Broadleaved Plants with Opposite Simple Leaves

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Though more numerous titan those of Section II, the plants with opposite simple leaves are still so few as to be rather easily identified. In winter, of course, plants with opposite leaf scars may be members of either Section II or III and the drawings in both Sections must be reviewed. Care should be taken that the leaves or leat scars un the stubby, scar-crowded spur branches of sonic alternate-leaved plants are not thought to be opposite or whorled. No opposite-leaved plants have spur branches (see p. 310).

When opposite simple leaves are present, the plants bearing theni may be identified as follows:

Name Plate 1. Low creeping or trailing shrubs (plus the parasitic Mistletoe) CREEPING SHRUBS 12

1. Climbing vines HONEYSUCKLES (1) 13

1, Erect trees and shrubs:

2, Leaves not toothed, although sometimes wavy-edged:

3. Leaves not heart-shaped:

4. Several papery scales present at twig bases {see Plate 14):

5. Bundle scars 3 HONEYSUCKLES (2) 14 5. Bundle scars 1 CORALBERRY, etc. 17

4. Papery scales not present at twig bases: (i. Leaves with veins that strongly tend to follow the leaf edges (see Plate 15): 7. Bundle scars 3; uplands, or if bottomlands then only seasonally wet: 8, Bud scales caplike, single

BASKET WILLOW 56 8, Bud scales 2 DOGWOODS 15

7* bundle scars 1; plants always in or beside water BUTTONBUSH 16

(h Leaves with veins only slightly, if at all, following the leaf edges: 9. Buds long, slender, with 2 scales; bundle scars 3; plants not evergreen

VIBURNUMS (1) 20

III. CREEPING AND TRAILING SHRUBS 67

Name Plate

9. Buds otherwise; bundle scars 1-3; evergreen or not MISCELLANEOUS 16, 17 3. Leaves more or less heart-shaped, especially at the base LILAC, etc. 18

2* Leaves definitely toothed: 10* Toothed leaves not lohed: 1L Leaves fine-toothed;

12. Fruits various MISCELLANEOUS 19

12. Fruits fleshy with single flat seeds

VIBURNUMS (1) 20

11. Leaves coarse-toothed:

13. Bark thin and papery; flat-topped clusters of small dry fruits often present

WILD HYDRANGEA 19 13- Bark thicker; fruits Heshy

VIBURNUMS (2) 21

10. Toothed leaves lobed;

14, Twigs very red-hairy; leaves oak like

OAKLEAF HYDRANGEA 19

14. Twigs not red-hairv; leaves not oaklike

VIBURNUMS (2); MAPLES 21, 22

Low Creeping and Trailing Shrubs (and American Mistletoe)

These are opposite-leaved sprawling shrubs or running vines, none of which climb or stand erect. (As a matter of convenience, a parasitic shrub of deciduous tree branches, American Mistletoe, is added here J The group is readily recognizable by growth habits, both in summer and winter, The nonevergreen plants have single bundle scars.

The only other opposite-leaved plants of this type are one form of Red-osier Dogwood (Plate 15), which has toothless leaves whose veins strongly tend to follow the leaf edges, and Sandmyrtle {' late 17), which is low but usually upright with shreddy bark. Pipsis-sew a leaves may be whorled, see page 179.

ST ANDREWS CROSS Aseyrum hypericoides L< p. 100 Recognition: A small, barely woody shrub whose leaves have numerous tiny transparent dots visible when held up to light (use lens). Leaves narrowed at base, not clasping, not toothed. Leafy appendages may occur in leaf angles* Foliage often remains on plant all winter, Pwigs slender, round, ridged; larger branches shreddy. Btids small; 2 scales. Leaves

HL CREEPING AND THAILING SHRUBS

Height to 24", Flowers with 4 petals and 4 sepals, yellow, July-Sept. Fruits small 2- or 4-parted capsules, Sept-Oct. Similar species: St. Johnsworts (Plate 17) are more upright and have 5-parted flowers, St. Peters wort has wider-based clasping leaves,

ST, PETERSWORT Aseyrum stans Michx. p. 100

Recognition; Similar to preceding species but with leaves longer and upper leaves heart-shaped. Twigs more stout, i .eaves Hi'-

AMERICAN STRAWBERRY-BUSH p. 100

Euonymus americaitus L,

Recognition: A semi-upright or sprawling shrub with distinctive greets squarish, 4-!ined twigs. Leaves narrow, fine-toothed, short-stalked, somewhat long-pointed and thin or only slightly thickened; they drop in winter. Leaves 2"-4'\ Height 2'-7\ Flowers not obvious, greenish purple, May-June. Fruits orange-red and warty, beneath attractive 5-parted pinkish 4fhusksf" Sept.-Oct.

