Buds gray or blackish mostly long

CANADA PLUM

2. Leaf scars raised, hit ling the lower half of the buds

CHICKASAW PLUM

1. Twigs velvety-hairy or woolly: 4. Buds longer than broad:

5, Leaf teeth rounded BULLACE PLUM

5. Leaf teeth sharp AMERICAN PLUM

4. Buds shorter than broad SLOE PLUM

AMERICAN PLUM Prunus americarxa Marsh. p. 310

Recognition; A shrub or small tree with shaggy harkP Leaves narrow to wedge-shaped, hairless or nearly so (except in var. lanata), somewhat long-pointed, sharply and often doubly toothed. Usually no glands on leafstalks. Twigs typically hairless but var. lanata Sudw. (Indiana and Iowa to Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas) has hairy twigs and leaf undersides. Buds red-brown, mostly about Leaf scars not abnormally enlarged. Leaves I"-5", Height I5'-3(K (35'); diameter 5"-10" (14"). Flowers white, 3-5 in clusters, April-June, nuts red or yellow, V-l Vi", seed somewhat flattened, Aug.-Oct.

Similar species: Only thorny plum to have sharp leaf teeth and regularly to lack glands on leafstalks.

Remark*: Several hundred varieties have been named, Some are cultivated.

V. UPRIGHT THORNY PLANTS 195

CANADA PLUM Prunus nigra Ait. Leaf edge illus., p. 310 Recognition: Similar to American Plum but leaf teeth rounded and glands on leafstalks usually present. Twigs hairless; buds gray or blackish, about Numerous strains known and several cultivated. Leaf scars not abnormal] v enlarged. Bui lace Plum is similar but hairy. Leaves l"-5'\ Height 6-20' <25'); diameter 4"-10" (12"). Flowers white to pink, April-June, Fruits yellow to reddish, slightly elongate, Aug.- < )ct. Thickets; Nova Scotia, s. Quebec, s. Ontario, n. Michigan, and s, Manitoba to Virginia, W. Virginia, Ohio, n. Illinois, and Iowa; in mountains to Georgia,

CHICKASAW PLUM Not illus.

Prunus angustifolia Marsh.

Recognition: A southern shrub or small tree with hairless narrow leaves with fine, gland-tipped, rounded teeth. Toward southwest, leaves become wider and somewhat leathery. Leafstalks bear glands. Twigs hairless, reddish, Leaf scars raised to such an extent that lower halves of buds are hidden. Leaves l"-3". Height to 20'; diameter to 10". Flowers white, clustered, March-April Fruits red or yellow, seeds nearly spherical, July-Aug. Thickets; New Jersey, Maryland, Kentucky, st Illinois, and s. Nebraska to centr. Florida and centr. Texas,

BULLACE PLUM Prunus insititia L. Not illus.

Recognition: European; similar to Canada Plum but with velvety leaf undersides, twigs, and flower and fruit stalks. Leaf bases somewhat wedge-shaped. Buds longer than broad. Sloe PI urn has shorter buds, single blossoms. Leaves 2"-4". Height to 20'. Flowers mostly in pairs, white, over across, April-May. Fruits blue-black, with a bloom, spherical, Aug,-Sept, Escaped from cultivation; local in se. Canada and ne, U.S.

SLOE PLUM Prunus spinosa L, Nut illus.

Recognition: Similar to Bullace Plum but more spiny and with smaller leaves. Buds shorter than broad. Flowers mostly single and only across. Flower and fruit stalks hairless, Eura sian; occasionally spreading from cultivation; se. Canada and ne. U.S.

NATIVE CRABAPPLES Pyrus spp. p, 310

Recognition: The apples differ from the plums in having true end buds, 110 glands on leafstalks, scaly nonstriped bark, and several-seeded fruits. Some hawthorns (Plate 39) have thorns, leaves, and fruits resembling those of apples but their thorns never bear buds or leaves and their thorns occur on the twigs, not on older wood as in apples (or plums). Spur branches occur in all 3 groups.

i96 V. UPRIGHT THORNY PLANTS

Some apples are more regularly spiny than others. These are the ones discussed here. They are the only apples native to our area. The imported crabapples, apples, and pears are less likely to he thorny and are given on Plate 58, Since they may be spiny, however, the text discussion also should be seen in identifying members of the group. Hybrids between species are frequent and usually have intermediate characteristics.

