Dogwoods

In addition to the Flowering Dogwood, which grows to tree size, there are 9 species that have less conspicuous blossoms. These usually are shrubs but some rarely grow to small tree size. One ot these shrubs has alternate leaves (see Plate 59). All species have leaf veins that strongly tend to follow the leaf edges toward the leaf tips. The buds have 1 pair of scales and the bundle scars are

3. twigs, branchlets, and pith often are distinctively colored.

Flowers and fruits of the shrubby species are in umbrella-shaped clusters. The fleshy fruits (drupes) have a single stony seed.

In winter the dogwoods may resemble some viburnums (Plates

20 and 21) or maples (Plate 22), but the leaf scars on the new twigs are raised in the dogwoods. See also Plate 59.

ROUNDLEAF DOGWOOD Cornus rugosa Lam. p, 106 Recognition: A medium-sized shrub usually with broadly egg-shaped to nearly round leaves. Some plants may have narrower leaves. Twigs greenish or red-brown, marked with purplish blotches. Leaves have 5-9 pairs of veins and are woolly to hairless beneath. Leaves 2"-5", Height to 10', Flowers in flat-topped clusters, May-July. Fruits tight blue, rarely white, Aug.-Oct.

Similar species: No other dogwood lias purple-blotched greenish twigs.

Remarks: Fruits eaten by ruffed and sharptail grouse. Twigs are consumed by cottontail, moose, and are a favorite of white-tail deer.

III. DOGWOODS

FLOWERING DOGWOOD Comus florida L* pp. 11, 106 Recognition; A small to medium-sized tree with hidden side buds and stalked flower buds. Leaves hairless or nearly so, elliptic to egg- or wedge-shaped, 5-ft pairs of veins. Twigs and branch lets sometimes green, mostly dark purple, often swollen from insect attacks. Pith white. Trunk bark dark, deeply checkered in an alligator-hide-like pattern. Leaves 2"-5". Height 10'-40'; diameter 12"—18". Flowers small, clustered, each cluster with 1 (rarely 6-8) large white or seldomly pink bracts (not true petals), March-June. Fruits red or rarely yellow, Aug.-Nov. Similar species: Only dogwood with showy white bracts, hidden side buds, and stalked flower buds. Checkered bark less corky than similar barks of blaekhaw viburnums {Plate 20) or (1) Persimmon (Plate 68). (2) Common Mock-orange (Plate 19) has leaf scars not raised and bark oi branchlets thin and papery. Remarks: Powdered bark is reported to have been made into a toothpaste, a black ink (when mixed with iron sulphate), and a quinine substitute. Bark of the roots yields a scarlet dye. Shuttles, bobbins, tool handles, mallets, and golf club heads are manufactured from the hard close-grained wood. Humans find the bitter red fruits inedible, but with twigs they are important foods of numerous song and game birds, skunks, deer, rabbits, and squirrels.

RED-PANICLE DOGWOOD Comus racemosa Lam. p. 106 Recognition: A small or medium-sized shrub with light gray branchlets and clusters (panicles) of white fruits supported by red stems. Leaves elliptic to egg-shaped, usually with 3-5 pairs of veins, somewhat whitened, hairless or slightly hairy beneath. Twigs brownish; pith light brown. Leaves l"-5". Height to 10'. Flowers small, whitish, in long cone-shaped clusters, June-July. Fruits white, red-stemmed, July-Oct,

Similar species: (1) Rough leaf and (2) Price Dogwoods have sand papery, woolly foliage and twigs, round-topped fruit clusters. (3) Stiff Dogwood has reddish twigs, white pith, and bluish fruits,

Remarks: Fruits eaten by pheasant and ruffed and sharptail grouse,

RED OSIER DOGWOOD Comus stolonifera Michx. p. 106 Recognition: A small to medium-sized shrub with bright red or, less commonly, green twigs and branchlets and white pith. A rare form (repens Vict) is creeping and carpet-forming, with small leaves. Leaves elliptic with 3-5 (less commonly 6-7) pairs of veins, whitened, hairless or somewhat silky beneath. Var. hailetji (C ou It and Evans) Or esc her has brownish-red hairy twigs and leaves densely woolly beneath. Leaves 2"-5'\

III. DOGWOODS

Height to 10'. Flowers small, whitish, in flat-topped clusters, May~Augt Fruits white, July-Oct,

Similar species: Only Stiff Dogwood also may have red twigs and white pith, but leaves not whitened beneath and fruits are blue and in round-topped clusters.

Remarks: Fruits much sought after by songbirds, ruffed and sharptail grouse, bohwhite, and European partridge, Iwigs eaten by deer, elk, moose, cottontail, and snowshoe hare.

STIFF DOGWOOD Cornus foetnina Mill. Not illus.

Recognition: Similar to Red-osier Dogwood and, like it, with white pith. Stiff Dogwood more southern; twigs and branch lets may be reddish or brownish, Leaves green on both sides, slightly paler but not whitened beneath, somewhat long-tipped, 4-5 pairs of veins. Leaves 2"-5". Height to 15'* Flowers small, whitish, in somewhat round-topped clusters, May-June. Fruits blue, Aug-Oct. See Red-osier Dogwood and Red-panicle Dogwood. Wet places; e. Virginia, s, Indiana, se. Missouri to Florida and Texas,

SILKY DOGWOOD Cornus amomum Mill, p, 106

Recognition; A small to medium-sized shrub with du\\-purj)le silky-hairy twigs and brown pith. Leaves broadly egg-shaped, iess than twice as long as broad, with wide rounded bases and 3-5 pairs of veins, smooth above and hairless or somewhat brown- or gray-hairy beneath. Branchlets as well as twigs dull purple. Leaves 2"-4'\ Height to 10 \ Flowers small, whitish, in flat-topped clusters, June-July. Fruits bluish, Aug.-Oct Similar species: (1) Narrowleaf Dogwood has narrower leaves, tapering leaf bases; probably these 2 cannot be separated in winter, unless dead leaves can be located. (2) Roughleaf and (3) Price Dogwoods have "sandpapery" upper leaf surfaces and rough-hairy twigs.

NARROWLEAF DOGWOOD Cornus obliqua Kaf, Not illus. Recognition: Like Silky Dogwood but leaves narrower, with tapered bases, whitened or white-hairy beneath. Leaves twice as long as broad, or longer. Wet places; New Brunswick and N. Dakota to New Jersey, W. Virginia, Kentucky, Oklahoma.

ROUGHLEAF DOGWOOD p. 106

Cornus drummondi Meyer

Recognition: A midwestern shrub or in South a medium-sized tree. Leaves sarulpapery abovef woolly beneath, egg-shaped or elliptic with 3-5 pairs of veins. Twigs red-brown or brownish; branchlets brown or gray. Pith brown> rarely white. Leaves 2"-5". Height 4'-15' (50'); diameter 2"-8" (10")> Flowers small, whitish, in round-topped clusters, petals ^W'-^i", May- une. Fruits white, Ma*-ft", Aug.-Oct

III. MISC.: LEAVES NOT TOOTHED (1)

Similar species: (I) Price Dogwood the only other dogwood w ith rough leaves and rough-hairy twigs. (2) Red-panicle Dogwood has brownish twigs but they are not sandpapery as in this species.

Remarks: Fruits eaten by many songbirds and by prairie chicken, sharptail and ruffed grouse, bobwhite, wild turkey, pheasant.

PRICE DOGWOOD Comus priceae Small Not illus*

Recognition: Nearly identical with Roughleaf Dogwood, sometimes considered same species. I .eaves broader. Fruits less than in diameter. River bluffs; Kentucky and Tennessee.

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