Honeysuckles are among the few shrubs having scales that remain at the bases of the twigs, marking the boundaries between the twigs of the present season and the branchlets of the previous year (see Plate I I). Other woody plants with this characteristic are the hydrangeas and Bush-honeysuckle (Plate 19), which have leaves that are more heart-shaped and toothed, and the
III. SHRUB HONEYSUCKLES
Coralberry and Snowherry (Plate 17), which have only 1, rather than 3, bundle scars per leaf scar. In winter, hydrangeas usually bear umbrellalike clusters of dried fruit capsules in contrast to the berries of honeysuckles; their twigs too are usually more shiny and stout. The ridged twigs of the Bush-honeysuckle are distinctive, rhe prominent fruits of the Coralberry and Snowherry frequently are present in winter. Occasionally honeysuckles bear several buds, one above the other, where 1 normally grows. When present, this definitely separates thein from the oilier plants mentioned . i ioneysuckle leaves are not toothed, and the bark of twigs and branchlets, at least, is papery. Opposing leaf scars are connected by lines. The bundle scars are 3. In contrast to the climbing honeysuckles, these bushy plants, which rarely exceed 10 feet, may be identified by both leaf and twig characteristics. When present, the white, pink, or yellowish flowers are aids, I he blossoms mostly are of 2 types, as diagrammed. One group of species has the petal lobes arranged unevenly in 2 sections (Type A), while the other has rather regularly spaced petal lobes at the mouth of the tube (Type C). he Northern Honeysuckle has short petal lobes but generally resembles the Type C pattern.
The erect honeysuckles do not have united upper leaves as in some vine species, The upright honeysuckles that have hollow pith (pith lacking) are of Eurasian origin. Those with solid pith are native species. (One Asiatic importation with solid pith has very limited American range as an escape.)
TARTARIAN HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera taUirica L, p. 104 Recognition; A shrubby honeysuckle with hollow branchlets. Leaves elliptic to heart-shaped and nearly hairless, Buds short and blunt Leaves 1 Height to 10', Flowers Type Cf pink, rarely white, stalks longer than flowers, May-
June, Fruits red, rarely yellow, berries, (une-Aug. Similar species: Four shrub honeysuckles, one a hybrid, have hollow piths: (1) European and (2) Morrow Honeysuckles art?
hairy; (3) hybrid Bella Honeysuckle is similar but flower stalks are shorter than the flowers; (4) see also Snowherry (Plate 17),
EUROPEAN HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera xylosteum L. p. 104 Recognition: Similar to Tartarian Honeysuckle but twigs and leaf undersides, at least, usually gray-hairy. Buds long and sharp. Flowers Type A, pink, yellowish, or white, about W long, stalks of variable length. Fruits red,
MORROW HONEYSUCKLE Not illus-
Recognition: Similar to European Honeysuckle, but has narrow or obi [oiig leaves that are gray-hairy beneath. Buds short and conical. Flowers about %" long, white to yellow. Fruits red
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or yellow. Leaves l"-2". Eurasian; escaped to thickets; Maine and Michigan to New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
BELLA HONEYSUCKLE Not iilus.
Lonicera morrow i Gray x L, bell a Zabel
Recognition: An Asiatic hybrid having characteristics appearing as intermediate between Tartarian and Morrow Honeysuckles, Leaves elliptic or egg-shaped. Twigs and foliage hairless or nearly so. Flower stalks shorter than the pink to yellow Type C flowers. Escape; Maine and New York to New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
FOUR-LINED HONEYSUCKLE p. 104
Lonicera involucrata (Richards.) Banks
Recognition: An upright shrub with solid white pith and 4-lined and squarish I¡vts. Twii;s ami foliage hairless or nearly so and leaves elliptic or somewhat oblong. Lower In id scales as long as buds; more than 2 evident. Leaves 2"-5'\ Height to 10'. Flowers yellowish, unlike others of this group in that they are cylindrical for most of their V-V length, with quite short petal lobes and located above 4 conspicuous green to purplish leaflike bracts (the involucre), June-July. Fruits black, July-Aug. Similar species: Only honeysuckle with 4-lined twigs. Also has unique flowers and black berries.
SWAMP HONEYSUCKLE p. 104
Lonicera oblongifolia (Coldie) Hook.
Recognition: A more or less hairless honeysuckle with solid pith. Twigs and Icai undersides finely hairy to hairless, Leaves somewhat oblong to egg-shaped. Bud scales several, lower ones as long as bud. Leaves 1"—3W\ Height to 5'. Flowers Type A, yellowish, rarely white, stalks longer than blossoms,
May-June. Fruits orange to red, July-Aug, Similar species: (i) Northern Honeysuckle is hairy, has 2-scaled buds, blue fruits, (2) Canada Honeysuckle has shorter outer bud scales. Both have more rounded leaves, Type C flowers. (3) Standish Honeysuckle has very long-pointed leaves.
NORTHERN HONEYSUCKLE p. 104
Recognition: A small hairy honeysuckle with solid pith and 2 bud scales that cover buds like a pea pod. Twigs and both leaf surfaces densely hairy, but some varieties hairless or nearly so. Leaf edges typically fringed with fine hairs. Leaves 1"~2W\ Height to 354', Flowers Type C, yellowish, about stalks much shorter than flowers, April-July. Fruits blue, May-Aug. Similar species: Bud type and fruit color are distinctive, whether plant is hairy or not.
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CANADA HONEYSUCKLE Umicera caruidensis Bartr. >. 104 Recognition: A mostly hairless honeysuckle with solid pitn and lower hud scales shorter than in ids. Twigs generally hairless as are egg- to heart-shaped leaves, except that leaf edges are fringed with fine hairs. Leaves l"-3". Height to 6\ Flowers [ype C, yellowish or yellowish green, about V, stalks longer than blossoms, April-July. Fruits red, June-Aug. Similar species: See Swamp Honeysuckle.
STANDISH HONEYSUCKLE Not illus.
¡Amicera standishii I acq.
Recognition: Escaped from gardens on Long Island, New York, this Asiatic resembles the last in having solid pith, fringed leaves, red berries. It is nearly evergreen, however, and the leaves are much long-pointed. Twigs somewhat bristly-hairy.
See Swamp Honeysuckle, Height to 8\ Flowers Type A, white, short-stalked, April,
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