Broadleaved Plants with Alternate Compound Leaves

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Relatively few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite leaves were presented in Section II (Plates 7-11, pp. 56^65)* The rest are in this Section. In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate by their large size the former presence of compound leaves. Where there is doubt, however, the twigs of a leafless unknown plant with alternate leaf sears will have to be compared with the drawings of both Sections IV and V or identified by means of the Winter Key in Appendix B, Warning: Poison-ivy (Plate 25) and Poison Sumac (Plate 2fi) are in this group. L)o not handle them. Be careful oi unknown plants of this type.

Same Plate

1. Plants prickly or thorny:

2* Arching brambles or climbing vines


2. Erect plants:

3. Leaf scars narrow, half-encircling twigs ROSES 23

3. Leaf scars otherwise LOCUSTS* etc. 24

1, Plants without prickles or thorns: 4. Leaves only once-compound:

5. Vines MISCELLANEOUS 25, 30

5. Erect trees and shrubs;

6. Leaf scars narrow, halt encircling twigs ROSES 23 6. Leaf scars otherwise:

7. Leaflets 3 POISON-IVY, etc. 25

7- Leaflets more than 3: 8, Leaflets toothed (though in Tree-of-Heaven with only 1 basal pair of glandular teeth): 9. Leaflets mostly 11-14 (rarely 7 or 9):

10, Buds nearly hidden beneath the leafstalk bases; sap often milky; mostly shrubs


10. Buds easily visible (somewhat hidden in Tree-of-Heaven); trees, shrubs, or vines: 11. Buds white-woolly, brown-woolly, or red-gummy * WALNUTS, etc. 27 II. Buds yellow-hairy or brown-hairless



Name Plate

12, Leaflets mostly 5^7: 13. Wood not yellow 13. Wood bright yellow 12. Leaflets mostly 7-9 8, Leaflets not toothed:

14. Bundle sears more than 5 14. Bundle scars 1 to 5 Leaves twice- or thrice-compound (leaf/eft as well as leaves compound) COFFEE-TREE, etc.



28 31

Prickly Brambles

The raspberries, dewberries, and blackberries (all in the genus Afi&us), and the roses are the only compound-leaved, rambling or arching, mostly nonclimbing, usually prickly or bristly shrubs in our area. The woody species of Ruhus are ail normally prickly except the flowering raspberries, which have simple leaves (Plate 42). A few roses are without prickles or may climb by means of twining stems. The twigs of brambles usually are green or red and both the stems and leafstalks are prickly. Except for the nearly flat-on-the-ground dewberries, they mostly grow in vaselike clumps with the stems arching back toward the ground. The only other plants at all likely to be confused with the brambles are the prickly greenbriers (Plate 33), which are simple-leaved green-stemmed vines climbing or scrambling over neighboring plants by means of tendrils.

In plants of the genus Rubwv, new canes (steins) normally are produced each year Each lives a year and a half or sot generally flowering and fruiting in the second season. The roots live 011 from year to year, he stems of roses are perennial, like most woody plants.

The leaves of all groups are toothed and divided into 3 or more leaflets. Where there are more than 3 leaflets, their arrangement differs by groups and species. In the Red Raspberry and the roses, the leaflets are feather-compound, that is, placed at right angles to the central leafstalk. In the Black Raspberry, dewberries, and blackberries, the leaflets are arranged like the spokes of a wheel. Winglike stipules are attached to the bases of the leafstalks in the roses and the leaf scars are narrow, half encircling the twigs. Stipules are absent and the leafstalk bases remain attached to the stems all winter in the other brambles. Raspberry fruits differ from those of dewberries and blackberries in that when ripe they separate from the fleshy stalks upon which


they are home, forming hollow shells. Rose fruits are seed-filled organs called "hips."

Both the genera Rubus (blackberries and relatives) and Rosa (roses) are extremely complex. Many specimens are encountered representing numerous varieties and hybrids that are puzzling even to professional but ¿mists. Even disregarding the multitude of minor forms, there are over 200 species of Ruhus and 23 species of Rosa listed for our region by Fernald.0 Because of the difficulty of identifying the various species (and not all botanists agree there are so many), only representatives of the outstanding groups are illustrated and discussed here. Several subgroups can be separated easily;

Stems round, usually white-powdered, arching; leafstalk bases not winged RASPBERRIES

Stems round or angular, not white-powdered, trailing;

leafstalk bases not winged DEWBERRIES

Stems angular, not white*powdered, arching; leafstalk bases not winged BLACKBERRIES

Stems round, not white-powdered, mostly arching; leafstalk bases winged ROSES

All brambles are of value in soil-erosion control and wildlife management They grow even on barren soils and reproduce by seeds, often dropped by animals, and in many Rub us species by rooting branches. These plants provide cover for wildlife and have been recorded as being eaten by over 150 birds and mammals (including nearly all the game birds and big-game animals on the continent k Rabbits, skunks, opossums, foxes, beavers, porcupines, and chipmunks are among other eastern mammals eating twigs or fruits. Raspberry, dewberry, and blackberry fruits are made into jam and desserts, leaves of some species occasionally are dried as tea, and peeled young sprouts are eaten raw in some localities. The petals of rose flowers have been candied as a confection and also have been eaten in salads. Rose fruits can be used in making jelly.

