Bigleaf Magnolia Magnolia macrophtjllap 224

Mature forests; S, Carolina, V\\ Virginia, s. Ohio, and Arkansas to nw. Florida and Louisiana.

4 EARLEAF MAGNOLIA, Magnolia fraseri p. 224

Swamps and mountain streamsides; w, Virginia, W. Virginia, and e. Kentucky to nu (Georgia and n. Alabama.

4 UMBRELLA MAGNOLIA, Magnolia tripetala p. 224

Mountain streamsides; s. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri to Georgia, Arkansas, and se* Oklahoma.

Love Feather Drawings

SWEETBAY MAGNOLIA

Twigs brown,

CUCUMBER

SWEETBAY

Buds hairy, green; twigs hairless, greenish

SWEETBAY

Leaves thick, offen evergreen, whitish beneath

Leaves thin, not evergreen

Buds hairy End buds whitish

Twigs green, velvety

BIGLEAF

Twigs brown,

CUCUMBER

EARLEAF

Buds hairless

End buds purplish

stout

1V-2"

UMBRELLA

Leaves thin, not evergreen

Buds hairless

Twigs slender

End buds purplish stout

EARLEAF

1V-2"

UMBRELLA

Bases "eared"

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Long Leaf Plants

Leaves smooth above

Buds rusty brown; scales with darker edges

Buds more than y4" long somewhat

Corky "wings" usually present on branchlets

ROCK

WINGED

\ smooth or somewhat a

Buds > over 1 red-brown ; scales with dark edges

Twigs and buds haíríess or nearly

Buds over Va almost black

Corky "wings" lacking

AMERICAN ENGLISH

Buds reddish hairy, over W

Leaves very sand papery above smooth, usually singly toothed

No corky "wings"

Buds reddish, hairless, under W

SLIPPERY WATER

Leaves very sand papery above

Buds reddish, hairless, under W

smooth, usually singly toothed

Buds reddish hairy, over W

No corky "wings"

Twigs hairy hairless

IRONWOOD, HORNBEAM, HAZELNUTS, ALDERS

Trees and shrubs with mostly double-toothed leaves. Leaf bases even. Buds characteristic as on plate opposite. In all species the twigs are variably hairy or hairless,

4 IRONWOOD, Carpinus caroUniana p. 227

Bottomlands and other rich soils; New England, s. Quebec, s, Ontario, and e. Minnesota to Florida and Texas.

♦ HORNBEAM, Ostrya virginiana p. 228

Fertile woods; Nova Scotia and s, Manitoba to Florida and Texas.

V AMERICAN HAZELNUT, Corylus americana p+ 228

Woods borders and thickets; Maine and Saskatchewan to Georgia, Missouri, and Oklahoma.

V BEAKED HAZELNUT, C. cornuta (fruit illus.) p. 228

♦ EUROPEAN BLACK ALDER, Alnus glutinosa p. 229

Wet soils; escape, Newfoundland and Illinois to Delaware and Pennsylvania,

4 EUROPEAN WHITE ALDER p. 229

4V SEASIDE ALDER, A, maritima (twig illus.) p. 229

♦v SMOOTH ALDER, Alnus serrulata p. 229

Streambanks and swamp borders; sw. Nova Scotia, centr, Vermont, New York, s. Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, and se. Oklahoma to nw. Florida and Louisiana.

4V SPECKLED ALDER, Alnus rugosa p. 230

Streambanks and swampy places; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Saskatchewan to Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, w# Maryland, W. Virginia, n, Ohio, n, Indiana, and ne. Iowa.

