Miscellaneous Plants With 1 Bundle Scar

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal

The Scar Solution Ebook

Get Instant Access

"Bundle scars" are small marks within a leaf scar (see p. xxiv). These trees and shrubs have leaves wavy-edged or not toothed.

4 PERSIMMON, Diospyros virginiana p- 292

Old fields and barren woods; Connecticut, s, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and e, Kansas to Florida and e, Texas.

V AMERICAN SILVERBERRY p. 293 Elaeag n us com m u ta ta

Dry soils; e. Quebec and Alaska to sw. Quebec, Minnesota,

S. Dakota, and Utah,

Y AUTUMN-OLIVE, E. umhellata (not illus.) p. 293

V DAPHNE, Daphne mezereum p. 293

Escaped, especially on limestone soils; Newfoundland and s. Ontario to New England, New York, and Ohio,

V MOUNTAIN-HOLLY, Nemopanthus mucronata p, 294

Damp thickets and swamps; Newfoundland and Minnesota to w. Virginia, W. Virginia, Indiana, and n. Illinois.

V STACGERBUSH, Lyonia mariana p, 294

Sandy or peaty soils; s. Rhode Island, se. New York, e. Pennsylvania, and Arkansas to Florida and e, Texas, ^ ZENOBIA, Zenobia pulvertdenta (not illus.) p. 294

V MINNIEBUSH, Menziesia pilosa p, 294

Wooded slopes; Pennsylvania and W. Virginia to Georgia, t WHIN, Genista tinctoria {not illus.) p. 295

V ANDRACHNE, Andrachne phyllanthoides (not illus.)p.295

V PONDSPICE, Litsea aestivalis p. 295

Swamps; se. Virginia and Tennessee to Florida and Louisiana,

V OILNUT, Pyrularia pubera p. 295

Mountain woods; Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, to Georgia and Alabama,

Coastal swamps; s, Delaware to Florida and west to Texas,

V TITI, Cyrilla racemifiora p. 296

Coastal swamps; se. Virginia to Florida and west to Texas.

PERSIMMON

Tree Bundle Scar

SILVER BERRY MOUNTAIN-HOLLY

STAGGERBUSH

PERSIMMON

SILVER BERRY MOUNTAIN-HOLLY

STAGGERBUSH

Tree

Pith sometimes chambered

and twigs never always speckled with brown and silver

Buds black, speckled 2 scales

Shrub

Pith sometimes chambered

PERSIMMON

Shrub

American Silverberry

AMERICAN SILVERBERRY

Shrub

Bark very fibrous

Shrub

American Silverberry Plant

Leaves wedge-shaped oblong, wif/i sharp tips

Fruits red "berries"

Bark very fibrous

Shrub

Buds long-pointed

DAPHNE

MOUNTAIN-HOLLY

Shrub

End bud false

Shrub

False End Bud

End bud false

Picture Redbay Berry

STAGGERBUSH

Leaves without with long-hairy glands on lower midvein hairless hairy above

Fruits dry capsules, often present

Shrub

End bud true

End bud true

MINNIEBUSH

Shrub

Shrub

Leaves thin or leathery, not evergreen leathery, evergreen

See text for other details

Shrub

Tree

Tree

Shrub

PONDSPICE OILNUT

Shrub

REDBAY Till

Hidden page

Appendixes Index

Hidden page

Name Plate

14- Scales not present at twig bases;

15. Twigs thorn-tipped COMMON BUCKTHORN 19

15. Twigs not thorn-tipped:

10. Buds globular; plants either parasitic or semi-aquatic;

17. Parasites on tree roots; s, Appalachians:

18. Twigs hairy; branchlets pale brown

BUCKLEY A (16) IS. Twigs hairless; branchlets dark gray

NESTRONIA (lfi) 17. Crowing in shallow water or on wet soils:

19, Ix^af scars and buck often in whorls of 3*$; opposing leaf scars connected by lines; buds single above leaf scars;

20, Twigs rounded and smooth

BUTTON BUSH 16

20, Twig% angular und ridged

SWAMP LOOSESTRIFE (16)

19, Leaf scars and buds paired; leaf scars not connected by lines; buds often several above leaf scars FORESTIERAS 19

16« Buds elongate; nonparasitic upland plants:

2L Bud scales thick, fleshv; side buds with only

2-3 scales LILACS 18

21. Bud scales papery; side buds with 4 or more scales:

22, Twigs slender, Via" or under; leaf scars much raised PRIVETS 16

22, Twigs stout, over Mc" thick; leaf scars not raised {at least top edges about flush with twigs) FRINGE-TREE 16

10. Bundle scars 3:

23. Side buds hidden beneath leal scars or bark;

24. Leaf scars raised above the twigs; bark of branchlets tight; tree FLOWERING DOGWOOD 15

24, Leaf scars not raised (at least upper edges about flush with twigs); bark of branchlets usually flaky; shrubs:

25. Plants of upland sites; twigs neither branched nor striated MOCK-ORANGES 19

25, Plants of coastal salt marshes and shores; twigs branched, finely lined MARSH ELDER (19)

23, Side buds visible;

26, Upper leaf scars meeting in raised points (in salt marshes, see also Sea-oxeye, p* 81) ASH LEAF MAPLE 10 26. Upper leaf scars not meeting in raised points: 27, Paired leaf scars not connected hv lines;

28. Twig tips usuallv thorny; inner hark yellow

COMMON BUCKTHORN 19

28. Twig tips not thorny; inner bark not yellow: 29, Broken twigs with a spicy odor; twigs swollen near buds ALLSPICES 16

29. Broken twigs without a spicy odor; twigs not much swollen at buds;

Name Plate 30. Central end but! lacking, only a pair of buds at twig tips: 31. Pith white, bud scales 2-4, fniits balloon I ike capsules

BLADDERNUT 8

31. Pith brown, hud scales many, fruits small and juicy, berrylike RED ELDERBERRY 8

30. Central end bud present; I or 3 buds present at twig tips:

32. Bud scale 1; fruits small capsules containing many tiny, silky seeds BASKET WILLOW 56

32. Buds without scales or, if scaly, with 2 or more scales: 33, Bud scales more than 2:

34. Bud scales fi or less (usually I or less); fniits fleshy with single flat seeds VIBURNUMS (2) 21

34, Bud scales most I v 6 or more; fruits drv, winged MAPLES 22

33. Bud scales 2 or none;

35. Leaf scars not J -shaped, nearly enclosing the buds JAPANESE CORKTREE (10)

35. L>eaf scars U-shaped, adjacent to the buds: 36. Twigs hairy or trunk bark white-striped;

bud scales 2; fniits dry, winged MAPLES 22 36. Twigs not hairy; trunk not white-striped;

bud scales 2 or none; fruits fleshy, with single flat seeds VIBURNUMS (1) 20

27, Paired leaf scars connected by lines: 37- Papery scales present at twig bases:

38. Thin, hairv ridges descending along sides of twigs;

bark not papery BUSH-HONEYSUCKLES 19

38- Twigs not ridged; bark papery;

39, Twigs stout, relatively inflexible; umbrellalike dried fruit clusters usually present in winter; low shnihs HYDRANGEAS 19

39. Twigs slender, relatively flexible; fniits are berries; low or tall shrubs HONEYSUCKLES (2) 14 37, No papery scales present at the bases of the twigs: 40. Bud scales more than 2:

41. Mostly shrubs; fruits fleshy with single flat seeds; bud scales 6 or less (usually 4 or less)

VIBURNUMS (2) 21 41+ Mostly trees; fniits dry, winged; bud scales mostly

6 or more MAPLES 22

40. Bud scales 2 or none:

42. l^eaf scars raised above the twigs; bud scales 2

DOGWOODS 15

42. l^af scars usually not much raised above the twigs:

43. "wigs hairy or tnink bark white-striped; bud scales 2; fniits dry, winged MAPLES 22

43. 1 wigs not hairy; trunk not white-striped; bud scales 2 or none; fniits fleshy with single flat seeds VIBURNUMS (1) 20

Hidden page

Division A (contd,) Name Plate

5, Buds covered by a single scale DWARF WILLOWS 32

5. Buds covered by more than 1 scale:

6. Buds covered by 2-3 scales BIRCHES 52

6w Bads covered by more numerous scales:

7. End buds false PLUMS 53

7, End buds true:

H- Older bark usually shreddy; leaf scars very narrow; broken twigs mostly with foul odor; mostly in swamps

CURRANTS 41 8, Older bark not shreddy; leaf scars not very narrow: 9* Twigs speckled; broken twigs with sour txlor

SAND CHERRY 32 9. Twigs not speckled; broken twigs without sour odor MOUNTAIN ALDER 51

DIVISION B

Climbing or sprawling vines (caction: Watch for Poison-ivy)

10, Vines climbing by aerial rootlets; poisonous POISON J VT 25 10, Vines without aerial rootlets; n on poisonous; 1L Vines climbing by tendrils:

12, Tendrils attached to old leaf bases; twigs green and without distinct pith; sterns mostly prickly or bristly

GREENBRIERS 33

12* Tendrils attached to twigs; twigs not green; pith distinct; stems not prickly:

13, Pitli brown, woody partitions usually present

GRAPES (1), etc, 34, 35 13. Pith white, without pith partitions: 14. Tendrils not forked

AMPELOFSIS 35

14. Tendrils forked:

15, Tendril tips very slender, often disk-

tipped BOSTON IVY, CREEPERS (35), 30 15, Tendril tips stout; not disk-tipped;

16, Tendrils present mostly near the branch tips PEPPER VINE 31

16- Tendrils more frequent CISSUS (25)

IL Vines without tendrils:

17, Prickly; trailing or climbing BRAMBLES 23

17< Not prickly; climbing by twining stems:

18. Leaf scars flanked by knobby growths WISTERIAS 18, Leaf scars not so flanked:

19. Leaf scars with more than 3 bundle sears

19. Leaf scars with 1-3 bundle scars

MISCELLANEOUS 37

Hidden page

Hidden page ctyifin D (contd.) Name Plate

48. Side buds not so hidden:

49. l,eaf scars nearlv encircling twijp; wood yellow

YELLOW ROOT 31 49. Leaf scars restricted to half the twig circumference or less; wood rarely yellow (see Yellowwood): 50, Buds nearly or completely surrounded by leaf scars: 51. Buds completely surrounded by leaf scars; bark very tough and leathery LEATHERWOOD 59

5L Buds nearly surrounded by deeply U- or V-shaped leaf scars; bark normal:

52. Bundle scars usually 5, projecting; sap not milky; wood of twigs yellow YELLOWWOOD 30 52. Bundle scars more than 5, not projecting;

sap milky; wood of twigs not yellow SUMACS 26 50. Buds located above leaf scars:

53. End buds without scales and much larger than side ones; buds wine-red PAWPAWS 59

53- Buds scalv:

54, Visible bud scales only 2-3:

55, Twigs stout, relatively inflexible; end buds false:

56, Leaf scars globed CHINABERRY (31)

56. Leaf scars crescent-shaped: poisonous

POISON SUMAC 26 55, Twigs slender, flexible; end buds tnie or false:

57. Pith partitioned near each leaf scar: 58. Twigs smooth or shreddy; mostly vines CRAPES (1), (2) 34, 35

58. Twigs with sandpapery surfaces;

shrub or tree PAPER MULBERRY 43 57. Pith solid:

59, Leaf scars narrow; bundle scars in a line; end buds tnie

MOUNTAIN ASHES 27

59, Leaf scars oval or triangular; bundle scars not in a line; end buds fake;

60, Buds red or green, usually sharp; inner bark fibrous

BASSWOODS 43

60. Buds brownish, usually blunt;

inner bark weak CHESTNUTS 57 54. Buds with 4 or more visible scales:

61. Stems very long-bristly or bristly-hairy;

end buds tnie BRISTLY SARSAPARILLA 24 61. Stems not bristly, though some hairy: 62, End buds true; twigs with lines leading from leaf scars NINEBARK 42 62. End buds false; twigs not lined: 63, Bud scales in 2 rows; sap milky

MULBERRIES 43

63, Bud scales not in 2 rows or lower

2 paired; sap clear HAZELNUTS 51

DIVISION E

Upright trees and shrubs with nonthorny twigs and leaf scars with 3 bundle scars (.see Division D for plants with numerous bundle scars collected in 3 groups)

Name Plate

64, Pith chambered:

65, Twigs stout; leaf scars large, shield-shaped WALNUTS 27 65- Twigs slender; leaf scars small, not shield-shaped:

66, Twigs green; fruits small dry pods in clusters; shnih

SWEET-SPIRES 59

66. Twigs brownish; fruits l^errylike; trees:

67, End buds false; fniits dry when ripe HACKBERRIES 43 67, End buds true; fruits fleshy SOUR GUMS 59

64, Pith continuous:

68. Buds without scales; hairy:

69- Buds stalked, with slender bases:

70. Fruit pods in short clumps WITCH-HAZELS 57 70. Fruit pods in long clusters WITCH-ALDER (57) 69. Buds not stalked BUCKTHORNS 58

68, Buds with 1 or more scales:

71. Twigs with small yellow resin-dots evident (use lens):

72. Buds short, hlunt WAXMYRTLES 57

72. Buds long, slender CURRANTS 41 71* Twigs without resin-dots (use lens):

73. Leaf scars like a narrow line half encircling twigs; plants bramhlelike ROSES 23

73, L^eaf scars wider; plants not b ramble I ike: 74. End buds true:

75- Buds with 1-3 visible scales (or if 4 scales, then buds somewhat long-pointed): 76, Buds with single caplike scale

WILLOWS U), (2) 55,56 76- Buds with more than 1 scale:

77. Buds narrowed conspicuously at base (stalked); bud scales 2-3, reddish ALDERS 51

77» Buds nut stalked (sessile):

78. Older hranchlets with leaf-scar-crowded \pur branches; bud scales not paired: 79. Bark usually with narrow cross stripes BIRCHES 52

79. Bark not striped APPLES 58 78. Older hranchlets without spur branches; hud scales 2-4, paired (see also Bladder-senna* p. 144)

80, Bud scales 2; leaf scars crowded toward twig tips

ALTERNATE-LEAF DOGWOOD 59 80, Bud scales 2 or 4, somewhat long-pointed; leaf scars not crowded toward twig tips

75. Buds with 4 or more visible scales:

Division E (contd.) Name Plate

81. Buds ball-shaped, some thorns over 1" usually present

HAWTHORNS 39

8L Buds longer than broad:

82. Buds with lowermost scale immediately above leaf scar; bark often smooth and greenish on young trunks and branches; trees POPLARS 44

82. Lowest bud scale not so aligned:

83. Branch lets often with corky "wings"; bud scales hairy-fringed; tree SWEETGUM 42

83. Branch lets without corky wings:

84. Twigs nearly encircled by narrow stipule scars near leaf scars; buds very long, slim BEECH 57 84, Twigs without encircling stipule scars;

85- End buds much larger than side buds and clustered at twig tips; s. Missouri south ward CO R K W OOD 59

85. End buds about same size as side 1>uds, clustered only in some cherries:

86. Twigs with obvious long lines leading from each end of the leaf scar and bark papery, shreddy; 87, Twigs with 3 lines descending from each leaf scar; yellow resin -dots lacking NINEBARK 42

87. Twigs with only 2 descending lines or if with 3 then with resin-

dots (use lens) CURRANTS 41

86. Twigs without long {but sometimes with short) lines from leaf scars; bark not papery or shreddy:

88. Buds reddish, slender:

89. Bud scales often twisted with black tips (use lens); shrubs or small trees JUNEBERR1ES 54

89, Bud scales not twisted but with tips notched (use lens); shrubs CHOKEBERR1ES 58

88* Buds not reddish or, if so, then stout, or at least not slender:

90. Older bark usually with narrow cross stripes; trees or shrubs CHERRIES 53

90. Older bark not cross-striped: 9L Bud scales paired, 2-4 B.-SENNA, SMOKETREE (30), 59

9L Bud scales not paired: 92. Leaf scars narrow; trees or shrubs

APPLES 38, 58 92. l^eaf scars deeper; northern shrub

MOUNTAIN ALDER 51

74- End buds false:

93. Buds with 2-3 visible scales:

Division E (contd.) Nanw Plate

94. Twigs stout; leaf sears large; buds small, round; trees (see also Hoptree and Albizzia. below):

95, Buds often several at each leaf sear, 1 above another: 96. Buds imbedded in bark: twigs whitish; pith pink

