Key to Trees in Leafless Condition

For usk only in identifying specimens at least 25 feet tall, thus excluding shrubs, Plate numbers in parentheses indicate that the plants are included but not illustrated in connection with the plate specified,

Name Plate

1. Leaf scars lacking; twigs and needlelike foliage dropping in winter, leaving no leaf or bundle scars; fruits ball-shaped cones BALDCYPRESS 3

L I^eaf scars present;

2. Leaf scars opposite (Sections II and IV):

3. Leaf scars with 4 to many bundle scars, often large: 4, Central bud missing, a single pair of buds present at twig tip):

5- Leaf scars 4-sided to crescent-shaped


5, Leaf scars circular or nearly so PRINCESS-TREE* etc. IS 4, 1 or 3 buds present at twig tip:

6. Twigs nxxlerately slender; end bud of moderate size, with only 2-3 pairs of scales; buds and twigs hairy or hairless:

7, Twigs neither velvety-hairy nor white-powdered (see also Japanese Corktree, p, 52)

7* Twigs velvety-hairy or white-powdered

6, Twigs stout; end bud often very large, with many scales, and uften gummy; buds and twigs most I v hairless BUCKEYES II

3» Leaf scars with I or 3 bundle scars: 8, Bundle scar 1:

9, Twigs bright green or red, 4-lined


9, Twig?» more somberly colored:

10, Buds ball-shaped FORESTIERAS 19

10, Buds longer than broad FRINGE-TREE 16

H. Bundle scars 3:

11, Upper leaf scars meeting in raised points

ASHLEAF MAPLE 10 IL Upper leaf scars not meeting in raised points: 12, Leaf scars much raised above twigs; buds hidden beneath leaf scars in I species


12, Leaf scars not much raised; buds visible:

A7ame PUtte 13. Central bud missing, a single pair of buds at twig tips


13, 1 or 3 buds present at twig tips:

14. Buds with a single caplike scale BASKET WILLOW 56 14, Buds with 2 or more scales: 15- Bud scales 2:

16. Fruits dry9 winged; twig? hairy or tnmk bark white-striped MAPLES 22

16, Fruits fleshy; twigs not hairy; trunk not white-striped:

17* Leaf sears deeply U-shaped

JAPANESE CORKTREE (10) 17, Leaf scars not U-shaped VIBURNUMS (1) 20 15- Bud scales 4 or more MAPLES 22

2, Leaf scars alternate (Sections I, III, and IV); IS. Twigs thorny or bristly:

19, Leaf scars with 1 or with more than 3 bundle scars


19. Leaf scars with 3 bundle scars:

20, Thorns in pairs or buds hidden beneath or surrounded by leaf scars LOCUSTS, etc- 24 20. Thorns not paired; buds above leaf scars


18, Twigs thornless:

2L Leaf scars with 4 or more bundle scars: 22, Buds narrowed at base (stalked):

23. Buds without scales, red-brown, hairy, end buds longer PAWPAWS 59

23, Buds with 2-3 smooth, usually reddish, scales, end buds not conspicuously larger than side buds ALDERS 51

22, Buds not conspicuously narrowed at base:

24. Twigs completely encircled by narrow lines (stipule scars) beneath buds:

25. Buds with only I bud scale or none:

26. Leaf scars entirely surrounding buds


26. Leaf scars, buds adjacent MAGNOLIAS 49 25, Buds with more than 1 bud scale:

27. Buds long-pointed, many-scaled, riot aromatic BEECH 57

27. Buds blunt, 2-scaled, spicy-scented when crushed TULIP-TREE 42

24. Twigs without encircling stipule scars: 28. Buds clustered at enlarged twig tips

OAKS (l)-(4) 45-48 28, Buds not clustered at twig tips:

29, Leaf scars large, triangular or shield-shaped; twigs stout: 30, End buds true:

3L Pith chaml>ered; buds woolly


31- Pith continuous; buds hairy or not HICKORIES (1), (2) 28, 29


Name Plate

30, End buds false; buds woolly:

32, Buds sunken in bark, often one al>ove the other


32. Buds not sunken, 1 per leaf scar:

33, Leaf sear 3-lobed; bundle stars in 3 groups

CHINABERRY (31) 33, Leaf sears deeply triangular; bundle sears scattered TREROF-HEAVEN 27

29* l-eaf scars small or narrow; twigs stout or not:

34, Twigs sandpaper-rough; pith partitioned near each leaf scar PA PER-MULBERRY 43

34. Twigs and pith not as above:

35, Buds nearly encircled by U- or V-like leaf scars; 36. Bundle scars usually 5; sap not inilkv


36. Bundle scars more than 5; sap milky


35. Buds located above leaf scar:

37. Buds with 4 or more visible scales; sap milky

MULBERRIES 43 37. Buds with only 2-3 visible scales; sap not in i Iky:

38. Leaf scars narrow; bundle scars in a tine;

end buds true MOUNTAIN-ASHES 27

38. Leaf scars oval or triangular; bundle scars not in a line; end buds false: 39. Twigs stout CHINABERRY (31)

39. Twigs slender:

40. Buds red or green, usually moderately sharp; inner bark fibrous


40, Buds brownish, usually blunt;

inner bark weak CHESTNUTS 57 2L Leaf scars with less than 4 bundle scars:

4L Leaf scars with 3 bundle scars (fin alternate 41 see p. 400):

42. Pith chambered:

43. Twigs stout; leaf scars large, shield-shaped


43, Twigs slender; leaf scars smalt not shield-shaped:

44. End buds false; fruits drv when ripe

IIACKBERRIES 43 44. End buds true; fruits fleshy SOUR-GUMS 59

42. Pith continuous:

45. Buds without scales, hairy-

46. Buds narrowed at base WITCH-HAZELS 57

46, Buds not stalked BUCKTHORNS 58 45. Buds with 1 or more scales:

47, Twigs with small yellow resin-dots evident

(use lens) WAXMYRTLES 57

47, Twigs without resin-dots (use lens): 48, End buds true:

49. Buds with 1-3 visible scales:

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Same Plate

63. Branch lets and buds otherwise:

64, Older bark usually with narrow cross stripes; broken twigs with unique almondlike odor


64. Older bark not cross-striped; broken twigs without special odor APPLES 38, 58

48. End buds false:

65. Buds with 2-3 visible scales:

86. Twigs stout, relatively inflexible; leaf scars large; buds small, round:

67. Buds often several at each leaf scar, above one another:

68. Buds imbedded in bark; twigs whitish; pith pink COFFEE-TREE 31

68. Buds raised; twigs not whitish; pith whitish

WESTERN SOAPBERRY (30) 67. Buds single, raised; leaf scar 3-lobed; pith white


66, Twigs slender, relatively flexible; leaf scars smaller; buds various:

69. Leaf scars U-shaped; buds hairy HOPTREE 25

69. Leaf stars not U-shaped; buds hairy or not; 70. Inner bark of branches tough and fibrous;

twigs mostly red or green BASSWOODS 43

70. Inner bark of branches not especially fibrous;

twigs brownish: _

7L Buds as wide as long ALBIZZIA 31

7L Buds longer than broad CHESTNUTS 57 65, Buds with 4 or more visible scales:

72, Buds short, blunt, ball-shaped HAWTHORNS 39

72, Buds mostly longer, not ball-shaped:

73. Leaf scars raised, with 2 obvious lines leading down from sides of their bases: 74. Leaf scars w ith upper edge often fringed with hairs; some buds narrow at base; a 3rd line sometimes leading from centers of leaf-scar bases RED BUD 43

74. I^al scars not Iringed; buds not stalked; only

2 lines present:

75- Buds narrow, often sharp; broken twigs with sour odor; trunk bark often with cross stripes PLUMS 38, 53

75. Buds broad, mostly blunt; broken twigs without sour odor; trunk bark not striped


73, Leaf scars not raised, or at least without obvious lines leading from them: 76. Scales of buds in regular vertical rows;

77, Bud scales in 2 rows; buds round in c ross section; some species with "winged" branch lets; trunk ridged ELMS 50

77, Bud scales in 4 rows; buds 4-angled; branch lets not winged; trunk smooth, gray, "muscular" I RON WOOD 51

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