and twigs distinctly 4-sided. Mountains; w. Virginia and e, Tennessee to nw. (ieorgia and n. Alabama*

WILD HYDRANGEA Hydrangea arhorescens L. p. 114

Recognition: A low to medium-sized shrub with smooth and medium-stout twigs that are not ridged hut have scales present where they meet branchlets. Leaves large-toothed, very variable. They may be pale green and hairless or fine white-hairy beneath; nearly circular, heart-shaped, egg-shaped, elliptic, or long-pointed. Leaves and leaf scars may be in whorls of 3. Buds have 4 or more pairs of scales; bundle scars 3. Bark of branchlets th in, papery, glossy. Leaves 5"-115". Height to 6' (10')- ' lowers whitish, small, in flat-topped umbrella-shaped clusters, outer flowers larger but sterile, June-July. Fruits small dry capsules, Oct-Dec., or longer.

Similar species: (J.) Asiatic Hydrangea has cone-shaped flower and fruit clusters, hairy twigs, (2) Oak leaf Hydrangea has lobed leaves. Upright honeysuckles (Plate 14) have fleshy fruits, more slender twigs, less papery bark on branchlets. Bush-honeysuckles are more northern, have ridged twigs. Remarks: Twigs recorded as poisonous to livestock, yet sometimes eaten by whitetail deer. Wild turkey eat fruits.

ASIATIC HYDRANGEA Not illus.

Hydrangea paniculata Sieb,

Recognition: Similar to Wild Hydrangea but with restricted range, hairy twigs, smaller leaves, cone-shaped flower and fruit clusters. Leaves 2"-5'\ Swamps; scattered localities from Massachusetts southward.

OAKLEAF HYDRANGEA Not illus.

Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr.

Recognition: A southern species similar in some twig characteristics to the Wild Hydrangea but with deeply lobed, somewhat oaklike leaves that are white-hairy beneath, I wigs very red-hairy. Bark extremely flaky. Leaves 6"-8'\ Flowers in cone-shaped clusters. Escaped from cultivation; north to Connecticut*

BURNINGBUSH Euonytnus atropurpureus Jacq, p, 114

Recognition: A shrub or small tree with green 4-lined twigs. Leaves egg-shaped or elliptic, short-pointed, fine-toothed, somewhat hairy beneath. Twigs nearly round, buds scaly, bundle scars single, leaf scars not connected by lines. Leaves 2"-6". Height 6'-12' (25'}, Flowers purple, clustered, June-July. Fruits reddish and berry I ike, beneath woody purplish bracts, Aug,-Nov,

Similar species: Among opposite-leaved plants with single bundle scars only members of this genus have 4-Iined twigs.

III. OPPOSITE LEAVES TOOTHED

(1) Strawberry-bushes (Plate 12) are not erect, twigs are more square in cross section. (2) European Spindletree has hairless, smaller leaves, orange ami pink fruits,

Remarks: Fruits reported to be poisonous to children. Recorded as eaten by only a few birds.

EUROPEAN SPINDLETREE Not illus.

Euonymus europaeus L.

Recognition: Similar to Burningbush but leaves smaller undersides hairless, Fruits orange beneath pinkish bracts. Escape; waste places; north to Massachusetts and Wisconsin.

COMMON BUCKTHORN Rhammis catharHca L, p. 114

Recognition: A European medium-sized to large shrub with twigs ending in sharp spines. Leaves elliptic, hairless, fine-toothed. A few may be alternate rather than opposite. Twigs dark and unlined, buds have several scales. Bundle scars 3, ess commonly insed and single. No scales present at twig bases, leaf scars not connected by lines. Inner bark yellow. Leaves

Height to 16' (26'). Flowers small, greenish, clustered, May-June, Fruits dark and berrylike.

Similar species: Combination of thorn-tipped twigs and yellow inner bark is distinctive. Other buckthorns (Plate 58) have alternate leaves, The only other thorny opposite-leaved plants in our area are (1) Silver Buffaloberry (p. 84) and (2) Swamp Forestiera.

SWAMP FORESTIERA p. 114

Forestiera acuminata (Michx,) Poir,

Recognition: An occasionally thorny shrub or small tree. Buds globular, often more than 1 above each leaf scar. Leaves long-pointed at both ends, fine-toothed, often clustered. Leaf scars not connected by lines. Twigs hairless or slightly hairy; bundle scars single. Leaves IW-3"* Height to 12' (25'). Flowers small, March-May. Fruits small, fleshy, May-Oct, Similar species: (1) Only other plant with globose buds and single bundle scars is Buttonbush (Plate 16), which has leaves often whorled, leaf scars connected by lines, and buds single above leaf scars. Leaf shape of this species unique among shrubs with opposite toothed leaves. See (2) Upland Forestiera and, when thorniness is found, (3) Common Buckthorn, Remarks: Fruits eaten by wood ducks, mallards, other waterfowl.

UPLAND FORESTIERA Not illus,

Forestiera ligustrina (Michx.) Poir.

Recognition: A species related to Swamp Forestiera that barely enters our area. Leaves somewhat egg-shaped, blunt-tipped,

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rather hairy beneath. Flowers in Aug. Dry and rocky soils; Georgia and Kentucky to Florida and Alabama.

BEAUTYBERRY Catticarpa americana L. Not illus.

Recognition: A southern shrub with gray-scaly or gray-hairy twigs, white-woolly leaf undersides, and violet-colored fruit clusters. Leaves taper at both ends; buds silky-hairy with scales absent or smaller buds may have 2 scales. Buds have narrowed bases, bundle scars single. Leaf scars not connected by lines. Leaves 3"-6'\ Height to 5'. Flowers small, tubular, bluish, clustered, June-Aug. Fruits small, bright, purple, Aug.-Nov. In this group, only the buffaloberries (Plate 17) also have conspicuously scaly twigs. Their twigs are covered with silver and brown scales and bud scales are present on all buds. Woods; Maryland, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Oklahoma to Florida and Texas.

COMMON MOCK ORANGE Philadelphus inodorus L. p. 114

Recognition; A southern shrub with buds smalt or hidden beneath leaf scars. Leaves egg-shaped, somewhat long-pointed, hairless or slightly long-hairy, have from a few tiny to many larger teeth. Leaf veins tend to parallel leaf edges, Bundle scars 3; leaf scars connected by lines, Twigs hairless, tips not thorny. Bark of branchlets papery. Leaves 2"-4", Height to 10', Flowers 1-4, white, to 2" across, at twig ends, petals May-June. Fruits dry 3- to 4-parted capsules. Similar species: (1) Only Flowering Dogwood also has 3 bundle scars ana hidden buds. It, however, has raised leaf scars, tight bark. (2) Hairy Mock-orange has hairy twigs; other mock-oranges have 5-7 flowers in cluster.

HAIRY MOCK ORANGE Not illus.

Philadelphus hirstttus Nutt.

Recognition: A similar but smaller species than Common M ock-orange wit h hairy twigs and woolly leaf undersides. Twigs red or straw-colored; older branchlets have flaking papery bark. Leaf scars narrower; buds fully exposed. Flower petals Rocky areas and streambanks; N. Carolina and Kentucky to Georgia and Alabama.

GARDEN MOCK-ORANGE Not illus.

Philadelphus coronarius L.

Recognition: Similar to Common Mock-orange but flowers 5-7 in clusters- Leaves hairless except on veins beneath. Flowers across and very fragrant, petals W-W. They are the "orange blossoms" frequently used ornamentally in the North. A European species, sometimes spreading from cultivation.

III. VIBURNUMS

GRAY MOCK ORANGE Not illus,

Philadelphia pubescens Loiseh

Recognition: Unlike other mock-oranges, the hark of branchlets of this species tight, not flaky. Furthermore, this hark is gray, not straw-colored or reddish. Leaves gray-hairy beneath. Flowers 5-7, hut barely fragrant- Bluffs and riverbanks; Tennessee and s. Illinois to Alabama and Arkansas.

MARSII-ELDER h a frutescens L, Not illus.

Recognition: A partly woody plant that grows on sea beaches and salt marshes* Leaves somewhat thickened and at least upper ones narrow to elliptic. Foliage hairless or fine-hairy, with 6-15 pairs of large coarse teeth. Twigs branched (see Sassafras, Plate 43), with fine lines running lengthwise. Buds hidden in bark. Leaves 3"-4'\ Height to 1.1 \ Flowers small, greenish white, in end clusters, Aug,-Oct. i ruits small, dry. Coastal saline soils; w, Novia Scotia to Florida and Texas*

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