COFFEE-TREE 31 96, Buds raised; twigs not whitish; pith whitish

WESTERN SOAPBERRY (30) 95, Buds single; raised; leaf scar 3-lobed; pith white

CHINABERRY (31) 94, Twigs slender; leaf scars smaller; buds various; trees and shrubs:

97, Broken twigs spicy-aromatic; buds clustered

SPICEBUSHES 59

97, Broken twigs not aromatic:

98. Leaf scars U-shaped; buds hairy HOPTREE 25

98- Leaf scars otherwise:

99- Twigs deeply grooved; occurring at edges of salt water GROUNDSELrTREE 58

99, Twigs not grooved; mostly on uplands:

100- Twigs usually red or green; inner hark tough and fibrous BASSWOODS 43

100, Not as above:

101. Buds as wide as long ALBIZZIA 31

10L Buds considerably longer than broad:

102, Pith irregular in cross section

CHESTNUTS 57 102, Pith nearly circular or oval in cross section 1NDIGOBUSHES 30 93, Buds with 4 or more visible scales:

103, Broken twigs with spicv odor: twigs hairv; low shrub

SWEETFERN 57

103, Broken twigs not spicy-aromatic;

104, Buds short, blunt» ball-like; plant usually long-

thorny HAWTHORNS 39

104. Buds mostly longer, not ball-like; not thorny;

105, Dry clustered remains of tiny fruit capsules usually present; twigs and buds hairv; low shnibs NEW JERSEY TEAS 43

105, Fruit remains, if present» larger, not capsular: 106, Leaf scars raised with 2 obvious longish lilies leading from sides of their bases: 107. Leaf scars with upper edge often fringed; some buds narrow at base; a 3rd line sometimes leading from centers of leaf-scar bases REDBL'D 43 107, Leaf scars not fringed; buds not stalked; only 2 lines: 108, Buds narrow, often sharp; broken twigs with sour odor; trunk bark often with cross stripes PLUMS 38, 53

108. Buds broad, mostly blunt; broken twi^s without sour

Division E (contd.) Name Plate odor; trunk bark not striped APPLES, PEARS 38, 58

106. Leaf scars not raised or at least without obvious lines lead* ing from them:

109* Scales of buds in regular vertical rows:

110. Bud scales in 2 rows; buds round in cross section; some species with "winged" branchlets; trunk ridged ELMS 50

110. Bud scales in 4 rows; buds 4 angled; branchlets not winged; trunk smooth, "muscular" IRONWOOD 51 I0i), Scales of buds not in regular rows; buds round in cross section;

111. Buds pressed tightly against twigs; pith sometimes chambered HACK BERRIES 43

111. Buds not tightly pressed; pith continuous:

112, Leaf scars in 2 regular rows along twigs; 113, Buds sharp; scales finely grooved (use lens); trunk scaly; tree HORNBEAM 51

113, Buds blunt; bud scales not grooved (use lens); sterns not scaly; shrubs

HAZELNUTS 51

112. Leaf scars less regularly placed:

114. Bud scales blackish, dark BUCKTHORNS 58 114. Bud scales brown. lighter PLUMS 38, 53

DIVISION F

f plight trees and shrubs with nonthorny twigs and with leaf scars either lacking or with I bundle scar

115. Leaf scars lacking:

116. Trees with fibrous bark; twigs and needlelike foliage dropping in winter leaving no leaf scars; fruits ball* shaped cones BALDCYPRESS 3

116. Shrubs* rambling and thornless with thin (laky bark; leaves breaking off above base. 3 bundle scars evident only if leaf base is cut transversely

FLOWERING RASPBERRIES 42 115. Leaf scars present, with 1 bundle scar:

117, Leaves needlelike, clustered, falling in winter; "warty"

spur branches present; fruits cones LURCHES 2

117, Leaves not needlelike hut falling in winter; fruits not cones;

118, Pith chambered:

119, Buds with onlv 2 visible scales, blackish

PERSIMMON 68 119, Buds with more than 2 visible scales: 120» Bark white-striped; buds reddish

SILVERB ELL-TREE 67

120. Bark not striped; buds dark

SWEETLEAF 67

118, Pith continuous:

121. Twigs covered with silver and brown scales

SILVERBERRIES 68

Division F (confd.) Same Plate

12L Twigs without such scales:

122. Broken twigs with very tough leathery i*ark DAPHNE 68 122. Twig l>ark not especially tough:

123. Buds without scales SNOWBELLS 67

123, Buds covered by scales:

124. Broken twigs spicy-aromatic:

125, In southern swamps; twigs not branched

PONDSFICE «8

125. In uplands, widespread; twigs often branched SASSAFRAS 43

124. Broken twigs not spicy-aromatic:

126. End buds false:

127. ■ wigs covered with numerous, fine, granular speckles {sometimes partly obscured by hairiness); twigs usually green or reddish; buds mostly with 2-3 visible scales; shnibs

BLUEBERRIES 62

127. Twigs not warty-granular:

128. Buds with 2 visible scales: 129, Buds blackish; pith spongy or chambered

PERSIMMON 68 129. Buds not blackish; pith continuous:

130. Fruits fleshy lorries; twigs hairy or flattened and ridged or older bark shreddv HUCKLEBERRIES 63 130. Fruits dry capsules; twig* neither hairy nor flattened and ridged; older bark not shreddy: 13L Buds blunt

ZENOBIA (68)

13L Buds mostly sharp

MALEBERRY 66 128. Buds. 3 or more visible stales: 132. I^eaf scars conspicuously raised, often with descending lines at sides; twig? very slender; clustered small dry fruits common at twig tips SPIREAS 60 132 I>eaf scars not conspicuously raised, without lines at sides:

133. Tree; buds small; ball-shaped; fruits small dry capsules

Division F (contd.) Name Plate

133. Shrubs:

134. Twigs usually with reddish, catkinlike bud clusters; fruits dry capsules SWEETBELLS 66 134* Twigs without catkinlike bud clusters:

135. Buds l>all-shaped or conical; fruits dry capsules;

136. Twigs grayish STAGCERBUSH 68

136. Twigs reddish ZENOBIA (68) 135, Buds longer; fruits not capsules:

137. Southwestern; fruits l>eanlike pods

PRAIRIE ACACIA (31)

137. Widespread: fniits fleshv berries

HUCKLEBERRIES 63

126- End buds true:

138. End buds much larger than side buds; buds usually clustered toward twig tips; side buds with 2-3 scales; shruhs:

lift). Outer bud scales of end buds about as long as buds, hairy, often falling early PEP PER BUSHES 66 139. Outer bud scales shorter than buds, not falling early:

140. Branch lets with shreddy bark MINNIEBUSH 68

140. Branch lets with tight bark AZALEAS 64 138, End buds aI>out size of side buds:

141. Spur branches usually present; very tiny, black sharp stipules flanking each leaf scar (use lens); buds often clustered toward twig tips; trees or shrubs HOLLIES 61

14L Spur branches and stipules of this type absent; buds variable; shrubs: 142. Buds with 2-3 visible scales;

143- Twigs angled with long ridges: 144. Usually scrambling, vinelike

MATRIMONY-VINES 37

144. Upright shrubs

WHIN, ANDRACHNE (68) 143, Twigs neither angled nor ridged:

145. Buds hairy, tapering; Virginia southward

SILKY , MOUNTAIN CAMELLUS 67 145- Buds hairless

BLADDER-SENNA (30) MOU NT A IN H OLLY 68 142. Buds with 4 or more visible scales: 146- Twigs sharply ridged, green, often dying at tips: 147, Dense bushy shrub

SCOTCH BROOM 25

147. Weak slender shrub

BICOLOR LESPEDEZA (25)

146, Twigs not ridged;

148. Buds clasped at l>ase by raised leaf scars and stipules

SHRUBBY CINQUE FOIL, etc. 30

Division F (contd.) Name Plate

148, Buds not clasped at base:

149. Twigs very slender, often tipped with Hat or cone-shaped clusters of small dry fruits; clumped shrubs

SPIREAS 60

149. Twigs Jess slender; clusters of dry fruits may be present;

150, Buds large, greenish; plants parasitic on roots of other shrubs or trees; fruits large, nutlike; Appalachians OILNUT 68 150. Buds small, not greenish; plants not parasitic;

fruits small dry capsules NEW JERSEY TEAS 43

APPENDIX C

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment