Homemade Skin Care Recipes
Numerous antioxidant preparations have been shown to benefit skin complaints. Antioxidants have the ability to quench damage-causing free radicals that lead to many skin problems. Studies using animal models have demonstrated that delayed wound healing in aged rats is related to low levels of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and glutathione, accompanied by elevated levels of markers of free-radical damage. Also, this study showed that in diabetic rats, decreased glutathione levels may have a contributory role in delaying the healing process.42
Lifestyle factors are critical for maintaining healthy skin. Smoking can cause dryness and premature aging of the skin. Sun exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, and hyperpigmentation of the skin, requiring a limit to sun exposure and the use of sunscreen during prolonged exposure. Clinically, exercise has been shown to help promote a radiant, glowing complexion. Optimal intake and assimilation of nutrients is also essential for promoting healthy skin. A deficiency of EFAs often manifests as dry, flaky skin and a predisposition to inflammatory conditions, such as eczema. Vitamin A is a crucial nutrient for healing tissues and regenerating epithelial tissues including the skin. Vitamin A deficiency can manifest as follicular hyperkeratosis, poor wound healing, and acne. Vitamin E can prevent scarring from blemishes and incisions. Vitamin C is an important nutrient for the skin both internally and topically because the vitamin helps to inhibit...
The skin is a mirror of an individual's state of health. A skin condition often reflects a deeper state of imbalance. (See Table 31-1 on page 354.) Because the skin is an organ of elimination, if other organs of elimination (liver, kidneys, or bowels) are compromised, a skin outbreak may reflect the body's attempt to discharge wastes through an alternate route. Intestinal disturbances, such as constipation, may play a role in skin problems by increasing the amount of toxins circulating in the body. To ameliorate skin conditions, it is necessary to improve the health of these organs. For example, supporting liver health may help to improve acne conditions associated with hormonal imbalances.
Although used in food preservation, ginger is not very effective in preventing spoilage of food due to microbial contamination and oxidative degradation. Ginger has only mild antimicrobial activity. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of ginger against Clostridium botulinum (the bacterium that causes severe food poisoning) was shown to be about 2,000 fxg ml. The ginger essential oil was shown to inhibit both cholera and typhoid bacteria. The components of oil responsible for this antimicrobial effect were shown to be gingerone and gingerol (Hirasa and Takemasa, 1998). Other studies reporting the antimicrobial properties of gingerols are in relation to Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli (Yamada et al., 1992) and Mycobacterium (Galal, 1996 Hiseradt et al., 1998).
The focal expression of various antimicrobial peptides in healthy skin without signs of inflammation provides evidence that conditions may exist which cause the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the absence of proinflammatory cytokines or growth factors produced during wound healing. Microbes always present at skin surfaces may therefore facilitate antimicrobial peptide induction without inflammation or wounding. This hypothesis is supported by a recent observation showing that a number of probiotic bacteria, including E. coli Nissle 1917, induce the expression of hBD-2 in intestinal epithelial cells (Wehkamp et al. 2004). The beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria may result from their properties to induce antimicrobial peptides. It would be intriguing to speculate about bacterial components inducing antimicrobial peptides without undesirable adverse reactions. Application of such artificial antimicrobial peptide inducers could serve as an optimal future therapy to achieve an...
Although not unduly toxic when ingested, tea tree should continue to be used mainly for topical applications. It would appear that tea tree oil (Melaleuca alterntfolia) is non-irritating even when used up to 10 (Altman 1991) or 25 (Southwell et al. 1997) on unabraded healthy skin. It is not recommended that it be used on sensitive, dermatitis affected or abraded skin for extended periods. Some people do become sensitized to tea tree oil on rare occasions especially those that have a history of allergic responses. Generally, however, as there was little irritation or sensitization with tea tree oil in formulations up to 25 , products of that concentration or less are recommended.
