Flame Azaleap 362

Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr. Recognition A sometimes tall shrub with beautifid orange or scarlet blossoms. Leaves narrow to wide woolly, with short hairs beneath. Twigs densely hairy or sparsely long-hairy but buds hairless. Leaves l'-3. Height to 17', Flowers appear Similar species (1) Early Azalea has hairy buds and white or pink flowers. (2) Cumberland Azalea has hairless twigs,

Plate 32 p 298

Unlike the climbing or even sprawling vines of Plate 33 and elsewhere in the book, these plants largely creep, trail, or become V. CREEPING OK TRAILING SHRUBS 175 matted on the ground. For the most part this group is ol northern, often circumpolar, distribution. All on this plate except Alpine and Red Bearberries, Sand Cherry, and dwarf willows have leathery evergreen leaves. The flowers, except in Sand Cherry and dwarf willows, are vase-shaped. In addition to the plants on this plate, there...

Illustrated Plan of the

Opposites Illustrated

'he plants are divided according to the types ami arrangements of leaves diagrammed on these two pages. Details of leaf shapes, etc., are considered in each Section. he green color was provided to aid identification l> y emphasizing leaf shape it does not represent the precise Note For convenience in quick reference the following symbols are used opposite the plates, t Small tree or shrub (may be either) V Shrub PLANTS WITH NEEDLEUKE OR SCALEUKE LEAVES Plates 1-6, pp. 32-45. Text p. 15 PLANTS...

Dogwoods

In addition to the Flowering Dogwood, which grows to tree size, there are 9 species that have less conspicuous blossoms. These usually are shrubs but some rarely grow to small tree size. One ot these shrubs has alternate leaves (see Plate 59). All species have leaf veins that strongly tend to follow the leaf edges toward the leaf tips. The buds have 1 pair of scales and the bundle scars are 3. twigs, branchlets, and pith often are distinctively colored. Flowers and fruits of the shrubby species...

Greenbriers

These are some of the few woody members of the lily family. ( reenbriers are green-stemmed vines climbing by tendrils attached to bases of leafstalks, which remain after leaves drop, Stems have no central pith and leaves are pa rail el-veined. Most are prickly and some retain oliage in winter, particularly in the South. Mowers are small and ureenish. In our area, no other tendril-equipped vines are green-stemmed and. except for a few roses Plate 23), no other climbing vines are prickly. Boston...

Or scramble overground

Medicine Plants Crawling The Ground

S ENGLISH IVY, liedera helix (not illus.) p, 189 5f AMERICAN BITTERSWEET, Celastrus scandens p. 189 Fencerows and woods s. Quebec and s. Manitoba to Georgia, Louisiana, and Oklahoma, if ASIATIC BITTERSWEET p. 190 if SUPPLEJACK, Berchemia scandens p. 190 Bottomlands Virginia, Tennessee, and Missouri to Florida and Texas. if EUROPEAN MATRIMONY-VINE p, 190 Waste ground local from s, Canada southward* if CHINESE MATRIMONY-VINE p. 190 < f BITTER NIGHTSHADE, Solatium dulcamara p, 190 Waste areas...

Plants with Needlelike or Scale like Leaves

Conifer Cones Scale

(Key, pages 15-16 text, pages 15-31) Though the fruits of the yews and junipers are fleshy and bear little resemblance to the usual cones of members of the pine family, all are alike in having developed from naked ovules, Higher flowering plants have their ovules enclosed in ovaries. Each yew fruit consists of a single bony seed partially surrounded by reddish pulp. Juniper (including Red Cedar berries are bluish black and covered with a whitish powder. In most junipers, they completely enclose...

Plants with Opposite Compound Leaves

Only these 4 erect shrubs (or small trees) bear opposite feather-compound leaves. Their twigs lack central end buds at tlie tips. he other nonclimbing plants with opposite compound leaves have true end buds present, Bladdernut and European Elderberry may attain small-tree size but usually are smaller. BLADDERNUT Staphylea trifolia L. p. 58 Recognition A shrub or small tree whose leaves have 3 (rarely 5) fine-toothed, elliptic leaflets. Twigs slender with few small wartlike lenticels or none....

