Miscellaneous Plants with 3 Bundle Scars

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Of the several plants of this group, the first 6 are related species of the waxmyrtle family, These plants are among the few outside the pea (legume) family which enrich the soil through nitrogen-fixing bacteria contained in root nodules. The crushed foliage has

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V. PLANTS WITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (i)

larger, more egg-shaped, point-tipped, thin leaves. Resin-dots few or lacking on the often somewhat hairy upper surface. Twigs gray-hairv; buds whitish; true end buds present. Leaves Usually shrubby, but height to ,35'; diameter to 6". Flowers May-July- Fruits hairy, June-April. Similar species: See (1) Sweetgale and (2) Black Bayberry. Remarks: Many songbirds (notably myrtle warbler) and also ruffed grouse, bobwhite, and pheasant eat the fruits.

BLACK BAYBERRY Myrica heterophylla Raf Not illus.

Recognition: Somewhat similar to Northern Bayberry, but with leathery, evergreen leaves and black-hairy twigs. Flowers April-June, Coastal Plain; s, New Jersey to Florida and

Louisiana.

SWEETFERN Comptonia peregrina (L,) Coult. p. 348

Recognition: Any time a "fern" is found growing in our part of the world as a low bush with woody stem and branches, the observer is viewing this plant. Foliage fernlike. Twigs aromatic when crushed; usually hairy. Buds have 4 or more scales; end buds false. I .eaves 3"-6". Height to 5\ Flowers April-June. Fruits small nuts, not waxy, Sept.-Oct,

Similar species: 1 nique when in leaf- In winter, the only aromatic plant among those with 3 bundle scars, false end buds, and buds with more than 4 scales.

Remarks: Ruffed and sharp tail grouse and white tail deer feed on plant.

BEECH Vagus grandifolia Ehrh, pp. 10, 348

Recognition: A tall tree with distinctive smooth gray bark, slender many-scaled buds, and elliptic or egg-shaped, coarse-toothed leaves, Twigs hairless or somewhat long-hairy, encircled or almost encircled by stipule scars at each leaf scar. Leaves l"-5". Height 60'-80' (120'); diameter 2'-3' (4'). Flowers

April-May. Fruits small triangular nuts, edible, Sept,-Oct. Similar species: Combination of bark, twig, bud, and leaf characteristics is unique. (1) Yellowwood (Plate 30) has similar bark but compound leaves; not common, (2) See Chestnut (p. 264). Several oaks (Plate 47) have similar leaves but buds and leaves are clustered at twig tips.

Remarks: An important timber species. Quality of wood only fair but used for cheap furniture, tool handles, veneer, shoe lasts, and fuel. Beeches are planted widely for ornament. Fruits eaten by ruffed grouse, wild turkey, bobwhite, pheasant, black bear, raccoon, red and gray foxes, whitetail deer, cottontail rabbit, gray, red, and flying squirrels, porcupine, and opossum.

COMMON WITCH-HAZEL Hamamelis virgjiniana L, p. 348 Recognition: A shrub or small tree with wavy-toothed, uneven-

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V. PLANTS W ITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (2)

Similar species: The apple group is a collection of 6 species. The 3 native species are almost always thorny, have sharp buds, and are discussed on pages 195-97. The 3 imported species below occasionally may he somewhat thorny. This species is unlike other apples in lacking sharp leaf teeth. Domestic Pear is mostly hairless, more often thorny, usually has long, not round, fruits and has I or several strong upright branches, giving the tree a pointed rather than round-topped crown shape. In winter this apple has hairier twigs, blunter buds, and more-raised leaf scars than the pear.

Remarks: The exact origin is lost in antiquity but the etymology of the name indicates that it originated in the western Himalayas and traveled westward by way of northern Persia, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the Mediterranean countries, The apple of the 'Bible is believed to have been not our northern fruit but the apricot, still common in the Holy Land. The

Domestic Apple locally gone wild is an important wildlife food eaten by deer, pheasant, mourning dove, gray fox, and many other animals,

CHINESE APPLE Pyrus prunifolia Willd. Not illus.

Recognition: Asiatic, similar to Domestic Apple but leaves wider, sharp-toothed, hairless except on veins. Twigs somewhat hairy but not woolly. Flowers May-June, Fruits about W across. Escaped; Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to New England and Pennsylvania.

SIBERIAN CRABAPPLE Pyrus baccata L. Not illus.

Recognition: Another Asiatic; similar to Chinese Apple but with long-pointed, sharp-toothed, hairless leaves. Twigs hairless, at least after early summer. Fruits usually :ess than W across-Spread from cultivation; local.

DOMESTIC PEAR Pyrus communis L, p, 350

Recognition: Similar to Domestic Apple but nearly hairless, more often thorny, with elongate fleshy fruitst and usually with several strong upright branches, making a narrow-topped tree.