The Israel mango-breeding programme therefore relies on open-pollination involving many mango cultivars from various parts of the world and screening approximately 100 seedlings from each mother tree. The seedlings are grown on their own roots in the nursery for about a year and then planted in the field at spacings of 2 x 6 m. Fruiting occurs after 3-6 years and first selection is carried out based on field and laboratory data. Fruit characteristics at this stage are good skin colour, fruit weight of 400-600 g and high fruit quality (good taste, absence of fibres and small seed). Where a long harvest season is desired both early and late harvest seedlings are selected and a general idea about shelf life of these seedlings is obtained. The second selection is carried out under commercial conditions by several experienced farmers using grafted plants. Plants that successfully pass this stage are planted in semi-commercial plots for a final assessment before recommendation to farmers....
Recently, a study was published where the effects of lavender oil on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in test animals were investigated. This EO inhibits dose-dependently the mast cell-dependent ear swelling response induced by an irritant administered either topically or intradermally. The same effect can be observed on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis as well as by studying the histamine release from the peritoneal mast cells. Furthermore, lavender oil exerted a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl-IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-a-secretion from these mast cells. These results show the versatility and usefulness of the EO of lavender in skincare preparations for all skin types (Kim et al., 1999).
(f) Knight and Hausen (1994) conducted a trial on seven patients who were treating preexisting skin conditions with neat tea tree oil and were challenge patch tested with tea tree oil at 1 . All seven reacted positively. Further to this, they tested the major components of tea tree oil at 1 . Six of seven patients reacted to limonene, 5 to a-terpineol and aromadendrene and one to each of terpinen-4-ol, -cymene and a-phellandrene. However, according to Opdyke (1975a), limonene proved negative on 23 subjects tested for sensitization. Furthermore, Knight and Hausen (1994) found tea tree oil to be a weak sensitizer in guinea pigs as only 3 of 10 responded at 30 challenge after 48 hr. It is interesting to note here that the terpinen-4-ol sensitized human had a previous sensitivity to Peruvian Balsam. These authors acknowledged that they were dealing with a population of tea tree oil sensitised patients with damaged skin and also suggested that other tea tree oil products containing lower...
The L. x intermedia group of lavenders have a camphoraceous aroma (in the essential oil) and these varieties should only be used for craft purposes. Lavender skin care products and the use of lavender in aromatherapy is becoming more popular and many more people are looking to grow lavender for its oil production.
Size alone does not necessarily help resolve the question. In some cases the interactions within an ecosystem occur over many kilometers, and the boundaries are formed by decreasing probabilities of transfers of matter and energy with other parts of the system. On the other hand, sometimes very small units can be thought of as ecosystems. The moss-covered back of a sloth, a pile of bear dung, or the surface of your skin can be treated theoretically as a microcosm or miniature ecosystem. The frequent indistinctness of boundaries, and the fact that energy and matter enters and leaves the ecosystem, makes them open systems. Even if energy gains and losses are in balance, it is more appropriate to describe an ecosystem as a steady state rather than equilibrium, because equilibrium (which is only possible in a completely isolated, thermodynamically closed system), does not ade
During the 1970's the interest in 'natural' products was renewed, and over the last twenty years the production of oil has continued to increase and so have the applications. Tea tree oil is incorporated as the active antimicrobial or as a natural preservative in a wide range of pharmaceutical, cosmetic and 'cosmeceutical' products including antiseptic creams, face washes, pimple gels, vaginal creams, veterinary skin care products, tinea preparations, foot powders, shampoos and conditioners. It is claimed to provide rapid soothing relief when added to burns blankets and creams. Alongside this, there has been a recognition by the industry of the need to support the early anecdotal claims about the efficacy of the oil with scientific data which will enable registration of the oil as a pharmaceutical product. This chapter will review the published studies which have examined in vitro and in vivo activity of the oil.
Although lysozyme is mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus Kern et al. 1951) it is also active against Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Echerichia coli (Ellison and Giehl 1991) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Cole et al. 2002), suggesting that it might contribute to control the growth of bacteria in healthy skin. However, the significance of lysozyme in the cutaneous defense system is still unclear because lysozyme was shown to be expressed exclusively in the cytoplasm and could not be identified within the stratum corneum (Ogawa et al. 1971) or in skin-derived washing fluids (Gl ser et al. 2005).
