These species and tfie birches (Plate 52) make up a family related to the willows, poplars, oaks, and other plants whose flowers occur in catkins. Catkins are usually dangling strands of small flowers but may be short and inconspicuotis.
Elms and birches and plants of this plate mostly have double-
toothed leaves (see Speckled Alder) and 3 bundle scars per leaf scar (see hazelnuts). Elms have leaves uneven-based, end buds false, and bud scales in 2 rows. Birches have leaves even-based, true end buds, and only 2-3 bud scales per bud. I hose plants on Plates 50 and 51 which have false end buds also have leaves (and buds and leaf scars) arranged in 2 opposing rows along twigs.
IRONWOOD Carpinus caroliniana Walt, p. 336
Recognition: A small tree with distinctive muscular-appearing, smooth, dark gray bark. Trunk has a deeply rippled and sinewy look. Leaves egg-shaped, double-toothed, and in North sometimes long-pointed. Twigs variably hairy or not. Buds brown, somewhat square in cross section, with scales in 4 rows; end buds false. Leaves l"-5". Height 20'-40'; diameter 10"-24'\ Flowers April, male catkins not present in winter. Fruits tiny nuts attached to 3-pointed leafy bracts, Aug.-Oct, Similar species: Trunk ami hark arc unique. \ngle<! buds hrlp separate small specimens from those of Hornbeam.
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