RED RASPBERRY Ruhus idaeus L, p. 150

Recognition: An arching shrub with rounds bristly stems, somewhat white-powdered when young. Canes do not root at tips. In a few localities either without bristles or with strong prickles. Leaves may consist of 3-7 elliptic leaflets, but on older fruiting canes 3 are usual. When 5- to 7-par ted the leaves are feather-compound. Leaflets whitened beneath; side ones without stalks. \umber of varieties and forms are recognized. Leaves 10". Height to 6\ Flowers white, May-July; Fruits red, June-Oct.

° Merritt Lyndon Fern aid, drays Manual of Botany» Xth ed. (New York: American Book Co., 1950),


Similar species: There are only i perennial raspberries in our area. (!) Canes of Wine Raspberry root at tips and are covered with long gland-tipped reddish hairs, (2) Black Hasp-berry has strong hooked prickles.

WINE RASPBERRY Rub us phoenicolasius Maxim* Not illus. Recognition: Similar to preceding species but end leaflet somewhat heart-shaped. Canes root at tips and are covered by long gland-tipped reddish hairs. Introduced from e. Asia, Thickets; Massachusetts and Indiana to Virginia and Kentucky,

BLACK RASPBERRY Rubus occidentals L. p. 150

Recognition; Differs from Red Raspberry in having strong hooked prickles* Canes longer {to 12"), more strongly whit* ened, and may root at tips. Leaves 5-parted* fan-compound. Leaves 2"-8". Height to 6\ Flowers white, April-July. Fruits black, June-Aug.

BRISTLY DEWBERRY Rubus hispidas L. p. 150

Recognition: A trailing shrub with densely glandular-AnvZ/y round stems. Leaves shiny, leathery, often evergreen, with 3, less commonly fan-compound, blunt-toothed leaflets, Leaves 3"-7"* Height to 12". Flowers white, June-Sept. Fruits black, Aug.-Oct.

Similar species: Dewberries are divided primarily into 2 groups; those bristly and those prickly, Fernald lists 24 species of bristly dewberries for our area. Some blackberries are bristly but are relatively upright.

PRICKLY DEWBERRY Rubus flagellaris Willd. p, 150

Recognition; A flattened shrub with stems mostly round aiui with scattered but stout curved prickles. Leaves dull, thin, light green, sometimes slightly hairy with 3-5 sharp-toothed leaflets. Leaves o-parted, fan-compound. Leaves 2"-7", Height to 12". Flowers white, May-June. Fruits black, Junc-Aug.

Similar species: Fernald lists 44 species of prickly dewberries*

BLACKBERRY Rubus altcgheniensis Porter p, »50

Recognition: An upright or arching shrub; stems strongly angular, with stout prickles. Leaves have 3-7, mostly 5, leaflets, woolly or velvety beneath, at least when young; when 5- to 7-parted, the leaves are fan-compound. Young stems and left undersides glandular-hairy. Var. gravesii Fern, (w. Maine and ne. New York to Maryland) may be thornless, with round stems. Leaves 3"-8". Height to 10', Flowers white, May-July. Fruits black, July-Sept.

Similar species: Blackberries are the most complex category of vz6 IV. PRICKLY BRAMBLES; THORNY TREES

the genus, ernald records 122 species, Phey are grouped as: (1) plants rooting at stem tips, (2) stems bristly rather than prickly; (3) stems grav-woolly when young and leaves white- or gray-woolly on undersides, (1) young stems not gray-hairy but glandular-hairy, (5) young stems otherwise hairy, and steins hairless with prickles few or even absent. This species is a well-marked one of the 4th group*

ROSES Rosa sppt p. 150

Recognition: Some of the characteristics of roses have been listed above. Briefly, roses are usually prickly or bristly arching shrubs with 3-11 leaflets per leaf, varying with the species. Leaves 5- to 11-parted and feather-cotnpound. They have long leafy stipules attached to lower portions of leafstalks. These leafstalk "wings" may vary. In some species they are partially free of the leafstalk: in others they may be either thick, thin, wide, narrow, hairy, toothed, or comblike. Leaf scars are narrow t half encircling the twigs, and contain 3 bundle scars. ! wigs and sterns mostly are green or red. Rose fruits, known as "hips," are fleshy, covering numerous small seeds. They usually are red and remain on the plants all winter. They are eaten by many wild animals, but mostly incidentally or where preferred foods are lacking.

A few imported escaped species and the Prairie Rose (/f. setigera Michx.), the latter distinctive with only 3 leaflets among these, may climb by twining stems. The Multiflora Rose (R. multiflora Thunb.), now being planted widely for erosion control and wildlife benefits, can be distinguished from other roses with 7-9 leaflets by fringed or comblike stipules extending about half the length of leafstalks.

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