Similar species See Sweet leaf

AMERICAN SNOWBELL Styrax americana Lam. p. 368 Recognition A shrub with elliptic leaves usually nearly hairless tew teeth or none. (Var pulvemlenta (Michx.) Perkins with leaves sometimes egg-shaped and hairy or scaly beneath occurs north to s. Virginia and Arkansas.) Twigs hairless or nearly so. Buds have no scales, blunt and brown-hairy, often one above another end buds false. Single bundle scar, sometimes somewhat broken. Leaves Height to 14 Flowers white, showy, in )-2 elongate clusters,...

Pines And Larches

Yew Wood West Virginia

PINES Needles 2-5 in bunches, evergreen (2-leaved pines on this plate, and 5-leaved pines on preceding plate) LARCHES Needles numerous at the ends of warty SHORTLEAF PINE, Pinns echinata p. 18 Dry .soils se. New York, New iersev, Pennsylvania, s. Ohio, s, Illinois, s. Missouri, and e. Oklahoma to n, Florida and ne. Texas. 4 RED FINE, Pinus resinosa p. IS Dry soils Newfoundland, Ontario, and se. Manitoba to n> New Jersey, n. Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Minnesota locally in e. W. Virginia. 4...

Deciduous Holly Ilex decidua Waltp 356

Recognition Shrubby or growing to small-tree size, this rumevergreen holly has variable narrow to egg-shaped leaves, generally thin but sometimes may be somewhat thickened, i eaf edges wavy- to blunt-toothed twigs often stiff and buds somewhat pointed. Nutlets grooved- Leaves 2-3. Height 10-20' (30') diameter 2-6 (10). Flowers April-May. Fruits shiny red, Sept.-March. Similar species (1) Yaupon leaves are smaller and evergreen* (2) Juneberry Holly is rare and has fine-toothed leaves* Remarks...

Plate 6h 356

Hollies as a group are difficult to identify. No easily apparent characteristic occurs throughout. Nonevergreen species are particularly nondescript, When present, minute black stipules that Hank the leaf scars are diagnostic. They are difficult to see, however, and may drop off with age. When shed, stipule scars marking their former location are very minute. Bundle scars, however, are single and true end buds are present. Furthermore, bud scales are paired, usually with 2, but sometimes with...

Poplars

The poplars, aspens, and cot ton woods are all members of the same genus, fhe leaves are mostly toothed and somewhat triangular, with 3-5 main veins meeting near the leaf base, i lie leafstalks of all poplars are unusually lout the drawings do not show the entire stalks. In sonic species the leafstalks are flattened and the leaves flutter even in a slight breeze. Poplar buds are unique among plants with 3 bundle scars in that the lowermost bud scale of side buds is always in the outside...

Redbud Cercis canadensisp 208

Oklahoma Redbud

New York, s. Ontario, s. Wisconsin, and s. Nebraska to n, Florida and w. Texas. AMERICAN HACKBERRY, Celtis occidentalis p. 209 Woods and open places more common southward, sw, Quebec and Idaho to n. Florida, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Utah, 4 UPLAND HACKBERRY, C tenuifolia (not illus.) p. 209 4 LOWLAND HACKBERRY, C. laevigata (not illus.) p. 209 NEW JERSEY TEA, Ceanothus americanus p. 209 Dry, open woods centr. Maine, s. Quebec, and s. Manitoba to Florida and Texas. V...

Broadleaved Plants with Opposite Compound Leaves

Only a few plants bear leaves of this type. Their identification, therefore, is comparatively simple when foliage is present* In winter, however, unless dead or evergreen leaves are attached to the twigs, there are no certain clues to indicate whether the plant once bore compound or simple leaves. Then, this Section must be grouped with the next, whose twigs also hear opposite (occasionally whorled) leaf scars and buds. The twigs ol a leafless unknown plant with opposite leaf scars may be...

