In addition to the cone-bearers, a few flowering plants have needlelike and sometimes also scalelike leaves. Nearly all such plants have colorful blossoms. In general, they are creeping in habit, forming dense, matted, sometimes mosslike, growths.


Tamarisk, however, is an erect shrub or tree and Corse is an upright shrub. Dwarf Mistletoe is parasitic on conifer brandies. Of the plants discussed in the following accounts only Tamarisk, Heather, and Mountain-heath conceivably might be confused with any other members of the needle-bearing group. Alpine-azalea and Sand myrtle, whose small opposite leaves are too broad to be considered needJelike, are shown on Plates 12 and 17. Some plants of this plate are of value in the control of soil erosion or in the anchoring of dunes.

Nearly all the conifers that grow in the Far North and on high mountains may grow in a dwarf or matted manner in exposed locations, tliis is true of White and Red Pines (Plates 1 and 2), Balsam Kir, Eastern Hemlock, and American Yew {Plate 3). Black and White Spruces (Plate 4), Northern White Cedar, Red Cedar, and Dwarf and Trailing Junipers (Plate 5). When identifications are attempted in such locations, the accounts of those conifers also should be consulted.

DOWNY IH DSONIA Uudsonia ericoides L. p. 44

Recognition: A mosslike shrub with the needlelike leaves somewhat hairy but greenish, spreading, sharp, and long. Older bark Ha king. Flowers small, clustered, yellow, or rarely white, May-June. Vuits small, dry, 1-parted capsules. Similar species: (1) Woolly Hudsonia also hairy but has shorter and more matted-hairy needlelike leaves. (2) Purple Crowberry has fleshy fruits and blunt-tipped leaves.

WOOLLY HUDSONIA Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt p. 44

Recognition: Similar to preceding species hut with We' -W needles enmeshed in thick whitish hair and hugging the twigs. A form intermediate between the two species may be a hybrid-

TAMARISK Tamarix tallica L. Not ill us.

Recognition: An importation from Eurasia, this upright shrub or tree is becoming established in the Northeast, In some localities called Salt-cedar. Pale green leaves less than Me" long, scaleltke, on long, slender, often drooping twigs. Numerous slender spikes of pink, or sometimes whitish, flowers usually present from May to Sept. Fruits small dry capsules. Roadsides and thickets; Massachusetts, Indiana, and Kansas to Florida, s. Texas, and s. California.

HEATHER Caltuna vulgaris (L.) Hull p. 44

Recognition: A low fern tike shrub with sharp green needles long, crowded in 4 rows along twigs. Bare portions of twigs or branchlets evident. Older bark smooth* Height 5"-15". Flowers small, clustered, pink, or less commonly white, July*Nov, Fruits small, dry, 4-parted capsules.


Similar species: The junipers are low and hushy but <lo not have needles in 4 dense rows.

CASS I OPE Cassiope hypnoides (L.) D, Don p. 44

Recognition: A tufted mosslike creeping shrub with blunt green needles We''-^Ā«" long, crowded in 4 rows along twigs. Bare portions of twigs or branehlets usually hidden on upright portions of plant. Older outer bark smooth. Height l"-5". Flowers small, single, pink or white, on long stalks, June-Aug. Fruits small, dry, 4- to 5-parted capsules.

CROSSLEAF HEATH Erica tetralix L, Not illus.

Recognition: Like Cassiope, a creeping shrub with needles long in 4 rows on twigs. Leaves less densely crowded, with knob-tipped hairs visible to the eye and readily apparent under hand lens, Bare portions of twigs readily evident. Height to 10"-12". Flowers small, pink, vase-shaped, clustered at twig tips, fuly-Oct. Fruits small, dry, 4-parted capsules. European plant established in acid soils; scattered localities in Maine, e. Massachusetts, and \\\ Virginia.

CORNISH HEATH Erica vagans L. Not illus.

Recognition: Similar to Crossleaf Heatli but with needles hairless, in 3's and 4s. 1'lowers occur in side rather than end clusters. Established locally on Nantucket L, Massachusetts.

SCOTCH HEATH Erica cinerea L. Not illus.

Recognition: A low creeping shrub with needles W'-W long in tvriorls of 3 with numerous additional and smaller needles clustered in the angles of longer needles; not hairy. Flowers vase-shaped, purple, at twig tips or in side clusters, fuly-Oct. Fruits small, dry, 4-parted capsules. A European introduction established locally on Nantucket L, Massachusetts.

BROOM-CROWBERRY Corema conradii Torr, p. 44

Recognition: A spreading low shrub with very narrow green needles long. Leaves may be in 4s but are staggered on twigs to form 8 rows or a scattered pattern. Older bark flaky. Height 6"-24'\ Flowers without petals; male blossoms purplish, in heads at ends of twigs, March-May. Fruits small, rather dry brown berries with 3, or less commonly 4-5, seeds, July-Aug.

Similar species: True crovvberries are lower, have wider needles, scattered flowers, and juicy fruits with more numerous seeds.

BLACK CROWBERRY Empetrum nigrum L, p. 44

Recognition: A ground-hugging, spreading shrub with narrow or somewhat elliptic, sharp-tipped, green needles long.


Leaves dense, not regularly in 4 rows. Twigs hairless or somewhat long-hairy. Older bark flaky. Height 2"-3". Flowers without petals, scattered, June-July. 1 ruits pea-sized, juicy, black, rarely white, with 6-9 seeds, July-Nov, or longer Similar species: (1) Purple and (2) Rock Crowberries have hairy leaves, (75) See also Broom-crowberry.

Remarks: Over 10 birds, including ruffed grouse and ptarmigan, are known to eat the fruits,


Empetrum atropurpureum Fern. 6c Wieg, Recognition; Similar to Black < rowberry but with white-woolly leaves and twigs. Leaves of growing shoots blunt-tipped, long. Fruits red to purpleĀ» across, Rock

Crowberry has shorter leaves. Downy Hudsonia has longer, sharp-tipped leaves. Sandy and rocky soils; s. Labrador and Quebec to s. Nova Scotia and n. New England,


Empetrum eamesii Fern, & Wieg.

Recognition: Like Purple Crowberry but with needles of grow ing shoots W-Vie" long. Fruits pink to light red, across, Sandy and rocky soils; sr. Labrador and Newfoundland to Nova Scotia,


Arceuthohium pusillum Peek

Recognition: An inconspicuous parasitic shrub with tinv opposite scalelike leaves. Stems rectangular in cross section, less than 1" long. Fruits small, dry. Only other mistletoe (p. 69) has wide, opposite, leathery leaves. This plant often causes "witches brooms" among branches of host plant, but such dense tangles also may be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other organisms. Grows mostly on Spruce but also on Larch and White Pine branches. Newfoundland, Ontario, and Minnesota to n. New Jersey, n, Pennsylvania, and Michigan.

MOUNTAIN-HEATH Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab. n. 44 Recognition: A low shrub with blunt flat needles long.

Needle bases appear to follow along twigs for a short distance, as in American Yew (Plate 3). Older bark flaky. Height to 8". Flowers small, cup-shaped, purplish, scattered, June*Aug. Fruits small, dry, 5-parted capsules.

Similar species: Seedling American Yews (Plate 3} have longer pointed needles and red fleshy fruits.

CORSE Ulex europaeus L. p. 44

Recognition: A very spiny low dense shrub with sharp triangular


3i spinelike leaves ^"-2" long, I wigs and branchlets are somewhat hairy and are marked by distinct lengthwise ridges. Buds small; no leaf scars. Height to 4\ Flowers large, yellow, May-Sept- Fruits short poos, Aug-Oct,

Remarks; A European importation of some use as a sand binder. Reportedly very Hammable when dry.










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