Travel Guide of Sikkim

Backpacking in Sikkim India

This guide will save you all the trouble you might face when traveling to Sikkim, it was created after the struggles thatMr. Hotsia had when traveling to Sikkim, he wanted to help people enjoy their time without wasting an arm and a leg for fun. the guide he created comes in an ebook that will be downloaded right after you make a purchase, you can use the ebook through your laptop or even smartphone while traveling to Sikkim, that way you get to enjoy your time while knowing about the area. It will show you the historicalgeography and of Sikkim as well as the main cultural component of the area so you can enjoy your time with your family without having to ask people around. The guide will also give you accommodations in Sikkim,the best times to travel on the road and the most beautiful areas to take pictures and create memories with your family and loved ones. More here...

Backpacking in Sikkim India Summary


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Mangifera species and mango

M. zeylanica, M. laurina, M. lagenifera, M. cochinchinensis, etc. The monoem-bryonic mango (M. indica) originated in north-eastern India (Assam), the Indo-Myanmar border region and Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill tract), where it is still found as a wild tree, with very small fruits. It may also occur in the lower Himalayan tract, near Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim. Polyembryonic mangoes are considered to have originated in South-east Asia. Wild mangoes, representing different Mangifera species, can be found in tropical Asia, particularly north-eastern India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China, southern China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and as far as the Solomon and Caroline Islands in the east. There are more than 60 species worldwide. The highest specific diversity is found in the heart of the distribution area of the genus Mangifera the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Sumatra (Bompard, 1993).

Large Cardamom Nepal Cardamom

Another type of cardamom of commercial importance is Amomum subulatum known by the name Sikkim or Nepal large cardamom. In India, Sikkim state alone produces the major quantity of large cardamom almost equal to small cardamom produced in the southern states of India. Thailand, Indonesia and Laos also produce large cardamom to a limited extent. Large cardamom is used as a flavouring agent in curry powders, sweet dishes, cakes and for masticatory and medicinal purposes.

Kumar and AC Hayward

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) is an important source of spice and essential oil, and both products are obtained from the underground stem or rhizome, which also serves as planting material. Apart from India, ginger is also grown in China, Hawaii (USA), Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Malaysia, Nigeria, Queensland (Australia), Sierra Leone, and the Philippines. In India, Kerala, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Assam, and other northeastern states cultivate this crop very extensively. India contributes up to 45 percent of total global production of ginger (Peter, 1997). Here ginger is cultivated in an area of about 58.1 thousand hectares with a total production of 889.4 thousand tons. Diseases are one of the major constraints of production of ginger, and of these bacterial wilt (Figure 9.1) (also called Mahali or Ginger blast) is one of the most serious. Apart from wilt, rotting of bacterial origin has been recorded very infrequently (Choi and Han, 1990 Nnodu and...

Z argenteum J Mood and I Theilade

Z. clarkii is a native of the Sikkim Himalayas of India and has been adopted as a valuable ornamental plant in the subtropical and temperate countries. The plants are tall with a foot-long inflorescence appearing from the main stem rather than from the ground. The bracts form a tight, cone-shaped spike, and the individual flowers are dull yellow in color with a dotted lip. Among the Zingiber species, this is unique because the spike is produced laterally and not radially as in other species.

Origin And Distribution

Var. phaseoloides var. subspicata P. pulcherrima P. sikkimensis P. stricta P. tuberosa P. wallichii Bhutan China, Yunnan India, Manipur, Sikkim E. Indonesia Philippines Papua New Guinea Kei Islands, Solomon Islands Bhutan India, Sikkim, W. Bengal China, Yunnan Myanmar Thailand India Nepal Pakistan