Chronic wounds are frequently contaminated and colonized by bacteria and it remains unclear whether there is sufficient expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides in the margin of wounds compared with normal skin. Decreased levels of hBD-2 were demonstrated in full-thickness burns and chronic wounds (Ortega et al. 2000) whereas moderate to strong hBD-2 immunostaining was detected in chronic ulcers (Butmarc et al. 2004). The authors concluded that the constitutively high
Psoriasis is a common skin disorder that affects between 2 -4 of the U.S. population. Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative skin disorder characterized by sharply bordered reddened rashes and silvery, scaly plaques on the skin. Eruptions often involve the scalp, the extensor surfaces of the extremities, the back, and the buttocks. Removal of the superficial scales typically causes pinpoint bleeding, or the Auspitzsign. The rate of cellular division in psoriatic lesions is very high, at approximately 1,000 times the rate of normal skin. Psoriasis predominately affects Caucasians and a family history of psoriasis is present in 35 -50 of patients. Genetic factors are likely to be involved. The rate at which cells divide is controlled by a
A group which contains useful detoxifying chemicals is the polyphenols, which can also include many of the tannins. There are numerous references to support the use of these materials. The best known, polyphenols probably come from green tea or Thea viridis, a fast growing additive in today's skin care repertoire. Tea contains high levels of tannins or phenolic materials (approx.10-25 ) which consist of catechin (flavanol) and gallic acid units and corialgin (Fig. 5.221).
An enlarged thyroid, or goiter, is the most overt sign of iodine deficiency. Hypothyroidism from iodine deficiency presents with a decrease in T3 and T4 and an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin, and reverse T3, an inactive form of thyroid hormone generated by the removal of an iodine group from thyroxine. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, dry skin, hair loss, weight gain, cognitive impairment, and depression. Several factors can cause iodine deficiency. As already noted, low levels of iodine in the soil or water in particular areas may cause this deficiency, as may salt-restrictive diets. Intake of large amounts of cruciferous vegetables, cassava, millet, and soya flour is another source of iodine deficiency through the goitrogenic substances such as C-glycosylflavones (C-GFs), glucos-inolates, and isoflavones, and this will also affect thyroid function. Additionally, vitamin A and iron deficiency, as well as the selenium deficiency noted earlier,...
Most of the commercial cultivars in South-east Asia possess green skin. Efforts are underway to produce new hybrid cultivars that retain the good qualities of these fruits together with attractive skin colour, so that they will occupy a better position in international trade. Since good skin colour has been shown to be transmissible to hybrids from suitably coloured parental cultivars, a number of cultivars with coloured skin are being used for hybridization. In general, the attractively coloured Florida cultivars have been found to be suitable parents. In addition, there are several Indian cultivars (e.g. 'Janardan Pasand', 'Suvarnarekha', etc.) that would be suitable for use as parents for this purpose.
When young girls experience their first menses (seclusion initiation), their faces are washed with Coleus blumei (Plate 5-1, 5-2) to make their skin look tight and fresh. Young men too, before they appear from their initiation seclusion, wash with Curcuma longa (Chapter 4, Plate 4-1) and wash their face with Coleus blumei, giving the face a yellow hue. This makes young men look good when they emerge from seclusion to face the village community in the early morning.
In contrast to healthy skin, LL-37 gene expression could be identified in kerati-nocytes of inflamed skin (Frohm et al. 1997), where it is stored in skin lamellar granules (Braff et al. 2005). Induction of hCAP18 LL-37 in keratinocytes occurs by insulin-like growth factor I and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Gombart et al. 2005). LL-37 was also shown to be localized in the eccrine gland and sweat ductal epithelial cells, where antimicrobial activity against various bacteria in the sweat ionic environment indicates that this peptide may also contribute to the antibacterial activity of human sweat (Murakami et al. 2002). Very recently it was demonstrated that LL-37 is processed in sweat by a serine protease-dependent mechanism into multiple novel smaller antimicrobial peptides which show increased bactericidal and fungicidal activity, acting in a synergistic fashion (Murakami et al. 2004).
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