Bigleaf Magnolia Magnolia macrophtjllap 224

Bush With Small Pine Cones

Mature forests S, Carolina, V Virginia, s. Ohio, and Arkansas to nw. Florida and Louisiana. 4 EARLEAF MAGNOLIA, Magnolia fraseri p. 224 Swamps and mountain streamsides w, Virginia, W. Virginia, and e. Kentucky to nu (Georgia and n. Alabama. 4 UMBRELLA MAGNOLIA, Magnolia tripetala p. 224 Mountain streamsides s. Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri to Georgia, Arkansas, and se* Oklahoma. Buds hairy, green twigs hairless, greenish I Buds rusty brown scales with darker edges Corky wings...

Black Hickory G texana not illusp 141

Smooth Bark Nut Trees

Illinois, Missouri, and e. Kansas to Louisiana and s. Texas. (Thin husk, bitter oft-shetted nut) Trees with feather-corn pound leaves. Musks of nuts 4-partedL BITTERNUT HICKORY, Carya cordiforrnis p. 141 Woods New Hampshire, sw. Quebec, s. Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and se, Nebraska to nw. Florida and Texas, PALE HICKORY, Carya pallida p. 141 Coastal Plain woods s. New Jersey, N. Carolina, and Tennessee to Florida and Louisiana. M CKERN UT HICKORY, Carya tomentosa p....

Ashes 2 And Ashleaf Maple

Smooth Bark Palm Trees North Florida

The only trees with opposite feather-compound leaves (see also Plate 9). The species of this group have velvety-hairy or bright green and usually white-powdered 4 RED ASH, Fraxinus pennsylvanica p. 51 Damj) soils sw. Quebec and s, Ontario and Manitoba to Alabama, Louisiana, and Iowa. Fraxinus americarta var, biltrnoreana Woods New Jersey, s. Illinois, and Missouri to Georgia and 4 PUMPKIN ASH Fraxinus tomentosa p. 51 Flootlplains and swamps se, and sw. New York to nw, Florida and Louisiana. 4...

Honeysuckles 1 Climbing Vines

Those of that species have starlike regularly distributed lobes at the tube mouth Type B). Unfortunately, the members of this group with few exceptions are inconsistent in hairiness and in leaf and bud characteristics. The leaves are never toothed but their shapes vary considerably. The upper 1 to 4 pairs of leaves may be fused. Winter characteristics are not well known. Recognition An aggressive imported vine forming dense tangles climbing over underbrush or sprawling over open...

Not Toothed

Round Leaf Osmanthus

Erect woody plants with leaves paired or whorled. V SHEEP LAUREL, Kalmia angustifotia p. 78 Moist open areas, often hogs Newfoundland, Labrador, and Manitoba to S. Carolina, mv. Georgia and Tennessee, V PALE LAUREL, Kalmia polifolia p. 79 Bogs and peat soils Newfoundland, Labrador, and Alaska to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Oregon. V COMMON PRIVET lAgustrum vulgare p. 7 Thickets, field borders and open woods s. Maine and s, Ontario to N, Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan. V CALIFORNIA...

Fanlobed Leaves

The mulberries and Sassafras Plate 43) possess leaves frequently deeply lobed, but they also usually carry some unlobed foliage. W lute Poplar (Plate 44) has leaves rarely lobed but white-woolly. Sand and Bush Grapes (Plate 34) have lobed leaves and may be bushy, but they usually look somewhat vinelike and their stem pith is divided by partitions near the places of leaf attachment. These species, most currants (Plate 41), and the following few plants are the only alternate-leaved trees and...