V MOUNTAIN ALDER, A, crispa (twig illus.) p. 230

BEAKED HAZELNUT

IRONWOOD

HORNBEAM

AMERICAN HAZELNUT

ALDERS

BEAKED HAZELNUT

ALDERS

IRONWOOD

HORNBEAM

AMERICAN HAZELNUT

IRONWOOD

Leaf tips pointed

Buc/s not stalked, sharp usually rounded, 4-sided, greenish brown

End buds false

Tree

Bush With Small Pine Cones

Trunk rough, brownish, shreddy

HORNBEAM

Tree

IRONWOOD

Trunk rough, brownish, shreddy

HORNBEAM

Shrub

Bark, smooth, brown

pointed

Small "pine cones obsent present

Leaf tips pointed square or J *4"Nj notched ti

Small "pine cones obsent present

Buc/s rounded, blunt not stalked, stolked, brown-gray reddish

End buds false true ti

Trunk smooth or rough, dark, speckled

AMERICAN HAZELNUT

EUROPEAN BLACK ALDER

Stems smooth, not very speckled

narrow

MOUNTAIN ALDER

broad

Buds stalked, blunt, rounded, reddish. End buds true

Shrubs

Tree

SEASIDE ALDER

MOUNTAIN ALDER

Tree

Leaf tips pointed

Small "pine cones" usually present erect, hanging, not pendent pendent

Shrubs

SMOOTH ALDER SPECKLED ALDER

Stems smooth, not very speckled

Leaf bases narrow broad

Buds stalked, blunt, rounded, reddish. End buds true

Stems smooth, dark, white-speckled

Copyright* :J mait>

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Trunk bark red-brown, cracking irregularly

pointed

rounded

Trunk bark red-brown, cracking irregularly

Trunk bark gray-brown, smooth narrow, wide, midrib hairy midrib beneath hairless

Spur branches absent

End buds true

Bud scales rounded pointed

BLACK CHERRY CHOKE CHERRY

Spur branches usually present

End bud* true

narrow

Trunk bark red-brown, cracking horizontally

PEACH

FIRE CHERRY EASTERN DWARF CHEPRY

PEACH

narrow

Leaves

Only regularly upright cherry less than

3' tall

Trunk bark red-brown, cracking horizontally

Spur branches usually present

End bud* true not crowded

Spur Choke CherryStructure Leaf Simple

End buds true

MAHALEB CHERRY

Trunk bark greyish, much

Trunk red-brown, smooth

Leaves wide, side veins 0-14 prs, 6-8 prs, often double-toothed

Spur branches usually present

End buds true

SWEET CHERRY SOUR CHERRY

Spur Choke Cherry
Smal upright tree of bottomlands

BEACH PLUM

Leaves ha iry hairless beneath

Low shrub of beaches

Twigs and buds velvety hairless

End buds false

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Small Hairy Plant Leaves Alberta

leaves not footed, gray-hairy, at ¡east beneath

Typical willow twig

Leaves not toothed gray-hairy, edges rolled

wedge-

Leaves less than 2" long

TALL PRAIRIE

DWARF PRAIRIE

not tooffied,

^ narrow toothed wide

HOARY BEBB

teeth

Base rounded

Leaves foofhec/, hair/ess or s/jghffy silky, green beneath

Leaves narrow teeth

Base tapered

SANDBAR

Base rounded

BLACK

Coastal Plain Willow Leaf

leathery

Twigs hairless leathery

Twigs hairless

Leaves wider extremely moderately long-pointed not feathery Twigs hairy

SHINING

HEARTLEAF

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MISCELLANEOUS PLANTS WITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (1)

"Bundle scars" are small marks within a leaf scar (see p, xxiv). The leaves of these plants are mostly toothed or wavy-edged.

V SWEETGALE, Mijrica gale p. 262

Swamps; Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to n. New [ersey, e. Pennsylvania, Michigan, Minnesota, and Oregon; in mts, to N* Carolina and Tennessee.

V COMMON WAXMYRTLE, Myrica cerifera p. 262

Coastal Plain, sandy and gravelly soils; s. New Jersey to Florida, west to e, Texas, and north to Oklahoma and Arkansas,

V DWARF WAXMYRTLE, M. puslUa (not illus,) p. 262

V NORTHERN BAYBERRY, Myrica pensylvanica p. 262

Poor soils, mostly near coast and Great ¡Mkes; s, Newfoundland, e. New Brunswick, and n. Ohio to N\ Carolina.

V BLACK BAYBERRY, \L heterophylla (not illus.) p, 263

V SWEETFERN, Comptonia peregrina p. 263

Dry soils; Nova Scotia arid Manitoba to Virginia, W, Virginia, Ohio, nw, Indiana, ne. Illinois, and Minnesota; in nits, to n, Georgia.