Similar species: < 1) Burningbush (Plate 19) is more upright, with longer leafstalks, 4-lined but not squared twigs, smooth fruits and fewer-scaled buds. (2) Running Strawberry-bush is less upright, with wider leaves. The bittersweets (Plate 37) have similar fruits but they are more orange and leaves and buds are alternate.

RUNNING STRAWBERRY BUSII p. 100

Euonymus obovatus Nutt.

Recognition: Similar to American Strawberry-bush but trailing over ground; branches occasionally taking root. Leaves widery somewhat egg-shaped, Height to 1\

Similar species: Japanese Honeysuckle (Plate 13) has nontoothed hairy leaves and brownish twigs,

PARTRIDGEBERRY Mitchella repens L* p. 100

Recognition: A delicate barely woody trailing plant. Leaves small egg- to heart-shaped, evergreen, not toothed* Leaves V* l'\ Flowers small, paired, tubular, white, fragrant, June-July. Fruits bright red, rarely white, edible, July-winter. Similar species: Twinflower is more northern and lias toothed leaves.

Remarks: A good indicator of acid soils. Fruits eaten by ruffed, spruce, and sharptail grouse, prairie chicken, bobwhitc, raccoon, and red fox.

TWINFLOWER p. 100

Linnaea boreal is var. amerieana (Forbes) Rehd.

Recognition: A slender barely woody trailing plant with small

III. CREEPING AND TRAILING SHRUBS

broad evergreen leaves and hairy stems. Leaves rounded and most few-toothed near tips. Leaves Vi"Flowers in pairs, small, drooping, white with purplish stripes, fragrant, June-Aug. Fruits small dry capsules.

Similar species: Partridgeberry leaves are not toothed,

ALPINE-AZALEA Loiseteuria procumbens (L>) Desv. p. 100 Recognition: A northern, low, gnarled tnat-formingshrub. Leaves evergreen, small, leathery, without teeth and mostly elliptic, with edges much curled. Twigs smooth. Leaves Height to

Flowers small, white or pink, several per cluster, June-July. Fruits 2- or 3-valved, dry capsules.

Similar species; (1) Pat histima only other matlike evergreen with opposite leaves, and its leaves are fine-toothed. (2) Sandmyrtle (Plate 17) is taller,

PACHISTIMA Pachistima canbyi Gray p, 100

Recognition: An Appalachian mat-forming shrub with small, leathery, fine-toothed, narrow to wedge-shaped evergreen leaves. Twigs indistinctly 4-sided, often ringed with numerous stipule scars. Leaves W-1". Height to 8". Flowers small, brown or green, in angles of leaves, April-May. Fruits small capsules, Aug.-Sept.

Similar species; (') Alpine-azalea has leaves without teeth. (2) Sandmyrtle (Plate 17) is taller, with shreddy older bark.

AMERICAN MISTLETOE Not illus.

Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt

Recognition; The only shrub parasitic on the branches of broacl-leaved trees. The thick green leathery leaves are evergreen and wedge- to egg-shaped. Stems jointed. Leaves 1 Flowers small, Oct,, Nov, Fruits, whitish, pulpy, globular, Nov. There is nothing else like it Dwarf Mistletoe (p. 30) is very small; it has tiny needlelike leaves and occurs only on conifers. American Mistletoe grows on branches of deciduous trees; New Jersey, e, Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, s, Ohio, s, Illinois, and se, Kansas to Florida and e. Texas.

Remarks: Fruits eaten by many birds and mammals; apparently the plant is spread principally by birds.

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