Big Leaf Snowbell Styrax grandifolia Aitp 368

Recognition Similar to American Snowbell but with egg-snaped leaves white-hairy beneath. Twigs verv hairy or scaly. Leaves 2-8' Height to 12' (40'). Flowers in 2-6 clusters. SILKY-CAMELLIA Stewartia malachodendron L. p. 368 Recognition A shrub with elliptic toothed leaves, soft-hairv beneath. Buds slender, under often slightly hairy. Twigs may be fine-hairy. Leaves 2-4' Height to 15'. Flowers white, tough bark. It has circular leaf st ars and more than 3 bundle scars,

Willows with Toothed Mostly Hairless Leaves Green on Both Sides

SANDBAR WILLOW Salix interior Rowlee p. 344 Recognition A shrub or small tree with long, quite narrow, hairless or rarely silky, short-stalked leaves. Teeth small but widely spaced leaf bases tapered. Twigs hairless. Stipules small or lacking. Leaves 2-6' Height to 20'. Flowers May-June. 256 V. WILLOWS LEAVES TOOTHED, GREEN Similar species Of willows that have toothed, hairless, point-tipped leaves green on both sides, only 3 have leaves also very narrow. In contrast to (1) (rack and (2) Black...

Miscellaneous Shrubs with Opposite Toothed Leaves

Surprisingly few plants have opposite simple leaves that are toothed. Several n on erect species are on Plate 12, The maples Plate 22) have toothed leaves but these are also deeply lobed, Only some viburnums (Plates 20 and 21) and plants of this plate have leaves of this type. Many species have only limited northern ranges. Oakleaf Hydrangea not illustrated) is discussed here with its relatives even though its leaves are lobed. NORTHERN BUSH-HONEYSUCKLE p. 114 Recognition A low shrub with...

Miscellaneous Plants with 3 Bundle Scars

Of the several plants of this group, the first 6 are related species of the waxmyrtle family, These plants are among the few outside the pea (legume) family which enrich the soil through nitrogen-fixing bacteria contained in root nodules. The crushed foliage has larger, more egg-shaped, point-tipped, thin leaves. Resin-dots few or lacking on the often somewhat hairy upper surface. Twigs gray-hairv buds whitish true end buds present. Leaves Usually shrubby, but height to ,35' diameter to 6....

Hornbeam And Hazelnuts

Remarks Nearly all botany books published during the past generation name this plant Blue Beech and the next one Iron-wood. However, Carpinus (which is not in the same family as the true Beech) is still commonly called Iron wood in many areas because of the strong muscular appearance of trunk. Conversely, Ostrya appears no stronger than most small trees. This results in a confusion of 2 ironwoods* and is further complicated by the alternate names of American Hornbeam and Hop Hornbeam applied to...

Plate xo

RED ASH Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. p. 62 Recognition A tree of low grounds with velvety-hairy twigs and leafstalks. Leaflets 5-9, stalked, green on both sides, toothed or not Twigs gray or brownish* runk bark tight, furrowed, with inner surface of outer bark reddish. Trunk base not swollen. Leaves 10-12. Height 40 -60' (85') diameter 2'-3' (4'). Flowers April-May. Fruits with long tapering seeds, Sept,-Oct. Similar species (1) Forms intermediate with its variety the Green Ash may occur. (2)...

Index

Tins index refers to silhouettes italic numbers), text descriptions (roman light face), and legend pages opposite the Plates (boldface) silhouettes are listed only after the common names. Alternate vernacular names are given as See references. Each species or group of similar plants also is mentioned in the Key at the beginning of its Section < I Broad-leaved plants also are listed either in Appendix A or B, and if they are trees are further included in either Appendix C or LX All such Key...

Plants with Opposite or Whorled Heartshaped Leaves That Are Not Toothed

With the exception of 1 or 2 honeysuckles (Plate 14) that may bear a few leaves of this type, only these woody plants in our range have opposite or whorled heart-shaped leaves that are not toothed. The twigs of these plants lack central end buds but the tree species are even more easily differentiated in winter from all others with opposite leaf scars by the elliptical series of tiny bundle scars within each circular leaf scar. The lilac is a shrub. The other species here discussed are the only...

Thornless Trifoliates

Relatively few plants bear 3-parted compound leaves. Several opposite-leaved species and the prickly brambles are in this category. In addition, a blackberry (flufcus canadensis L.) and a rose (Rosa blanda Ait,) may lack prickles and also bear 3-parted leaves. They more closely resemble the species drawn on Plate 23 than they do these thornless trifoliates, The following thornless plants are those outside the genera Rubus and Rosa which have alternate trifoliate leaves. See also Boston Ivy (p....

