Alternate Compound Leaves

(Key, pages 122-123; text, pages 122-148)

Alternate Compound Leaves

Leaves not opposite

If the leaflets are + also compound W

then the leaves are u "twice-compound"

Twig woody

-Leaf scars and buds alternate (useful in winter)

Relai * elv few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite U v rr were presented in Section II (Plate;, 7 Ily. r\> mainder are in this Section, In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate bv their large size the former presence of compound leaves. In case of doubt, however, the twigs of a leafless unknown plant with alternate leaf scars will have to be compared with the drawings of both Sections IV and V. Warning: Poison-ivy and Poison Sumac are in this group. Do not handle them. Be careful of unknown plants of this type.

IV. PLATE 23

PRICKLY BRAMBLES

The only groups of prickly rambling shrubs that have alternate compound leaves. Leaflets 3-11.

t RED RASPBERRY, Ruhus idaeus p. 124

Thickets; Newfoundland, Labrador, and British Columbia to s. New England, w. Virginia, w. N. Carolina, Ohio, Indiana, Nebraska, and Wyoming.

V WINE RASPBERRY, R. phoenicolasius (not illus.) p. 125

V BLACK RASPBERRY, Rtd>us occidental p. 125

Th ickets; Quebec and Minnesota to the southern states.

V BRISTLY DEWBERRY,0 Ruhus hispidus p. 125

Thickets; Prince Edward I. and centr. Ontario to Maryland, w, N\ Carolina, Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin.

V PRICKLY DEWBERRY,0 Ruhus flagellar™ p. 125

Thickets; Maine, sw, Quebec, s. Ontario, and Minnesota to the southern states.

V BLACKBERRY,0 Ruhus allegheniensis p. 125

Thickets; New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, s. Quebec, and Minnesota to Maryland, N, Carolina, Tennessee, Indiana, and Michigan.

0There are many related species. See text.

Alternate Double Compound Leaf

ROSE

BLACKBERRY

(Rospberriet and Dewberries have similar flowers)

ROSE

Alternate Compound Leaves Red

Stems round, usually white-powdered

very white beneath *

Leafstalk bases remaining in winter shrubs

RED RASPBERRY BLACK RASPBERRY

Honey Locust Ontario

Stems mostly round, lacking white powder s\ leaflets 3-5

green beneath

Leafstalk bases remaining in winter

Trailing shrubs

BRISTLY DEWBERRY

PRICKLY DEWBERRY

Stems ridged, thorny round, thorny or bristly lacking white powder

Leaflets 3-7 3-11

green beneath

Scars narrow half-circles

/ Leafstalk bases jf remain in winter

Hing 1 shrubs

BLACKBERRY ROSES

IV, PLATE 24

ERECT THORNY TREES AND SHRUBS

The only such plants with alternate compound leaves.

♦ HONEY LOCUST, Cleditsia triacanthos p, 126

Woods and fields; Nova Scotia, s, Ontario, s, Michigan, and se. S. Dakota to nw. Florida, e, Texas, and w. Oklahoma. ♦ WATER LOCUST, G. aquatica (thorn illus.) p. 127

4 BLACK LOCUST, Rohinia pseudo-acacia p, 127

Woods and fields; Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario to Georgia and Louisiana and e. Oklahoma.

CLAMMY LOCUST. R. viscosa (twig illus.) p, 128

V BRISTLY LOCUST, rt. hispida (twig illus.) p. 128 f DOWNY LOCUST, R, elliottii (not illus.) p. 128

HERCULES-CLUB, Aralia spinosa p. 128

Woods at id ri verba nks; s. New England, centr, New York, Michigan, and Iowa to n. Florida and e, Texas.

V BRISTLY SARSAPARILLA, A. hispida (twig illus.) p, 128

V NORTHERN PRICKLY ASH p. 129 Xanthoxylum americanum

Old fields, fertile woods, and riverbanks; w, Quebec, Ontario, and s. N. Dakota to sw. Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, and ne. Oklahoma.

♦V SOUTHERN PRICKLY ASH p. 129

A\ clava-herculis {leaflet illus.)