Leaves V-T Height 20'-35' (60'); diameter 6"-24\ Twigs of Chinese Pear are more hairv.

CHINESE PEAR Not illus.

Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai

Recognition: Similar to Domestic Pear but young leaves, at least, woolly and finely sharp-toothed. Fruits nearly round. Escaped: se. Virginia,

GROUNDSEL TREE Baechans halimifolia L. p. 350

Recognition: A shrub with green angled twigs. Wedge-snaped

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SWEET-SPIRES Itea virginica L. p. 352

Recognition: A shrub with fine-toothed, elliptic leaves, buds occurring inore than I above each leaf scar, green furfgp, and pith chambered (sometimes faintly). Flower spears (hence the name) give rise to clusters of tiny dry fruits, frequently present. Leaves 1'-4". Height to 10', Flowers white, May-June. Fniits July-winter.

Similar species: No other species with 3 bundle scars has combination of chambered pith and green twigs,

COMMON SPICEBUSH Lindera benzoin (L,) Blume p. 352

Recognition: A spicy-scented shrub. Leaves elliptic, not toothed, hairless or nearly so. Stalked flower buds may flank stalkless 2- to 3-scaled leaf buds. End buds false. Red '(rarely yellow) berries aromatic when crushed, as are eaves, twigs, and buds. Leaves 2"-6", Height to 12', Flowers yellow, March-May, Fmits July-Sept,

Similar species: Spicebush scent is distinctive once learned. (1) Sassafras (Plate 43) has a somewhat similar odor but has t;reen, often forked twigs, 1 bundle scar, and, frequently, lobed leaves, (2) Pondspice (Plate 68) has only 1 bundle scar, (3) Sweetfern (Plate 57) has a less spicy odor, more than 3 bud scales, a more open habitat, and distinctive foliage. (4) Hairy Spicebush is hairy and more southern.

Remarks: Early land surveyors regarded this as an indicator of good agricultural land. The strongly aromatic twigs and leaves have been used for tea and dried berries have been powdered as a spice, Whitetail deer, cottontail rabbit, opossum, pheasant, bobwhite, ruffed grouse, and numerous songbirds eat twigs or fruits,

HAIRY SPICEBUSH Not illus.

Lindera melissaefolium (Walt.) Blume

Recognition; Similar to Common Spicebush but with hairy twigs and buds and narrow leaves that are rounded at the base and hairy at least beneath. Leaves Height to 6'. Flowers

Feb.-March. Fniits Sept.-Oct. Swamps; uncommon; Florida and Louisiana north to N, Carolina and s. Missouri.

ALTERNATE-LEAF DOGWOOD p. 352

Cornus alternifolia L. f.

Recognition: Among the many dogwoods {Plate 15) only this shnib or small tree does not have opposite leaves. Leaf veins tend to follow leaf edges to tip. Leaves have l"-2" stalks; often crowded (some may be opposite or whorled) toward tips of greenish twigs. Side twigs clustered near ends of central stem. Pith white. Buds have only 2 scales. Leaf scars narrow and raised; bundle scars 3. Hybrids with Red-osier Dogwood

27* V. BUNDLE SCARS 3 OR MORE & SPIREAS

(Plate 15) have intermediate characteristics. Leaves 2"-5'\ Height to 25'. Flowers May-July. Fruits blue-black with red stems, July-Sept.

Remarks: Fruits eaten by many birds, including ruffed grouse. Twigs browsed by deer and rabbits.

SMOKETREE Cotinus obovatus Rat p. 352

Recognition: One of the rarest American trees, this relative of the sumacs is found in only a few spots (see range opposite Plate 59). Wood yellow and odorous. Leaves wide, usually blunt-tipped; side buds with 2-4 scales and somewhat long-pointed. Name alludes to foot-long hazy sprays of small feathery fruits that resemble puffs of smoke. Foliage becomes a brilliant red in autumn, A European relative (C. coggygria Scop.) is used in landscaping. Leaves 3"-6". Height 6 -25' (&5'); diameter

1"-12" (14")- Flowers April-May. Fruits June-Sept.

CORKWOOD Leitneria fioridana Chapm. n. 352

Recognition: A shrub or small tree related to poplars and other catkin-bearing plants but peculiar enough to be classified in a family by itself. Leaves narrow to elliptic, gray-hairy beneath. End buds clustered; much larger than some of side ones. The swamp habitat and 3 bundle scars separate this species from the oaks, which also have clustered buds at twig tips. Bark smooth and, like many other swamp trees, trunk swollen at base. Wood more buoyant than cork; local fishermen are said to use Corkwood blocks for net floats. Leaves 3"-6"f Height to 25', Flowers March. Fruits May,

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