Honeysuckles 2 Erect Shrubs

Honeysuckles are among the few shrubs having scales that remain at the bases of the twigs, marking the boundaries between the twigs of the present season and the branchlets of the previous year (see Plate I I). Other woody plants with this characteristic are the hydrangeas and Bush-honeysuckle (Plate 19), which have leaves that are more heart-shaped and toothed, and the Coralberry and Snowherry (Plate 17), which have only 1, rather than 3, bundle scars per leaf scar. In winter, hydrangeas...

Huckleberries Bilberries

Twigs riot covered y DWARF HUCKLEBERRY, Gaylussacia dumosa p. 280 Sandy sods and bogs, mostly near coast Newfoundland, New Brunswick e. Pennsylvania, and Tennessee to Florida and Mississippi, y TALL HUCKLEBERRY, C. frondosa (not illus.) p. 280 y BLACK HUCKLEBERRY, Gaylussacia baccata p. 280 Woods and swamps Newfoundland and Saskatchewan to Georgia and Louisiana, y TALL DEERBERRY, Vaccinium staminewn p, 280 Woods and openings Massachusetts, s. Ontario, Indiana,...

Broadleaved Plants with Opposite Simple Leaves

Though more numerous titan those of Section II, the plants with opposite simple leaves are still so few as to be rather easily identified. In winter, of course, plants with opposite leaf scars may be members of either Section II or III and the drawings in both Sections must be reviewed. Care should be taken that the leaves or leat scars un the stubby, scar-crowded spur branches of sonic alternate-leaved plants are not thought to be opposite or whorled. No opposite-leaved plants have spur...

Plants with Needlelike or Scalelike Leaves Mostly Evergreens

Thf cone-bearing plants and a few evergreen nonconiferous plants with narrow pointed leaves make up this well-defined group. For I he most part, these needle-bearing plants are conifers of the pine family. Exceptions are related yews and junipers with peculiar berrylike fruits a miscellaneous group of flowering plants whose showy blossoms often contrast with their needle- or scalelike leaves. Leaves of the last group are not indicative of relationship to the more primitive cone-producing clan....

Miscellaneous Plants With 1 Bundle Scar

Bundle scars are small marks within a leaf scar (see p. xxiv). These trees and shrubs have leaves wavy-edged or not toothed. 4 PERSIMMON, Diospyros virginiana p- 292 Old fields and barren woods Connecticut, s, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and e, Kansas to Florida and e, Texas. V AMERICAN SILVERBERRY p. 293 Elaeag n us com m u ta ta Dry soils e. Quebec and Alaska to sw. Quebec, Minnesota, Y AUTUMN-OLIVE, E. umhellata (not illus.) p. 293 V DAPHNE, Daphne mezereum p. 293...

Sumacs

Will Poison Oak Scar

Strictly speaking, the sumacs as a genus (Rhus) also include Poison-ivy, Poison-oak, and Fragrant Sumac (Plate 25). The sumacs considered on this plate, however, are distinctive in having more than 3 leaflets per feather-compound leaf, in being upright shrubs, and in having stout, more pithy twigs. Leaflets occur in opposing pairs except tor end one. Side buds are mostly hidden bv bases of the leafstalks and end buds are false. Bundle scars are numerous, Milky sap occurs in all on this plate...

Vines with Opposite Simple Leaves

(including HONEYSUCKLES , Plate 13, p. 102) In addition to the climbing honeysuckles, 2 European and 2 native vines have opposite simple leaves. Two are escapes from cultivation the others barely enter southeastern Virginia. Euonymvs fortunei (Turcz.) Hand,-Maz. Recognition This and the next are the only vines of this group which climb by means of aerial rootlets like the Trumpet Creeper (Plate 7). Leaves elliptic, thick, evergreen and toothed, Twigs green and squarish. Leaves I-3, Fruits...

