Fanlobed Leaves

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The mulberries and Sassafras {Plate 43) possess leaves frequently deeply lobed, but they also usually carry some unlobed foliage. W lute Poplar (Plate 44) has leaves rarely lobed but white-woolly. Sand and Bush Grapes (Plate 34) have lobed leaves and may be bushy, but they usually look somewhat vinelike and their stem pith is divided by partitions near the places of leaf attachment. These species, most currants (Plate 41), and the following few plants are the only alternate-leaved trees and shrubs that are thornless and possess leaves fan-lobed. The species of this plate lack the long lines descending from leaf scars which are present in the currants. Maples (Plate 22) and some viburnums (Plates 20 and 21) have fan-lobed leaves but these are opposite, not alternate.

TULIP-TKEE Liriodendron tulipifera L. pp. 7y 318

Recognition: A straight tall tree with peculiar notched-tip, 4-pointed hairless leaves. Pairs of arge leafy stipules attach to twigs and enclose buds. Twigs hairless with completely encircling lines (stipule scars) at leaf scars. Pith chambered. Only 2 bud scales cover each end bud; side buds small or indistinct. Crushed buds and leaves spicy-aromatic; bundle scars more than 3. Bark light gray, often whitened in grooves and in patches on younger bark. Leaves 6"-I0". Height .50'— 100' (190'); diameter 2'-6' (10 ). Flowers large, tuliplike, orange and green, May-June. Fruits slim, winged, whitish, l"-2", clustered upright in conelike structure about 3" long, Sept.-

Nov.. or longer; often central stalks of cones remain throughout winter and are evident on higher limbs. Similar species: None; distinctive at all seasons. Remarks: Tallest and in many ways handsomest eastern forest tree. Second only to Sycamore in trunk diameter. Wood straight-grained, fine, soft, resistant to splitting and easily worked. Used for furniture, interiors, shingles, boats, implements, boxes, toys, pulp, and fuel. Indians made trunks into dugout canoes. Seeds eaten by squirrels and songbirds. Though widely known as Yellow Poplar and Tulip Poplar, this relative ot magnolias (Plate 49) is not closely related to true poplars (Plate 44).

SWEETGUM Liquidambar styracifiua L. pp. 13, 318

Recognition: A tall tree with peculiar star-shapea, toothed


hairless leaves. Leaves may he 5- or 7-lobed; pleasantly fragrant when crushed. Twigs not ringed; branchlets often corky-winged. Stubby "spur" branches densely covered by leaf scars or crowded leaves. Bud scales numerous and hairy-fringed; bundle scars 3; pith continuous. Mature bark grayish, regularly grooved. Leaves 5"-8'\ Height 50^120' (1407); diameter 3 -4' (5'). Flowers in spherical heads, April-May. Fruits in brown, dry, somewhat prickly, long-stemmed, hanging halls, Sept.-Nov,, or longer.

Similar species; None in summer. In winter some elm twigs may have corky wings present but those species have false end buds and their bud scales have dark borders without a hairy fringe.

Remarks: Both common and scientific names allude to the sap that exudes from wounds. Hardened clumps of this gum are chewed by some people. Because Sweet gum veneer takes a high polish, it is widely used for furniture. Lumber also used for interiors, woodenware, boats, toys, boxes, and fuel. Seeds eaten by songbirds, bobwhite, wild turkey, chipmunks, and gray squirrel,

SYCAMORE Platanus occidentals L. pp. 10, 318

Recognition: A very large lowland tree with distinctive mottled brown hark that flakes off in jigsaw-puzzle-like pieces, exposing yellowish and whitish underbark. Leaves nearly hairless, 3- to 5-lobed, edged with large teeth. Leafstalk bases hollow, covering buds; leaf scars surround buds. Single saucerlike, leafy, toothed stipules clasp and encircle ttrigs at points of leaf attachment; stipule scars ring winter twigs, Buds covered by a single scale; end buds false. Bundle scars many. Leaves 6"-10". Height 50'-130' (175'); diameter 3'-8' (14'), Flowers small, in globose heads, April-June. Fruits small and hairy, in tight, brown, long-stalked hanging balls in diameter, Oct., often through winter.

Similar species: Old World Sycamores, often planted in our cities, are called Plane-trees, They usually have 2 or more fruit "balls' per stalk rather than I and have more yellowish under-bark.

Remarks: Tulip-tree occasionally may be taller, but Sycamore is generally conceded to be the most massive tree of eastern U,S. Attains greatest size in Ohio and Mississippi river basins, but, unlike Sequoias and Redwoods of California, is old at 500-000 years. Hard coarse-grained wood used for boxes, barrels, butchers' blocks, cabinetwork, and furniture. Indians used trunks for dugouts. One such canoe reported to have been 85' long and to have weighed 90(H) pounds. Twigs eaten by deer and muskrats. Cavities sought for nests and shelter by wood duck, opposum, and raccoon.


ROSE-OF-SHARON Hibiscus syriacus L. p. 318

Recognition: Shrub with 3-lobed, round-toothed leaves hairy beneath. Twigs often somewhat I ury, with tips expanded. Buds very small, white-hairy, clustered toward twig tips. End buds true; bundle scars more than 3. Tiny pointed stipules flank bases of leafstalks. Leaves 2"-6", Height to 18'. Flowers large, hollyhocklike, pink, July-Sept,

Similar species: Ninebark has visible buds, twig tips not expanded, and shreddy older bark,

FLOWERING RASPBERRY Rubus odoratus L, p. 318

Recognition: A thorn less rambling shrub, 1 .eaves maplelike, but alternate, 3- to 5-lobed, toothed, varying from nearly hairless to velvety-hairy. I .eaves in autumn break off above leaf bases, which remain on twig. No bundle scars evident unless leaf base is sharply cut across, whereupon 3 bundle scars can be discerned. Twigs usually quite hairy but occasionally nearly hairless, Hairs on leaves, twigs, and flowers often clammy-tipped (use lens), ¡ wig tips usually wither back in winter; no end buds apparent. Older bark papery. Leaves 4"-15". Height to 5'. Flowers rose-purple, rarely white, June-Sept. Fruits red, rather dry and tasteless, July-Sept.

Similar species: Thimbleberry is more western, has white flowers. Only other shrubs with leaves distinctly maplelike but alternate are currants and gooseberries (Plates 40 and 41), which have obvious buds, less sharp leaf teeth, and often bear thorns. In winter no other shrubs, except prickly brambles (Plate 23), have persistent leaf bases without readily evident bundle scars.

Remarks: Fruits are eaten by great variety of wild animals.

THIMBLEBERRY Rubus parviflorus Nutt Not illus,

Recognition: Similar to Flowering Raspberry but more western and with white blossoms. Twigs and flower parts are rarely clammy. Fruits juicy, used in making jelly, but not particularly tasty raw. Woods and thickets; w. Ontario, n, Michigan, Minnesota, sw. S. Dakota, and s. Alaska to Mexico, Arizona, and California.

NINEBARK Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. p. 318

Recognition: A shrub with 3-lobed, round-toothed, hairless leaves. Twigs hairless; buds many-scaled. Bundle scars 3-5; leaf scar distinctly raised, with 3 descending lines. Bark of older branches papery and shreddy. Leaves Height to 10'. Flowers small, white, in umbrellalike clusters, May-July, Fruits small dry bladders, Sept.-often through winter. Similar species: Twigs and papery bark of some currants (Mate 41) similar in winter but their leaf scars more narrow,


less raised, and mostly without a 3rd center line descending from the leaf scars. Currant fruits, furthermore, are fleshy. See Rose-of-Sharon (p. 205),

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