Glaciers and Rivers

The Himalayan range encompasses about 15,000 glaciers, which store about 12,000 km3 of freshwater. The 70-km-long Siachen Glacier at the India-Pakistan border is the second-longest glacier in the world outside the polar region. Some of the other more famous glaciers include the Gangotri and Yamunotri (Uttarakhand), Nubra, Biafo, and Baltoro (Karakoram region), Zemu (Sikkim), and Khumbu glaciers (Mount Everest region). Some of the world's major rivers, including the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween, Red River (Asia), Xunjiang, Chao Phraya, Irrawaddy River, Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Tarim River, and Yellow River, rise in the Himalayas. Their combined drainage basin is home to some 3 billion people in countries including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, People's Republic of China, India, Nepal, Burma, Cambodia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Pakistan (Figs. 1.2 and 1.3).

Hooker Joseph Dalton

Mens, which he introduced to England. He is especially well known for his stunning, previously unknown species of Rhododendron that he discovered in the Sikkim region of the Himalayas. Many of these are still grown in Kew Gardens. He also made notable contributions in pure morphology, including classic studies on the unusual plant Welwitschia (1863).

Species distribution

Very few species are found in peninsular India and Sikkim. From present-day distribution, there is little evidence of migration of species into the subcontinent of India after its collision with Eurasia in the middle Eocene (Audley-Charles et al., 1981). According to Mehrotra et al. (1998), fossil leaves described as Eomangiferophyllum damalgiriensis Mehr. from the Upper Palaeo-cene in north-eastern India are an analogue of the modern genus Mangifera. Mangifera sylvatica occurs along the northern limit of the range of Mangifera, with more or less discontinuity, from Sikkim to northern Thailand and to the southern part of Yunnan, where it is reported in mountains up to 1900 m above sea level (Anonymous, 1980). The few species that grow in southern China are very poorly known M. austro-yunnanensis from western Yunnan, M. persiciformis from south-eastern Yunnan and southern Guizhou at latitudes up to 26 N and M. hiemalis, the 'winter mango' from Guangxi near the northern border Vietnam....

Leaf caterpillar

Leaf eating caterpillar (Artona chorista Jordon, Lepidoptera Zygaenidae), is a major pest of L. cardamom in Sikkim and West Bengal (Yadava et al., 1992 Singh and Varadarasan, 1998). Its outbreak was recorded in 1978 in Sikkim where about 2000 acres of L. cardamom plantations were severely defoliated (Subba, 1980). The leaf caterpillar is first recorded as Clelea plumbiola Hampson on large cardamom by Bhowmik (1962). A. chorista occurs sporadically in epidemic form in Sikkim and West Bengal every year. Usually the incidence of the pest is observed from June to July and October-March in the field. Severe damage was recorded in Lower Dzongu, Phodong, Ramthung Basti (north Sikkim), Soreng, Hee, Chako (west Sikkim), Kewizing (south Sikkim) Assamlinzey, Dalapchand and Rongli (east Sikkim) and Gotak (Darjeeling Dist. of West Bengal). Mechanical control The larvae are gregarious in nature and feed underneath the cardamom leaf the infested leaf can easily be identified from a distance and...

Shoot fly

Shoot fly, Merochlorops dimorphus Cherian (Diptera Chloropidae), recorded as a major pest of L. cardamom is damaging young shoots. Low to moderate damage by shoot fly is recorded in L. cardamom plantation in Sikkim and West Bengal. In the main field, more damage is recorded at higher altitudes than in the lower. Kumar and Chatterjee (1993) have reported another species of shoot fly, Bradysia sp. (Diptera Sciaridae), damaging large cardamom. The pest is recorded throughout the year in L. cardamom growing tract. The incidence was as high as 56 per cent of new shoots.

Amomum Sp

A perennial herb, growing to about 1 m height, indigenous to the northern West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, North Bihar and northern West Bengal, extending to Nagaland and UP. Cultivated in the northeastern regions at the foot of Himalayas. Leaves oblonglanceolate, glabrous, 15 30 cm X 5 10 cm, flowers pale yellow, in small globose spikes, corolla-tube white tinged with brown, capsules rugose, 25 cm long, trigonous, oblong or globose, with 7 13 narrow membranous longitudinal wings, seeds many in each cell.