Largeleaf Holly Ilex montana T Gp 356

Recognition A tall shrub or tree with large leaves for a holly. Leaves thin, narrow to elliptic, long-pointed, sharply fine-toothed somewhat hairy beneath in var. mollis (Cray) BritL Side twigs not especially stiff- Twigs green to reddish buds somewhat pointed nutlets grooved. Leaves 2W-6Height 6f-2(Y (40') diameter 2-10 (12). Flowers June. Fruits short-stalked (under V ), red, Oct,-Nov. Similar species (1 Georgia Holly and (2) Common Winterl> erry Holly most closely resemble this species....

Conifers with Flat Needles

Unlike the pines and spruces, this is a group that for the most part is not closely related. They are alike in having flat needles arranged 011 the twigs in flat foliage sprays. Plants with flat needles which are low or creeping also should > e compared with the plants of Plate 6. BALSAM FIR Abies balsamen (L.) Mill pp.4, 38 Recognition A steeple-shaped evergreen tree with needles long and whitened beneath, Needles have a broad circuito* base twigs rather smooth after needles are removed....

Plate

Some of these plants may have leaves and leaf scars in whorls of 3. Only lf the Fringe-tree, may grow to tree size. SHEEP LAUREL Kalmia angustifolia L. p. 108 Recognition A small shrub with leathery, evergreen, narrow to oblong leaves. Leaves flat, opposite or in whorls of 3. Mostly less than 2W long sometimes rust-colored beneath when young but green or pale green beneath when mature. A southern variety that occurs north to Virginia has leaves pale and fine-hairy beneath. TVigs round in cross...

The Meaning of Botanical Terms

See also diagrams and text xx-xxiii) in How to Use This Book chapter. Aerial rootlet (vine). Small root like organs along stems of some climbing vines. See Poison-ivy, Plate 25, Alternate (leaves* buds). Not opposite, but arranged singly at intervals along twigs. Angled (twig, bud). With evident ridges not smoothly rounded. Aromatic. Having a spicy odor, at least when crushed. Base (leaf). The lower portion, toward the leafstalk. Berry (fruit)* Strictly speaking, a fleshy fruit that contains...

Key to Trees in Leafless Condition

For usk only in identifying specimens at least 25 feet tall, thus excluding shrubs, Plate numbers in parentheses indicate that the plants are included but not illustrated in connection with the plate specified, 1. Leaf scars lacking twigs and needlelike foliage dropping in winter, leaving no leaf or bundle scars fruits ball-shaped cones BALDCYPRESS 3 2. Leaf scars opposite (Sections II and IV) 3. Leaf scars with 4 to many bundle scars, often large 4, Central bud missing, a single pair of buds...

How to Use This Book

Leaf And Bud Nematode Diagram

Ihe book is divided into five principal sections I. Plants with needlelike or scalelike leaves. II. Plants with opposite compound leaves. III. Plants with opposite simple leaves. IV, Plants with alternate compound leaves, V Plants with alternate simple leaves. Sections II-V contain the broad-leaved plants. The five basic leaf types and arrangements are illustrated on pages xvi-xviu They can be learned in a few minutes. In summer, plants can be easily assigned to one of these sections. In...

Miscellaneous Plants With 3 Or More Bundle Scars

Sweet Gum Trees North Augusta

All but the top 2 plants have 3 bundle scars all but 1 have leaves that are never toothed. V L E AT HER WOOD f Dirca palustris p. 269 Rich woods New Brunswick, Ontario, and Minnesota to n. Florida and Louisiana. V TALL PAWPAW, Asimina triloba p. 269 Bottomlands New Jersey, w, New York, s. Ontario, s. Michigan, se. Iowa, and se, Nebraska to n. Florida and e, Texas. V DWARF PAWPAW, A, pawiflora (not illus,) p. 270 SOUR-GUM, Nyssa sylvatica p. 270 Lowlands and swamps centr, Maine, s. Ontario, s,...

Viburnums

WAYFARING TREE Viburnum lantana L. p. 116 Recognition An upright European shrub or small tree with egg-to heart-shaped fine-toothed leaves and naked buds. Leaf undersides, twigs, and buds covered with fine gray hair, Leaf scars broadly triangular Leaves Height to 12' (20'). 1 lowers small, white, all alike, May-June. Fruits red to black, seeds have 3 grooves, Aug-Sept. Similar species Hobblebush has larger leaves, rusty hair, and blossoms of 2 sizes. All other viburnums have scaly buds, larger...

Broadleaved Plants with Alternate Compound Leaves

Relatively few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite leaves were presented in Section II (Plates 7-11, pp. 56 65)* The rest are in this Section. In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate by their large size the former presence of compound leaves. Where there is doubt, however, the twigs of a leafless unknown plant with alternate leaf sears will have to be compared with the drawings of both Sections IV and V or identified by means of the Winter Key in Appendix B,...

Erect Thorny Trees and Shrubs

With the brambles, the following few species are the only thorny or prickly woody plants with compound leaves (whether alternate or opposite). The only other upright thorny plants are those with simple leaves on Plates 37-40. The locusts and Trifoliate Orange have smooth-edged or fine-toothed leaflets whose leafstalks never bear thorns the other plants of this group have more coarsely toothed leaflets and often thorny leafstalks, HONEY LOCUST Gleditsia triacanthos L. pp. 12, 152 Recognition A...

Miscellaneous Upright Thorny Plants

The only other thorny or prickly upright woody plants with alternate leaves are the hawthorns (Plate 39), the gooseberries and a currant (Plate 40), which follow* this account, and the compound-leaved species given earlier (Plates 23 and 24). The only opposite-leaved thorny plant is the Common Buckthorn (Plate 19), Spur branches, present in all members of this group except Fire-thorn and DeviTs-club, are stubby, leaf-scar-crowded offshoots of the older branches* They may bear dense clusters of...

Blueberries

Nova Scotia Blueberry Barrens

Shrubs with small leaves and green or reddish twigs covered with tiny warts obscured if twigs hairy . V VELVETLEAF BLUEBERRY, Vaccinium myrtittoides p. 277 Woods and swamps Newfoundland, Quebec, and British Columbia to Nova Scotia, w, New England, Pennsylvania, w. Virginia, n. Ohio, 11. Illinois, ne lt Iowa, and Montana. V BLACK HIGH BUSH BLUEBERRY p. 277 Wet or barren sites New England, New York, and s. Ontario to n. Florida and Arkansas, t COASTAL HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY p. 278 V COMMON HIGHBUSH...

Plate 52 p 338

Birches arc trees and shrubs of northern distribution. The leaves are mostly double-toothed and more or less egg-shaped or triangular, with blunt bases. Bark of most species is marked by numerous cross streaks and tends to separate into papery sheets. Buds are 2- to 3-scaled and bundle scars are 3, Short spur branches of densely clustered leaves and leaf scars may be present. Native birches that possess dark bark might be confused with some cherries Plate 53 . Birches differ in that I bud...

Alternate Compound Leaves

Tree Compound Leaves Rough

Key, pages 122-123 text, pages 122-148 If the leaflets are also compound W then the leaves are u twice-compound -Leaf scars and buds alternate useful in winter Relai elv few plants have compound leaves. Those with opposite U v rr were presented in Section II Plate , 7 Ily. r gt mainder are in this Section, In winter, the alternate leaf scars may sometimes indicate bv their large size the former presence of compound leaves. In case of doubt, however, the twigs of a leafless unknown plant with...

Tree Silhouettes

Spruce Tree Silhouette

An expert bird-watcher can often identify a bird by its silhouette alone, birds are dependable a grackle always is shaped precisely like a grackle, and one starling invariably resembles another starling. Trees, on the other hand, are not so consistent. The beginner, learning his trees, yearns for a book that will give him shapes and field marks by which he can make snap identifications from a moving car. But it isn't that easy True, an elm somehow always looks like an el in, but many trees...