V TRIFOLIATE ORANGE, Poncirus trifoliata (not illus.) p. 129

Compound LeavesBristly Locust Plants

Buds hidden beneath leaf bases

End buds false

Thorns

Leaflets 1 may be V

compoundX

CLAMMY LOCUST

Thorns of ^ WATER LOCUST

mostly unbranched

HONEY LOCUST

BRISTLY LOCUST

BLACK LOCUST

Buds nof hidden

End buds under 1

SOUTHERN PRICKLY-ASH

BRISTLY SARSAPA RILLA

HERCULES-CLUB

NORTHERN PRICKLY-ASH

IV. PLATE 25

THORNLESS TRIFOUATES

¡hornless plants whose compound leaves are divided into only 3 leaflets, i POISON-IVY/ Rhus radicans p. 130

Woods en id thickets; Quebec and s. British Columbia to

Florida, Texas, and Arizona.

V POISON-OAK, K. toxicodendron (not illus.) p, 131

V FRAGRANT SUMAC, Rhus aromatica p. 131

Sandy and rocky soils; sw. Quebec, w. Vermont, n. Indiana, ne. Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma to nw. Florida and e, Texas.

V CISSUS, Cissus incisa (not illus.) p. 132

HOPTREE, Ptelea trifoliate p. 132

Woods; Connecticut, sw. Quebec, s. Ontario, s. Michigan, and e, Kansas to n. Florida and s. Texas.

V SCOTCH BROOM, Cytisus scoparius p. 132

Thickets; locally in the East from Nova Scotia and w. New York to Georgia and \Y\ Virginia.

V BICOLOR LESPEDEZA p. 132 Lespedeza bicolor (not illus.)

MAj grow either as a vine or an erect shrub*

Ivy Compound Leaf Schrub

POf SON-IVY

HOPTREE

SCOTCH BROOM

POf SON-IVY

HOPTREE

Tree Compound Leaves RoughTree Compound Leaves Rough

Twigs brownish

"Berries" white

Buds visible, hairy

Buds entirely hidden

Vines or erecf shrubs

"Berries" red

Leaf scars crescent- round, shaped obvious

Twigs brownish

Aerial Picture Scotch Broom

Aerial rootlets

Tree With Small Alternate Leaves

absent

Aerial rootlets present when climbing absent

POISON-IVY

FRAGRANT SUMAC

Leaflet Tree Leaves

HOPTREE

s/trub scars

Alternating Thin Compound LeavesCompound Leaf Trees

Buds hidden, hairy

U-shaped brownish, round

HOPTREE

Aerial roots absent

SCOTCH BROOM

Fruits papery,, winged s/trub

Fruits beanlike

Buds visible, hairless scars

Twigs green, ridged

158 IV PLATE 27

WALNUTS AND SIMILAR TREES

Leaves feather-compound with 7-11 toothed or glandular leaflets* Buds visible.

♦ BLACK WALNUT, Juglans nigra p. 135

Woods; \\\ Massachusetts, s. Ontario, s. Minnesota, and st\ S. Dakota to n\\\ Florida, e. Texas, and w. Oklahoma.

4 BUTTERNUT, Juglans cinerea p. 135

Fertile woods; w. New Brunswick, s, Ontario, and se, Minnesota to w. S. Carolina, w. Georgia, n, Mississippi, and n. Arkansas.

4 TREE-OF-HEAVEN (AILANTHUS) p, 136

AHanthus altissima

Imported; waste places, munis, and fields; Massachusetts, s Ontario, Iowa, and Kansas to Florida and Tc\as. Local i the West.

4* AMERICAN MOUNTAIN-ASH, Pyrus americana p. V

Woods and openings; Newfoundland, e. Quebec, n* Michigi and se. Manitoba to n. New Jersey a nil n. Illinois; in n to w. N, Carolina, e, Tennessee, and n. Georgia. 4* NORTHERN MOUNTAIN-ASH p.

Pdecora (leaflet ill us.) 4v EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH p,

P. aucuparia (not iliusj

Small Tree Leaves PicturesCompund Alternate Tree Leaf

Buds visible, hairy

Leaf scars crescent-shaped round, obvious

Twigs brownish

Buds entirely hidden

"Berries red

"Berries" white

Vines or erect shrubs

New Jersey Upland Shrubs
Aerial rootlets

present when climbing

POISON-IVY

Leaflet Tree Leaves
absent

FRAGRANT SUMAC

Fruits papery winged

Tree Compound Leaves Rough

Erecf shrub

Buds hidden, hairy leaf scars U-shaped round brownish, round

Twigs green, ridged

Fruits beanlike

Leaflet Tree LeavesSmall Tree Compound Leaf Seven Leaflets

Buds visible, heirless

Aerial roots absent

HOPTREE

SCOTCH BROOM

156 IV. PLATE 26

SUMACS

Shrubs or small trees- Feather-compound leaves with 7-31 leaflets. Buds mostly hidden when leaves present, Sap often milky.