The related mountain-ashes (Plate 27) and chokeberries (Plate 58) are also included in the genus Pyrus but are quite distinctive, Identification of the apples and pears, including those on Plate 58 (marked 0), may be made as follows:

L i wigs and leaf undersides usually hairy to woolly:

2. Leaf teeth rounded; leaves never deeply cut

DOMESTIC APPLE0

2. Leaf teeth sharp; leaves on vigorous shoots often deeply toothed or lobed; 3, Leaf bases rounded:

4. Northeast area; leaves barely hairy; fruits without grit cells CHINESE APPLE0 4. Midwest area; leaves densely woolly; fruits without grit cells PRAIRIE CRABAPPLE 4. Southeast area; leaves often densely woolly; fruits with grit cells CHINESE PEAR* 3, i eaf bases wedge-shaped; southeast area; a varietv of the NARROWLEAF CRABAPPLE 1. Twigs and leaf undersides usually hairless or nearly so:

5- Leaf teeth rounded; leaves never deeply cut

DOMESTIC PEAR*

5, Leaf teeth sharp:

6. Leaves long-pointed: 7, Leaves not deeply cut

SIBERIAN CRABAPPLE0

7. Leaves on vigorous shoots often deeply toothed or lobed; a variety of AMERICAN CRABAPPLE fi. Leaves not long-pointed, often deeply toothed or lobed:

8. Leaf bases wedge-shaped, tips blunt; southeastern NARROWLEAF CRABAPPLE

8. Leaf bases rounded, tips sharp, north-central

AMERICAN CRABAPPLE

AMERICAN CRABAPPLE Pyrus coronaria Lt p. 310

Recognition: A thicket-forming shrub or small tree with hairless twigs and leaves. Leaves have round hoses, sharp tips. Those on vigorous shoots deeply toothed to somewhat lobed. Though usually heart-shaped to triangular, foliage of var. landfolia (Rehd.) Fern. (Pennsylvania and Illinois to w. N. Caro-

V. UPRIGHT THORNY PLANTS; HAWTHORNS 197

lina, Tennessee, and Missouri) is narrowly long-pointed* Buds sharp-pointed. Bark gray, rough, cracked vertical ly. Leaves l"-5'\ Height 15'-3C; diameter 6"» 14". Flowers pink or white, highly fragrant, March-May. Fruits yellow-green, bitter,

Sept,-Nov,

Similar species: (1) Narrowleaf Crabapple has leaves more elliptic. (2) Prairie Crabapple is woolly.

Remarks: Widely planted for ornament. Fruits used in preserves and vinegar; trunks used as stock on which to graft less hardy cultivated apples,

NARROWLEAF CRABAPPLE Not Ulus.

Pyrus angustifolia Ait.

Recognition: Similar to American Crabapple but with elliptic leaves, leaf bases more wedge-shaped and tapering, and leaf tips usually rather blunt. Leaves tend to be evergreen in some areas, but even where this is not true dead leaves often can be found to assist in winter identification. Fruits 1"-1V£'\ bitter, but used for preserves and cider. Widespread variety ^pinora (Rehd.) Bailey is quite woolly. Coastal Plain woods and thickets; Maryland to Florida, west to i Louisiana; and north in Mississippi Valley to s. Illinois and Arkansas.

PRAIRIE CRABAPPLE Not Ulus.

Pyrus ioensis (Wood) Bailey

Recognition: Midwestern. Similar to American Crabapple but twigp and leaf undersurfaces densely woolly. Flowers April-May. Thickets and open places; Indiana, se. Minnesota, and se, Nebraska to Louisiana and centr. Texas,

DEVIL'S-CLUB Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq* Not illus. Recognition: Related to Hercules-club (Plate 24), Twigs, branches, stems, and leafstalks of this straggling shrub covered with slender thorns. Leaves 4"-12" across, fan-Iobed, with 3-11 toothed lobes. Leaf veins prickly beneath. Nothing else like it. Flowers July-Aug. Fruits red, Aug,-Oct. Rocky places; from Alaska to w, Ontario, Isle Royale {Michigan), Montana, and California,

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