4 BEECH, Fagus grandifolia p. 26,3

Rich mature soils; Nova Scotia, Prince Edward IM s. Ontario, and e. Wisconsin to n+ Florida and Texas, 4V COMMON WITCH-HAZEL, Hamamelis virginiana p. 263 Woods; Nova Scotia, s. Ontario, centr, Michigan, and se. Minnesota to centr, Florida and e, Texas,

V SPRINGTIME WITCH-HAZEL p. 264

H. vernalis (not illus.)

V WITCH ALDER, Fothergilla gardeni (not illus.) p, 264

♦ CHESTNUT, Castanea dentata p. 264

WeII-drained forests; s, Maine, New York, s. Ontario, and s, Michigan to Georgia and ne. Mississippi. ♦V EASTERN CHINQUAPIN, C, pumila (not illus.) p. 265 4 OZARK CHINQUAPIN, C ozarkensis (not illus.) p. 265

BAYBERRY BEECH WITCH-HAZEL CHESTNUT

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MISCELLANEOUS PLANTS WITH 3 BUNDLE SCARS (2)

Bundle scars" are small marks within a leaf scar (see p. xxiv).

RED CHOKEBERRY, Pyrus arbutifolia p. 266

Wet or dry thickets; Nova Scotia, s. Ontario, Michigan, and Missouri to Florida and e. Texas, t PURPLE CHOKEBERRY, P. ftoribunda (not illus,) p. 266

V BLACK CHOKEBERRY, Pyrus melanocarpa p. 266

Wet or dry thickets; Newfoundland, nw. Ontario, and Minnesota to S. Carolina and Tennessee,

V ALDERLEAF BUCKTHORN, Rhamnus alnifolia p. 266

Thickets and woods; Newfoundland and British Columbia to n* New Jersey, W. Virginia, n. Indiana, n. Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wyoming, and California. V LANCELEAF BUCKTHORN p. 267

ft. lanceolata (leaf & twig illus.)

Thickets; s,-centr. Pennsylvania, W. Virginia, s. Ohio, s, Wisconsin, and Nebraska to Alabama and Texas.

*V CAROLINA BUCKTHORN, Rhamnus caroliniana p. 267 Woods; w. Virginia, W. Virginia, s, Ohio, s. Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska to Florida and Texas, W EUROPEAN BUCKTHORN, R. frangula (leaf illus,) p. 267 Thickets; Nova Scotia, s. Quebec, s. Ontario, and Minnesota to New Jersey, Ohio, and Illinois.

I DOMESTIC APPLE, Pyrus malus p. 267

Spread from cultivation; throughout our area in the U.S. and s. Canada.

♦ CHINESE APPLE, P. prunifolia (not ¡litis.) p. 268

♦ SIBERIAN CRABAPPLE, P. baccata (not illus.) p. 268

4 DOMESTIC PEAR p. 268

P. communis (leaf & twig illus J

Spread from cultivation; ne. U.S. and s, Canada.

V GROUNDSEL-TREE, Baccharis halimifolia p, 268

Coastal salt marshes and adjacent areas; e. Massachusetts to Florida and s. Texas.

Fruit» of typicol CHOKEBERRY (Wt) and BUCKTHORN (right)

Twigs hony

Leaves with glands along top of midrib

(use lens)

hairy hairless beneath always toothed

Twigs hony

Buds reddish, scaly. Scale tips notched

Twig* hairless

RED CHOKEBERRY

BLACK CHOKEBERRY

scales

Twtgs gray-hairy in LANCE-LEAF BUCKTHORN

Veins tend to fo//ow leaf edges always often toothed

Buds dark with without scales scales

Twigs hairless, reddish

ALDERLEAF BUCKTHORN

Buds dark with without scales

k

Leaves hairy beneath in

EUROPEAN BUCKTHOKN

Twigs somewhat hairy

CAROLINA BUCKTHORN

Leaves toothed or not

very hairy or hairless

Spurs often present hairless

Near ocean only

Twigs hairy

Twigs hairy

APPLE

Buds dark, scaly hairless

Leaves toothed or not

Near ocean only

Buds dark, scaly

Twigs hairless, ridged

Twigs hairless, ridged

APPLE

GROUNDSEL-TREE

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