Taxonomic history

Mangifera minor occurs east of Wallace's line, from Sulawesi to New Guinea (east Malesia) and to the Carolines Islands in the east. It is adapted to a wide range of ecological conditions, growing equally well in dry savannahs and in tropical rainforests up to 1300 m. The fruit is obliquely oblong, 5-10 cm long, much narrowed, the tip obtuse, with a distinct beak and sinus. It is found in cultivation, although the yellowish fruit pulp is acidic and scant. Mangifera sylvatica is found from Sikkim (up to 1200 m) to northern Myanmar and Thailand, and apparently also in Yunnan up to 1900 m. The fruit is obliquely ovate, 8-10 cm long, much compressed distally forming a hook, has scanty whitish-yellow pulp which is almost fibreless. Other species are occasionally found in cultivation, for example M. rufocostata, which is esteemed by the Banjarese people of South Kalimantan for its very sour fruits that are used to prepare a spicy condiment with chilli.

Maturity and Harvest

Patiram et al. (1995) reported that ginger is harvested twice in Sikkim. In the first stage during May and June, the mother or seed rhizomes are harvested. This harvested product (mau in the local language) is of inferior quality. The main harvesting comes 7 to 8 months after planting and continues up to January. Rai and Anita (1997) also recorded the mother rhizome extraction practiced by local farmers for many years in the hills of Sikkim and Darjeeling, India. By extracting the mother rhizome, farmers get back their investment on seed rhizome even if there is a severe outbreak of rhizome rot disease. The mother rhizome has equal market value as freshly harvested ginger because of the large size of rhizomes (100 to 500 g) planted. The wound created while detaching the mother rhizome may serve as an entry point for pathogens. Airdrying, packing in 250-gauge low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags followed by irradiation at 60 Gy keep the rhizomes in good marketable condition for up to 2...

Minor pests

These occur on underground rhizome of the L.cardamom plants. They feed on the roots and rhizome part of the plant and cause yellowing during summer months. The pest is recorded at Neem (East Sikkim), Tarku (South Sikkim), Chawang (North Sikkim) and Singling (West Sikkim) in March-October. Stephanitis typica (Distant) (Hemiptera Tingidae), is a minor sucking pest on large cardamom leaves. Severe infestation was recorded in 1997 in north Sikkim where about 1000 plants in an isolated patch was damaged. The infested area was open without any shade trees. The damage is recorded in main field where shade was thin during pre- and post-monsoon period. The infestation is recognizable even from The grub of Scolytid beetle (Synoxy sp.) makes a hole in the immature capsule and feeds on the seeds inside and pupates inside the capsule. The pest was recorded at Hee Gaon (West Sikkim). The scale insects colonize near the mid vein on lower surface of the leaf. They suck sap, which results in brownish...


There are mainly five cultivars of L. cardamom viz., Ramsey, Sawney, Golsey, Varlangey (Bharlangey) and Bebo (Gyatso et al, 1980). They are well known. Some other sub-cultivars of the above ones (Ramnag, Ramla, Madhusey, Mongney etc.) are also seen in cultivation in small areas in Sikkim State. Another cultivar Seremna or Lephrakey This cultivar is more susceptible to viral diseases like foorkey and chirke especially if planted at lower altitudes. It occupies a major area under L. cardamom in Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Two strains of this cultivar viz., Kopringe and Garadey from Darjeeling district having stripes on leaf sheath, are reported to be toler-eant to chirke virus (Karibasappa et al, 1987). Capsules are bigger and bold and number of seeds in each capsule are more (35) than in Ramsey. Harvest begins in September October and may extend up to November in high-altitude areas. This cultivar is susceptible to both chirke and foorkey viral diseases. Cultivars...

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