♦v WINGED SUMAC, Rhus copailina p. 133

I Upland fields and opening^; s, Maine, se, New York, Michigan, centn Wisconsin, and e. Kansas to Florida and e. Texas.

STAGHORN SUM AC, Rhus typhina p. 134

Upland fields and openings; Nova Scotia, c. Quebec, s, Ontario, and Minnesota to Maryland, n. Georgia, eentr. Tennessee, Illinois, and ne. Iowa,

♦v POISON SUMAC, Rhus uernix p. 134

Partly wooded swamps; s\v, Maine, sw. Quebec, s. Ontario, and se. Minnesota to Florida and Texas.

SMOOTH SUMAC, Rhus glabra p, 135

Fields and openings; centr. Maine, sw. Quebec, and s. British Columbia to nw, Florida and s. California.

Glory South Florida Tree Small Tree

STAGHORN (Red)

Staghorn Sumac

POiSON (White)

FRUITS OF SUMAC

SMOOTH (Red)

Small Compond Leaves Tree

Leaflets toothed

A not toothed

velvety dense-hairy r* fm V.

Warty lenHeels prominent inconspicuous

Leaf scars U-shaped, enclosing buds

Midrib winged

WINGED STAGHORN

Small Tree Leaves

flof-s/ded not toothed

Tree Compound Leaves Rough

Twigs practically hairless nearly round

Fruits white not toothed

Midribs not winged flof-s/ded

Leaflets toothed

Fruits red

Leaflet Tree LeavesAlternate Compound Leaves

Leaf scars crescent-shaped, U-shaped, not enclosing buds enclosing buds

POISON

SMOOTH

IV, PLATE 27

WALNUTS AND SIMILAR TREES

Leaves feather-compound with 7-4! toothed or glandular leaflets. Buds visible*

♦ BLACK WALNUT, Juglans nigra p. 135

Woods; w. Massachusetts, s, Ontario, s, Minnesota, and se. St Dakota to nw. Florida, e. Texas, and w. Oklahoma.

♦ BUTTERNUT, Jugions cinerea p. 135

Fertile woods; \\\ New Brunswick, s. Ontario, and se, Minnesota to w. S. Carolina, w. Georgia, n. Mississippi, and n. Arkansas.

f TREE-OF-HEAVEN (AILANTHUS) p. 130

Âiïanthus altissima

Imported; waste places, woods, and fields; Massachusetts, s. Ontario, Iowa, and Kansas to l lorida and Texas, Local in the West.

♦V AMERICAN MOUNTAIN-ASH, Pyrus americana p. 137 Woods and openings; Newfoundland, et Quebec, n. Michigan, and se. Manitoba to n. New Jersey and 11, Illinois; in ints. to w. N, (Carolina, e. Tennessee, and n. Georgia.

NORTHERN MOUNTAIN-ASH p. 137

P. decora (leaflet illus.)

♦V EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN-ASH p, 137

Red Ash Image Helicopter Leaflet

WALNUT

TREE-Of-HEAVEN MOUNTAIN-ASH

(Lorg* clutters of <Red berries winged seeds)

Husks of Walnut and Butternut in one piece (unlike hickories)

Ash Tree Butternut Tree

BUTTERNUT

WALNUT

BUTTERNUT

Black Walnut Tree Leaf Silhouette

End leaflets r often absent

Leaflets toothed.

usually present

Buds white-woolly

Buds white-woolly without fringe chambered

BUTTERNUT

BLACK WALNUT

End leaflets present

Leaflets i g tonds on toothed, basal lobes no glands

Leaflet of

NORTHERN MOUNTAIN ASH I

Buds brown-woolly gummy

TREE-OF-HEAVEN AMERICAN MOUNTAIN-ASH

IV, PLATE 28

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